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THE   LliiKAUl 












A/.  M.\  5641 

ENTERKU  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1871,  by 

In  the  Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington. 

ENTEKFD  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  tne  year  190),  by 

JURISDICTION,  A.  A.  S.  P..  U.  S.  A., 
In  the  Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington. 


THE  following  work  has  been  prepared  by  authority  of  the  Su- 
preme Council  of  the  Thirty-third  Degree,  for  the  Southern 
Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States,  by  the  Grand  Commander, 
and  is  now  published  by  its  direction.  It  contains  the 
Lectures  of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  in  that  juris- 
diction, and  is  specially  intended  to  be  read  and  studied  by  the 
Brethren  of  that  obedience,  in  connection  with  the  Rituals  of  the 
Degrees.  It  is  hoped  and  expected  that  each  will  furnish  himself 
with  a  copy,  and  make  himself  familiar  with  it ;  for  which  pur- 
pose, as  the  cost  of  the  work  consists  entirely  in  the  printing  and 
binding,  it  will  be  furnished  at  a  price  as  moderate  as  possible. 
No  individual  will  receive  pecuniary  profit  from  it,  except  the 
agents  for  its  sale. 

It  has  been  copyrighted,  to  prevent  its  republication  elsewhere, 
and  the  copyright,  like  those  of  all  the  other  works  prepared  for 
the  Supreme  Council,  has  been  assigned  to  Trustees  for  that  Body. 
Whatever  profits  may  accrue  from  it  will  be  devoted  to  purposes 
of  charity. 

The  Brethren  of  the  Rite  in  the  United  States  and  Canada  will 
be  afforded  the  opportunity  to  purchase  it,  nor  is  it  forbidden  that 
other  Masons  shall ;  but  they  will  not  be  solicited  to  do  so. 

In  preparing  this  work,  the  Grand  Commander  has  been  about 
equally  Author  and  Compiler ;  since  he  has  extracted  quite 
half  its  contents  from  the  works  of  the  best  writers  and  most  phi- 
losophic or  eloquent  thinkers.  Perhaps  it  would  have  been  bet- 
ter and  more  acceptable,  if  he  had  extracted  more  and  written 

Still,  perhaps  half  of  it  is  his  own;  and,  in  incorporating  here 



the  thoughts  and  words  of  others,  he  has  continually  changed 
and  added  to  the  language,  often  intermingling,  in  the  same  sen- 
tences, his  own  words  with  theirs.  It  not  being  intended  for  the 
world  at  large,  he  has  felt  at  liberty  to  make,  from  all  accessible 
sources,  a  Compendium  of  the  Morals  and  Dogma  of  the  Rite,  to 
re-mould  sentences,  change  and  add  to  words  and  phrases,  com- 
bine them  with  his  own,  and  use  them  as  if  they  were  his  own, 
to  be  dealt  with  at  his  pleasure  and  so  availed  of  as  to  make  the 
whole  most  valuable  for  the  purposes  intended.  He  claims,  there- 
fore, little  of  the  merit  of  authorship,  and  has  not  cared  to  dis- 
tinguish his  own  from  that  which  he  has  taken  from  other  sources, 
being  quite  willing  that  every  portion  of  the  book,  in  turn,  may 
be  regarded  as  borrowed  from  some  old  and  better  writer. 

The  teachings  of  these  Readings  are  not  sacramental,  so  far  as 
they  go  beyond  the  realm  of  Morality  into  those  of  other  domains 
of  Thought  and  Truth.  The  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite 
uses  the  word  "Dogma"  in  its  true  sense,  of  doctrine,  or  teaching; 
and  is  not  dogmatic  in  the  odious  sense  of  that  term.  Every  one 
is  entirely  free  to  reject  and  dissent  from  whatsoever  herein  may 
seem  to  him  to  be  untrue  or  unsound.  It  is  only  required  of  him 
that  he  shall  weigh  what  is  taught,  and  give  it  fair  hearing  and 
unprejudiced  judgment.  Of  course,  the  ancient  theosophic  and 
philosophic  speculations  are  not  embodied  as  part  of  the  doctrines 
of  the  Rite ;  but  because  it  is  of  interest  and  profit  to  know  what 
the  Ancient  Intellect  thought  upon  these  subjects,  and  because 
nothing  so  conclusively  proves  the  radical  difference  between  our 
human  and  the  animal  nature,  as  the  capacity  of  the  human 
mind  to  entertain  such  speculations  in  regard  to  itself  and  the 
Deity.  But  as  to  these  opinions  themselves,  we  may  say,  in  the 
words  of  the  learned  Canonist,  Ludovicus  Gomez :  "  Opiniones 
secundum  varietatem  temporum  senescant  et  intermoriantur, 
aliceque  diversoz  vel  prioribus  contraries  renascantur  et  deinde 






FORCE,  unregulated  or  ill-regulated,  is  not  only  wasted  in  the 
void,  like  that  of  gunpowder  burned  in  the  open  air,  and  steam 
unconfined  by  science ;  but,  striking  in  the  dark,  and  its  blows 
meeting  only  the  air,  they  recoil,  and  bruise  itself.  It  is  destruc- 
tion and  ruin.  It  is  the  volcano,  the  earthquake,  the  cyclone; — 
not  growth  and  progress.  It  is  Polyphemus  blinded,  striking  at 
random,  and  falling  headlong  among  the  sharp  rocks  by  the 
impetus  of  his  own  blows.  ^ 

The  blind  Force  of  the  people  is  a  Force  that  must  be  econ- 
omized, and  also  managed,  as  the  blind  Force  of  steam,  lifting  the 
ponderous  iron  arms  and  turning  the  large  wheels,  is  made  to  bore 
and  rifle  the  cannon  and  to  weave  the  most  delicate  lace.  It  must 
be  regulated  by  Intellect.  Intellect  is  to  the  people  and  the  people's 
Force,  what  the  slender  needle  of  the  compass  is  to  the  ship — its 
soul, always  counsellingthe  huge  mass  ofwood  and  iron,  and  always 
pointing  to  the  north.  To  attack  the  citadels  built  up  on  all  sides 
against  the  human  race  by  superstitions,  despotisms,  and  pre- 


judices,  the  Force  must  have  a  brain  and  a  law.  Then  its  deeds 
of  daring  produce  permanent  results,  and  there  is  real  progress. 
Then  there  are  sublime  conquests.  Thought  is  a  force,  and  phi- 
losophy should  be  an  energy,  finding  its  aim  and  its  effects  in  the 
amelioration  of  mankind.  The  two  great  motors  are  Truth  and 
Love.  When  all  these  Forces  are  combined,  and  guided  by  the 
Intellect,  and  regulated  by  the  RULE  of  Right,  and  Justice,  and  of 
combined  and  systematic  movement  and  effort,  the  great  revolution 
prepared  for  by  the  ages  will  begin  to  march.  The  POWER  of  the 
Deity  Himself  is  in  equilibrium  with  His  WISDOM.  Hence  the  only 
results  are  HARMONY. 

It  is  because  Force  is  ill  regulated,  that  revolutions  prove  fail- 
ures. Therefore  it  is  that  so  often  insurrections,  coming  from 
those  high  mountains  that  domineer  over  the  moral  horizon.  Jus- 
tice, Wisdom,  Reason,  Right,  built  of  the  purest  snow  of  the  ideal, 
after  a  long  fall  from  rock  to  rock,  after  having  reflected  the  sky 
in  their  transparency,  and  been  swollen  by  a  hundred  affluents,  in 
the  majestic  path  of  triumph,  suddenly  lose  themselves  in  quag- 
mires, like  a  Californian  river  in  the  sands. 

The  onward  march  of  the  human  race  requires  that  the  heights 
around  it  should  blaze  with  noble  and  enduring  lessons  of  courage. 
Deeds  of  daring  dazzle  history,  and  form  one  class  of  the  guiding 
lights  of  man.  They  are  the  stars  and  coruscations  from  that 
great  sea  of  electricity,  the  Force  inherent  in  the  people.  To  strive, 
to  brave  all  risks,  to  perish,  to  persevere,  to  be  true  to  one's  self,  to 
grapple  body  to  body  with  destiny,  to  surprise  defeat  by  the  little 
terror  it  inspires,  now  to  confront  unrighteous  power,  now  to  defy 
intoxicated  triumph — these  are  the  examples  that  the  nations  need, 
and  the  light  that  electrifies  them. 

There  are  immense  Forces  in  the  great  caverns  of  evil  beneath 
society ;  in  the  hideous  degradation,  squalor,  wretchedness  and 
destitution,  vices  and  crimes  that  reek  and  simmer  in  the  darkness 
in  that  populace  below  the  people,  of  great  cities.  There  disinter- 
estedness vanishes,  every  one  howls,  searches,  gropes,  and  gnaws 
for  himself.  Ideas  are  ignored,  and  of  progress  there  is  no  thought. 
This  populace  has  two  mothers,  both  of  them  step-mothers — Igno- 
rance and  Misery.  Want  is  their  only  guide — for  the  appetite  alone 
they  crave  satisfaction.  Yet  even  these  may  be  "employed.  The 
lowly  sand  we  trample  upon,  cast  into  the  furnace,  melted,  purified 
by  fire,  may  become  resplendent  crystal.  They  have  the  brute 


force  of  the  HAMM-ER,  but  their  blows  help  on  the  great  cause, 
when  struck  within  the  lines  traced  by  the  RULE  held  by  wisdom 
and  discretion. 

Yet  it  is  this  very  Force  of  the  people,  this  Titanic  power  of  the 
giants,  that  builds  the  fortifications  of  tyrants,  and  is  embodied  in 
their  armies.  Hence  the  possibility  of  such  tyrannies  as  those  of 
which  it  has  been  said,  that  "Rome  smells  worse  under  Vitellius 
than  under  Sulla.  Under  Claudius  and  under  Domitian  there  is  a 
deformity  of  baseness  corresponding  to  the  ugliness  of  the  tyranny. 
The  foulness  of  the  slaves  is  a  direct  result  of  the  atrocious  base- 
ness of  the  despot.  A  miasma  exhales  from  these  crouching  con- 
sciences that  reflect  the  master ;  the  public  authorities  are  unclean, 
hearts  are  collapsed,  consciences  shrunken,  souls  puny.  This  is 
so  under  Caracalla,  it  is  so  under  Commodus,  it  is  so  under  Helio- 
gabalus,  while  from  the  Roman  senate,  under  Csesar,  there  comes 
only  the  rank  odor  peculiar  to  the  eagle's  eyrie." 

It  is  the  force  of  the  people  that  sustains  all  these  despotisms, 
the  basest  as  well  as  the  best.  That  force  acts  through  armies ; 
and  these  oftener  enslave  than  liberate.  Despotism  there  applies 
the  RULE.  Force  is  the  MACE  of  steel  at  the  saddle-bow  of  the 
knight  or  of  the  bishop  in  armor.  Passive  obedience  by  force  sup- 
ports thrones  and  oligarchies,  Spanish  kings,  and  Venetian  senates. 
Might,  in  an  army  wielded  by  tyranny,  is  the  enormous  sum  total 
of  utter  weakness ;  and  so  Humanity  wages  war  against  Humanity, 
in  despite  of  Humanity.  So  a  people  willingly  submits  to  despot- 
ism, and  its  workmen  submit  to  be  despised,  and  its  soldiers  to  be 
whipped ;  therefore  it  is  that  battles  lost  by  a  nation  are  often 
progress  attained.  Less  glory  is  more  liberty.  When  the  drum  is 
silent,  reason  sometimes  speaks. 

Tyrants  use  the  force  of  the  people  to  chain  and  subjugate — that 
is,  enyok'e  the  people.  Then  they  plough  with  them  as  men  do 
with  oxen  yoked.  Thus  the  spirit  of  liberty  and  innovation  is 
reduced  by  bayonets,  and  principles  are  struck  dumb  by  cannon- 
shot;  while  the  monks  mingle  with  the  troopers,  and  the  Church 
militant  and  jubilant,  Catholic  or  Puritan,  sings  Te  Deums  for 
victories  over  rebellion. 

The  military  power,  not  subordinate  to  the  civil  power,  again 
the  HAMMER  or  MACE  of  FORCE,  independent  of  the  RULE,  is  an 
armed  tyranny,  born  full-grown,  as  Athene  sprung  from  the  brain 
of  Zeus.  It  spawns  a  dynasty,  and  begins  with  Caesar  to  rot  into 



Vitellius  and  Commodus.  At  the  present  day  it  inclines  to  begin 
where  former  dynasties  ended. 

Constantly  the  people  put  forth  immense  strength,  only  to  end 
in  immense  weakness.  The  force  of  the  people  is  exhausted  in 
indefinitely  prolonging  things  long  since  dead ;  in  governing  man- 
kind by  embalming  old  dead  tyrannies  of  Faith ;  restoring  dilapi- 
dated dogmas ;  regilding  faded,  worm-eaten  shrines ;  whitening 
and  rouging  ancient  and  barren  superstitions;  saving  society  by 
multiplying  parasites;  perpetuating  superannuated  institutions; 
enforcing  the  worship  of  symbols  as  the  actual  means  of  salvation  ; 
and  tying  the  dead  corpse  of  the  Past,  mouth  to  mouth,  with  the 
living  Present.  Therefore  it  is  that  it  is  one  of  the  fatalities  of 
Humanity  to  be  condemned  to  eternal  struggles  with  phantoms, 
with  superstitions,  bigotries,  hypocrisies,  prejudices,  the  formulas 
of  error,  and  the  pleas  of  tyranny.  Despotisms,  seen  in  the  past, 
become  respectable,  as  the  mountain,  bristling  with  volcanic  rock, 
rugged  and  horrid,  seen  through  the  haze  of  distance  is  blue  and 
smooth  and  beautiful.  The  sight  of  a  single  dungeon  of  tyranny 
is  worth  more,  to  dispel  illusions,  and  create  a  holy  hatred  of 
despotism,  and  to  direct  FORCE  aright,  than  the  most  eloquent 
volumes.  The  French  should  have  preserved  the  Bastile  as  a 
perpetual  lesson ;  Italy  should  not  destroy  the  dungeons  of  the 
Inquisition.  The  Force  of  the  people  maintained  the  Power  that 
built  its  gloomy  cells,  and  placed  the  living  in  their  granite  sep- 

The  FORCE  of  the  people  cannot,  by  its  unrestrained  and  fitful 
action,  maintain  and  continue  in  action  and  existence  a  free 
Government  once  created.  That  Force  must  be  limited,  re- 
strained, conveyed  by  distribution  into  different  channels,  and  by 
roundabout  courses,  to  outlets,  whence  it  is  to  issue  as  the  law, 
action,  and  decision  of  the  State ;  as  the  wise  old  Egyptian  kings 
conveyed  in  different  canals,  by  sub-division,  the  swelling  waters 
of  the  Nile,  and  compelled  them  to  fertilize  and  not  devastate  the 
land.  There  must  be  the  jus  et  norma,  the  law  and  Rule,  or 
Gauge,  of  constitution  and  law,  within  which  the  public  force 
must  act.  Make  a  breach  in  either,  and  the  great  steam-hammer, 
with  its  swift  and  ponderous  blows,  crushes  all  the  machinery  to 
atoms,  and,  at  last,  wrenching  itself  away,  lies  inert  and  dead  amid 
the  ruin  it  has  wrought. 

The  FORCE  of  the  people,  or  the  popular  will,  in  action  and 


exerted,  symbolized  by  the  GAVEL,  regulated  and  guided  by  and 
acting  within  the  limits  of  LAW  and  ORDER,  symbolized  by  the 

TWENTY-FOUR-INCH    RULE,    has    for    its    fruit    LIBERTY,    EQUALITY, 

and  FRATERNITY, — liberty  regulated  by  law;  equality  of  rights  in 
the  eye  of  the  law ;  brotherhood  with  its  duties  and  obligations  as 
well  as  its  benefits. 

You  will  hear  shortly  of  the  Rough  ASHLAR  and  the  Perfect 
ASHLAR,  as  part  of  the  jewels  of  the  Lodge.  The  rough  Ashlar  is 
said  to  be  "a  stone,  as  taken  from  the  quarry,  in  its  rude  and 
natural  state."  The  perfect  Ashlar  is  said  to  be  "a  stone  made 
ready  by  the  hands  of  the  workmen,  to  be  adjusted  by  the  working- 
tools  of  the  Fellow-Craft."  We  shall  not  repeat  the  explanations 
of  these  symbols  given  by  the  York  Rite.  You  may  read  them  in 
its  printed  monitors.  They  are  declared  to  allude  to  the  self- 
improvement  of  the  individual  craftsman, — a  continuation  of  the 
same  superficial  interpretation. 

The  rough  Ashlar  is  the  PEOPLE,  as  a  mass,  rude  and  unor- 
ganized. The  perfect  Ashlar, or  cubical  stone, symbol  of  perfection, 
is  the  STATE,  the  rulers  deriving  their  powers  from  the  consent 
of  the  governed ;  the  constitution  and  laws  speaking  the  will  of 
the  people ;  the  government  harmonious,  symmetrical,  efficient, — 
its  powers  properly  distributed  and  duly  adjusted  in  equilib- 

If  we  delineate  a  cube  on  a  plane  surface  thus: 

we  have  visible  three  faces,  and  nine  external  lines,  drawn  between 
seven  points.  The  complete  cube  has  three  more  faces,  making 
six ;  three  more  lines,  making  twelve;  and  one  more  point,  making 
eight.  As  the  number  12  includes  the  sacred  numbers,  3,  5,  7,  and 
3  times  3,  or  9,  and  is  produced  by  adding  the  sacred  number  3  to 
9;  while  its  own  two  figures,  I,  2,  the  unit  or  monad,  and  duad, 
added  together,  make  the  same  sacred  number  3 ;  it  was  called  the 
perfect  number ;  and  the  cube  became  the  symbol  of  perfection. 
Produced  by  FORCE,  acting  by  RULE;  hammered  in  accordance 


with  lines  measured  by  the  Gauge,  out  of  the  rough  Ashlar,  it  is 
an  appropriate  symbol  of  the  Force  of  the  people,  expressed  as  the 
constitution  and  law  of  the  State ;  and  of  the  State  itself  the  three 
visible  faces  represent  the  three  departments, — the  Executive, 
which  executes  the  laws ;  the  Legislative,  which  makes  the  laws ; 
the  Judiciary,  which  interprets  the  laws,  applies  and  enforces 
them,  between  man  and  man,  between  the  State  and  the  citizens. 
The  three  invisible  faces,  are  Liberty,  Equality,  and  Fraternity, — 
the  threefold  soul  of  the  State — its  vitality,  spirit,  and  intellect. 

Though  Masonry  neither  usurps  the  place  of,  nor  apes  religion, 
prayer  is  an  essential  part  of  our  ceremonies.  It  is  the  aspiration 
of  the  soul  toward  the  Absolute  and  Infinite  Intelligence,  which 
is  the  One  Supreme  Deity,  most  feebly  and  misunderstandingly 
characterized  as  an  "  ARCHITECT/'  Certain  faculties  of  man  are 
directed  toward  the  Unknown — thought,  meditation,  prayer. 
The  unknown  is  an  ocean,  of  which  conscience  is  the  compass. 
Thought,  meditation,  prayer,  are  the  great  mysterious  pointings 
of  the  needle.  It  is  a  spiritual  magnetism  that  thus  connects  the 
human  soul  with  the  Deity.  These  majestic  irradiations  of  the  soul 
pierce  through  the  shadow  toward  the  light. 

It  is  but  a  shallow  scoff  to  say  that  prayer  is  absurd,  because 
it  is  not  possible  for  us,  by  means  of  it,  to  persuade  God  to  change 
His  plans.  He  produces  foreknown  and  foreintended  effects,  by 
the  instrumentality  of  the  forces  of  nature,  all  of  which  are 
His  forces.  Our  own  are  part  of  these.  Our  free  agency  and 
our  will  are  forces.  We  do  not  absurdly  cease  to  make  efforts  to 
attain  wealth  or  happiness,  prolong  life,  and  continue  health, 
because  we  cannot  by  any  effort  change  what  is  predestined.  If 
the  effort  also  is  predestined,  it  is  not  the  less  our  effort,  made  of 
our  free  will.  So,  likewise,  we  pray.  Will  is  a  force.  Thought  is 
a  force.  Prayer  is  a  force.  Why  should  it  not  be  of  the  law  of 
God,  that  prayer,  like  Faith  and  Love, should  have  its  effects?  Man 
is  not  to  be  comprehended  as  a  starting-point,  or  progress  as  a  goal, 
without  those  two  great  forces,  Faith  and  Love.  Prayer  is  sublime. 
Orisons  that  beg  and  clamor  are  pitiful.  To  deny  the  efficacy  of 
prayer,  is  to  deny  that  of  Faith,  Love,  and  Effort.  Yet  the  effects 
produced,  when  our  hand,  moved  by  our  will,  launches  a  pebble 
into  the  ocean,  never  cease ;  and  every  uttered  word  is  registered 
for  eternitv  upon  the  invisible  air. 


Every  Lodge  is  a  Temple,  and  as  a  whole,  and  in  its  details 
symbolic.  The  Universe  itself  supplied  man  with  the  model  for 
the  first  temples  reared  to  the  Divinity.  The  arrangement  of  the 
Temple  of  Solomon,  the  symbolic  ornaments  which  formed  its 
chief  decorations,  and  the  dress  of  the  High-Priest,  all  had  refer- 
ence to  the  order  of  the  Universe,  as  then  understood.  The  Temple 
contained  many  emblems  of  the  seasons — the  sun,  the  moon,  the 
planets,  the  constellations  Ursa  Major  and  Minor,  the  zodiac,  the 
elements,  and  the  other  parts  of  the  world.  It  is  the  Master  of 
this  Lodge,  of  the  Universe,  Hermes,  of  whom  Khurum  is  the 
representative,  that  is  one  of  the  lights  of  the  Lodge. 

For  further  instruction  as  to  the  symbolism  of  the  heavenly 
bodies,  and  of  the  sacred  numbers,  and  of  the  temple  and  its 
details,  you  must  wait  patiently  until  you  advance  in  Masonry,  in 
the  mean  time  exercising  your  intellect  in  studying  them  for  your- 
self. To  study  and  seek  to  interpret  correctly  the  symbols  of  the 
Universe,  is  the  work  of  the  sage  and  philosopher.  It  is  to  decipher 
the  writing  of  God,  and  penetrate  into  His  thoughts. 

This  is  what  is  asked  and  answered  in  our  catechism,  in  regard 
to  the  Lodge. 


A  "  Lodge"  is  defined  to  be  "an  assemblage  of  Freemasons,  duly 
congregated,  having  the  sacred  writings,  square,  and  compass,  and 
a  charter,  or  warrant  of  constitution,  authorizing  them  to  work." 
The  room  or  place  in  which  they  meet,  representing  some  part  of 
King  Solomon's  Temple,  is  also  called  the  Lodge ;  and  it  is  that  we 
are  now  considering. 

It  is  said  to  be  supported  by  three  great  columns,  WISDOM, 
FORCE  or  STRENGTH,  and  BEAUTY,  represented  by  the  Master,  the 
Senior  Warden,  and  the  Junior  Warden ;  and  these  are  said  to  be 
the  columns  that  support  the  Lodge,  "because  Wisdom,  Strength, 
and  Beauty,  are  the  perfections  of  everything,  and  nothing  can 
endure  without  them."  "  Because,"  the  York  Rite  says,  "it  is 
necessary  that  there  should  be  Wisdom  to  conceive,  Strength  to 
support,  and  Beauty  to  adorn,  all  great  and  important  undertak- 
ings." "Know  ye  not,"  says  the  Apostle  Paul,  "that  ye  are  the 
temple  of  God,  and  that  the  spirit  of  God  dwelleth  in  you?  If 
any  man  desecrate  the  temple  of  God,  him  shall  God  destroy,  for 
the  temple  of  God  is  holy,  which  temple  ye  are." 

The  Wisdom  and  Power  of  the  Deity  are  in  equilibrium.    The 


la\vs  of  nature  and  the  moral  laws  are  not  the  mere  despotic  man- 
dates of  His  Omnipotent  will ;  for,  then  they  might  be  changed  by 
Him,  and  order  become  disorder,  and  good  and  right  become  evil 
and  wrong;  honesty  and  loyalty,  vices;  and  fraud,  ingratitude,  and 
vice,  virtues.  Omnipotent  power,  infinite,  and  existing  alone, 
would  necessarily  not  be  constrained  to  consistency.  Its  decrees 
and  laws  could  not  be  immutable.  The  laws  of  God  are  not  ob- 
ligatory on  us,  because  they  are  the  enactments  of  His  POWER,  or 
the  expression  of  His  WILL  ;  but  because  they  express  His  infinite 
WISDOM.  They  are  not  right  because  they  are  His  laws,  but  His 
laws  because  they  are  right.  From  the  equilibrium  of  infinite 
wisdom  and  infinite  force,  results  perfect  harmony,  in  physics  and 
in  the  moral  universe.  Wisdom,  Power,  and  Harmony  constitute 
one  Masonic  triad.  They  have  other  and  profounder  meanings, 
that  may  at  some  time  be  unveiled  to  you. 

As  to  the  ordinary  and  commonplace  explanation,  it  may  be 
added,  that  the  wisdom  of  the  Architect  is  displayed  in  combining, 
as  only  a  skillful  Architect  can  do,  and  as  God  has  done  every- 
where,— for  example,  in  the  tree,  the  human  frame,  the  egg,  the 
cells  of  the  honeycomb — strength,  with  grace,  beauty,  symmetry, 
proportion,  lightness,  ornamentation.  That,  too,  is  the  perfec- 
tion of  the  orator  and  poet — to  combine  force,  strength,  energy, 
with  grace  of  style,  musical  cadences,  the  beauty  of  figures,  the 
play  and  irradiation  of  imagination  and  fancy;  and  so,  in  a 
State,  the  warlike  and  industrial  force  of  the  people,  and  their 
Titanic  strength,  must  be  combined  with  the  beauty  of  the 
arts,  the  sciences,  and  the  intellect,  if  the  State  would  scale 
the  heights  of  excellence,  and  the  people  be  really  free.  Har- 
mony in  this,  as  in  all  the  Divine,  the  material,  and  the 
human,  is  the  result  of  equilibrium,  of  the  sympathy  and  opposite 
action  of  contraries;  a  single  Wisdom  above  them  holding  the 
beam  of  the  scales.  To  reconcile  the  moral  law,  human  responsi- 
bility, free-will,  with  the  absolute  power  of  God ;  and  the  existence 
of  evil  with  His  absolute  wisdom,  and  goodness,  and  mercy, — these 
are  the  great  enigmas  of  the  Sphynx. 

You  entered  the  Lodge  between  two  columns.  They  represent 
the  two  which  stood  in  the  porch  of  the  Temple,  on  each  side  of 
the  great  eastern  gateway.  These  pillars,  of  bronze,  four  fingers 
breadth  in  thickness,  were,  according  to  the  most  authentic 


account — that  in  the  First  and  that  in  the  Second  Book  of  Kings, 
confirmed  in  Jeremiah— eighteen  cubits  high,  with  a  capital  five 
cubits  high.  The  shaft  of  each  was  four  cubits  in  diameter.  A 
cubit  is  one  foot  and  j7^.  That  is,  the  shaft  of  each  was  a  little 
over  thirty  feet  eight  inches  in  height,  the  capital  of  each  a  little 
over  eight  feet  six  inches  in  height,  and  the  diameter  of  the  shaft 
six  feet  ten  inches.  The  capitals  were  enriched  by  pomegranates 
of  bronze,  covered  by  bronze  net-work,  and  ornamented  with 
wreaths  of  bronze ;  and  appear  to  have  imitated  the  shape  of  the 
seed-vessel  of  the  lotus  or  Egyptian  lily,  a  sacred  symbol  to  the 
Hindus  and  Egyptians.  The  pillar  or  column  on  the  right,  or 
in  the  south,  was  named,  as  the  Hebrew  word  is  rendered  in  our 
translation  of  the  Bible,  JACHIN  :  and  that  on  the  left  BOAZ.  Our 
translators  say  that  the  first  w£>rd  means,  "He  shall  establish;"  and 
tne  second,  "In  it  is  strength." 

These  columns  were  imitations,  by  Khurum,  the  Tyrian  artist, 
of  the  great  columns  consecrated  to  the  Winds  and  Fire,  at  the 
entrance  to  the  famous  Temple  of  Malkarth,  in  the  city  of 
Tyre.  It  is  customary,  in  Lodges  of  the  York  Rite,  to  see  a  celes- 
tial globe  on  one,  and  a  terrestrial  globe  on  the  other ;  but  these 
are  not  warranted,  if  the  object  be  to  imitate  the  original  two 
columns  of  the  Temple.  The  symbolic  meaning  of  these  columns 
we  shall  leave  for  the  present  unexplained,  only  adding  that 
Entered  Apprentices  keep  their  working-tools  in  the  column 
JACHIN  ;  and  giving  you  the  etymology  and  literal  meaning  of 
the  two  names. 

The  word  Jachin,  in  Hebrew,  is  j'O1'.  It  was  probably  pro- 
nounced Ya-kayan,  and  meant,  as  a  verbal  noun,  He  that  strength- 
ens; and  thence,  firm,  stable,  upright. 

The  word  Boaz  is  TJD,  Baaz.  TJ?  means  Strong,  Strength,  Power, 
Might,  Refuge,  Source  of  Strength,  a  Fort.  The  3  prefixed  means 
"  with"  or  "  in,"  and  gives  the  word  the  force  of  the  Latin 
gerund,  roborando — Strengthening. 

The  former  word  also  means  he  will  establish,  or  plant  in  an 
erect  position — from  the  verb  T|3  Kun}  he  stood  erect.  It  prob- 
ably meant  Active  and  Vivifying  Energy  and  Force;  and  Boaz, 
Stability,  Permanence,  in  the  passive  sense. 

The  Dimensions  of  the  Lodge,  our  Brethren  of  the  York  Rite 
say,  "  are  unlimited,  and  its  covering  no  less  than  the  canopy  of 
Heaven."  "  To  this  object,"  they  say,  "  the  mason's  mind  is  con- 



tinually  directed,  and  thither  he  hopes  at  last  to  arrive  by  the 
aid  of  the  theological  ladder  which  Jacob  in  his  vision  saw 
ascending  from  earth  to  Heaven ;  the  three  principal  rounds  of 
which  are  denominated  Faith,  Hope,  and  Charity ;  and  which 
admonish  us  to  have  Faith  in  God,  Hope  in  Immortality,  and 
Charity  to  all  mankind."  Accordingly  a  ladder,  sometimes  with 
nine  rounds,  is  seen  on  the  chart,  resting  at  the  bottom  on  the 
earth,  its  top  in  the  clouds,  the  stars  shining  above  it ;  and  this  is 
deemed  to  represent  that  mystic  ladder,  which  Jacob  saw  in  his 
dream,  set  up  on  the  earth,  and  the  top  of  it  reaching  to  Heaven, 
with  the  angels  of  God  ascending  and  descending  on  it.  The 
addition  of  the  three  principal  rounds  to  the  symbolism,  is  wholly 
modern  and  incongruous. 

The  ancients  counted  se\en  planets,  thus  arranged:  the  Moon, 
Mercury,  Venus,  the  Sun,  Mars,  Jupiter,  and  Saturn.  There 
were  seven  heavens  and  seven  spheres  of  these  planets ;  on  all 
the  monuments  of  Mithras  are  seven  altars  or  pyres,  consecrated 
to  the  seven  planets,  as  were  the  seven  lamps  of  the  golden 
candelabrum  in  the  Temple.  That  these  represented  the  planets, 
we  are  assured  by  Clemens  of  Alexandria,  in  his  Stromata,  and  by 
Philo  Judaeus. 

To  return  to  its  source  in  the  Infinite,  the  human  soul,  the 
ancients  held,  had  to  ascend,  as  it  had  descended,  through  the 
seven  spheres.  The  Ladder  by  which  it  reascends,  has,  according 
to  Marsilius  Ficinus,  in  his  Commentary  on  the  Ennead  of  Plo- 
tinus,  seven  degrees  or  steps ;  and  in  the  Mysteries  of  Mithras, 
carried  to  Rome  under  the  Emperors,  the  ladder,  with  its  seven 
rounds,  was  a  symbol  referring  to  this  ascent  through  the  spheres 
of  the  seven  planets.  Jacob  saw  the  Spirits  of  God  ascending  and 
descending  on  it ;  and  above  it  the  Deity  Himself.  The  Mithraic 
Mysteries  were  celebrated  in  caves,  where  gates  were  marked  at 
the  four  equinoctial  and  solstitial  points  of  the  zodiac ;  and  the 
seven  planetary  spheres  were  represented,  which  souls  needs  must 
traverse  in  descending  from  the  heaven  of  the  fixed  stars  to  the 
elements  that  envelop  the  earth ;  and  seven  gates  were  marked, 
one  for  each  planet,  through  which  they  pass,  in  descending  or 

We  learn  this  from  Celsus,  in  Origen,  who  says  that  the  sym- 
bolic image  of  this  passage  among  the  stars,  used  in  the  Mithraic 
Mysteries,  was  a  ladder  reaching  from  earth  to  Heaven,  divided 


into  seven  steps  or  stages,  to  each  of  which  was  a  gate,  and  at  the 
summit  an  eighth  one,  that  of  the  fixed  stars.  The  symbol  was 
the  same  as  that  of  the  seven  stages  of  Borsippa,  the  Pyramid 
of  vitrified  brick,  near  Babylon,  built  of  seven  stages,  and  each  of 
a  different  color.  In  the  Mithraic  ceremonies,  the  candidate  went 
through  seven  stages  of  initiation,  passing  through  many  fearful 
trials — and  of  these  the  high  ladder  with  seven  rounds  or  steps 
was  the  symbol. 

You  see  the  Lodge,  its  details  and  ornaments,  by  its  Lights. 
You  have  already  heard  what  these  Lights,  the  greater  and  lesser, 
are  said  to  be,  and  how  they  are  spoken  of  by  our  Brethren  of  the 
York  Rite. 

The  Holy  Bible,  Square,  and  Compasses,  are  not  only  styled  the 
Great  Lights  in  Masonry,  but  they  are  also  technically  called  the 
Furniture  of  the  Lodge ;  and,  as  you  have  seen,  it  is  held  that 
there  is  no  Lodge  without  them.  This  has  sometimes  been  made 
a  pretext  for  excluding  Jews  from  our  Lodges,  because  they  can- 
not regard  the  New  Testament  as  a  holy  book.  The  Bible  is  an 
indispensable  part  of  the  furniture  of  a  Christian  Lodge,  only 
because  it  is  the  sacred  book  of  the  Christian  religion.  The 
Hebrew  Pentateuch  in  a  Hebrew  Lodge,  and  the  Koran  in  a 
Mohammedan  one,  belong  on  the  Altar ;  and  one  of  these,  and  the 
Square  and  Compass,  properly  understood,  are  the  Great  Lights 
by  which  a  Mason  must  walk  and  work. 

The  obligation  of  the  candidate  is  always  to  be  taken  on  the 
sacred  book  or  books  of  his  religion,  that  he  may  deem  it  more 
solemn  and  binding ;  and  therefore  it  was  that  you  were  asked  of 
what  religion  you  were.  We  have  no  other  concern  with  your 
religious  creed. 

The  Square  is  a  right  angle,  formed  by  two  right  lines.  It  is 
adapted  only  to  a  plane  surface,  and  belongs  only  to  geometry, 
earth-measurement,  that  trigonometry  which  deals  only  with 
planes,  and  with  the  earth,  which  the  ancients  supposed  to  be  a 
plane.  The  Compass  describes  circles,  and  deals  with  spherical 
trigonometry,  the  science  of  the  spheres  and  heavens.  The  for- 
mer, therefore,  is  an  emblem  of  what  concerns  the  earth  and  the 
body ;  the  latter  of  what  concerns  the  heavens  and  the  soul.  Yet 
the  Compass  is  also  used  in  plane  trigonometry,  as  in  erecting  per- 
pendiculars ;  and,  therefore,  you  are  reminded  that,  although  in 
this  Degree  both  points  of  the  Compass  are  under  the  Square,  and 


you  are  now  dealing  only  with  the  moral  and  political  meaning  of 
the  symbols,  and  not  with  their  philosophical  and  spiritual  mean- 
ings, still  the  divine  ever  mingles  with  the  human;  with  the 
earthly  the  spiritual  intermixes ;  and  there  is  something  spiritual 
in  the  commonest  duties  of  life.  The  nations  are  not  bodies- 
politic  alone,  but  also  souls-politic ;  and  woe  to  that  people  which, 
seeking  the  material  only,  forgets  that  it  has  a  soul.  Then  we 
have  a  race,  petrified  in  dogma,  which  presupposes  the  absence  of 
a  soul  and  the  presence  only  of  memory  and  instinct,  or  demoral- 
ized by  lucre.  Such  a  nature  can  never  lead  civilization.  Genu- 
flexion before  the  idol  or  the  dollar  atrophies  the  muscle  which 
walks  and  the  will  which  moves.  Hieratic  or  mercantile  absorp- 
tion diminishes  the  radiance  of  a  people,  lowers  its  horizon  by 
lowering  its  level,  and  deprives  it  of  that  understanding  of  the 
universal  aim,  at  the  same  time  human  and  divine,  which  makes 
the  missionary  nations.  A  free  people,  forgetting  that  it  has  a  soul 
to  be  cared  for,  devotes  all  its  energies  to  its  material  advancement. 
If  it  make  war,  it  is  to  subserve  its  commercial  interests.  The 
citizens  copy  after  the  State,  and  regard  wealth,  pomp,  and  luxury 
as  the  great  goods  of  life.  Such  a  nation  creates  wealth  rapidly, 
and  distributes  it  badly.  Thence  the  two  extremes,  of  monstrous 
opulence  and  monstrous  misery;  all  the  enjoyment  to  a  few,  all 
the  privations  to  the  rest,  that  is  to  say,  to  the  people ;  Privilege, 
Exception,  Monopoly,  Feudality,  springing  up  from  Labor  itself : 
a  false  and  dangerous  situation,  which,  making  Labor  a  blinded 
and  chained  Cyclops,  in  the  mine,  at  the  forge,  in  the  workshop,  at 
the  loom,  in  the  field,  over  poisonous  fumes,  in  miasmatic  cells,  in 
unventilated  factories,  founds  public  power  upon  private  misery, 
and  plants  the  greatness  of  the  State  in  the  suffering  of  the  indi- 
vidual. It  is  a  greatness  ill  constituted,  in  which  all  the  material 
elements  are  combined,  and  into  which  no  moral  element  enters. 
If  a  people,  like  a  star,  has  the  right  of  eclipse,  the  light  ought  to 
return.  The  eclipse  should  not  degenerate  into  night. 

The  three  lesser,  or  the  Sublime  Lights,  you  have  heard,  are  the 
Sun,  the  Moon,  and  the  Master  of  the  Lodge ;  and  you  have  heard 
what  our  Brethren  of  the  York  Rite  say  in  regard  to  them,  and 
why  they  hold  them  to  be  Lights  of  the  Lodge.  But  the  Sun  and 
Moon  do  in  no  sense  light  the  Lodge,  unless  it  be  symbolically, 
and  then  the  lights  are  not  they,  but  those  things  of  which  they 
are  the  symbols.  Of  what  they  are  the  symbols  the  Mason  in  that 


Rite  is  not  told.     Nor  does  the  Moon  in  any  sense  rule  the  night 
with  regularity. 

The  Sun  is  the  ancient  symbol  of  the  life-giving  and  generative 
power  of  the  Deity.  To  the  ancients,  light  was  the  cause  of  life ; 
and  God  was  the  source  from  which  all  light  flowed ;  the  essence 
of  Light,  the  Invisible  Fire,  developed  as  Flame  manifested  as 
light  and  splendor.  The  Sun  was  His  manifestation  and  visible 
:mage;  and  the  Sabseans  worshipping  the  Light — God,  seemed 
to  worship  the  Sun,  in  whom  they  saw  the  manifestation  of  the 

The  Moon  was  the  symbol  of  the  passive  capacity  of  nature  to 
produce,  the  female,  of  which  the  life-giving  power  and  energy  \ 
was  the  male.  It  was  the  symbol  of  Isis,  Astarte,  and  Artemis, 
or  Diana.  The  "Master  of  Life"  was  the  Supreme  Deity,  above 
both,  and  manifested  through  both;  Zeus,  the  Son  of  Saturn, 
become  King  of  the  Gods ;  Horus,  son  of  Osiris  and  Isis,  become 
the  Master  of  Life  ;  Dionusos  or  Bacchus,  like  Mithras,  become  the 
author  of  Light  and  Life  and  Truth. 

4>  £  if  4i  $  41 

The  Master  of  Light  and  Life,  the  Sun  and  the  Moon,  are  sym- 
bolized in  every  Lodge  by  the  Master  and  Wardens:  and  this 
makes  it  the  duty  of  the  Master  to  dispense  light  to  the  Brethren, 
by  himself,  and  through  the  Wardens,  who  are  his  ministers. 

"Thy  sun,"  says  ISAIAH  to  Jerusalem,  "shall  no  more  go  down, 
neither  shall  thy  moon  withdraw  itself ;  for  the  LORD  shall  be 
thine  everlasting  light,  and  the  days  of  thy  mourning  shall  be 
ended.  Thy  people  also  shall  be  all  righteous;  they  shall  inherit 
the  land  forever."  Such  is  the  type  of  a  free  people. 

Our  northern  ancestors  worshipped  this  tri-une  Deity;  ODIN, 
the  Almighty  FATHER  ;  FREA,  his  wife,  emblem  of  universal  mat- 
ter; and  THOR,  his  son,  the  mediator.  But  above  all  these  was 
the  Supreme  God,  "  the  author  of  everything  that  existeth,  the 
Eternal,  the  Ancient,  the  Living  and  Awful  Being,  the  Searcher 
into  concealed  things,  the  Being  that  never  changeth."  In  the 
Temple  of  Eleusis  (a  sanctuary  lighted  only  by  a  window  in  the 
roof,  and  representing  the  Universe),  the  images  of  the  Sun, 
Moon,  and  Mercury,  were  represented. 

"The  Sun  and  Moon,"  says  the  learned  Bro.'.  DELAUNAY, 
"  represent  the  two  grand  principles  of  all  generations,  the  active 
and  passive,  the  male  and  the  female.  The  Sun  represents  the 


actual  light.  He  pours  upon  the  Moon  his  fecundating  rays ;  both 
shed  their  light  upon  their  offspring,  the  Blazing  Star,  or  HORUS, 
and  the  three  form  the  great  Equilateral  Triangle,  in  the  centre  of 
which  is  the  omnific  letter  of  the  Kabalah,  by  which  creation  is 
said  to  have  been  effected." 

The  ORNAMENTS  of  a  Lodge  are  said  to  be  "  the  Mosaic  Pave- 
ment, the  Indented  Tessel,  and  the  Blazing  Star."  The  Mosaic  Pave- 
ment, chequered  in  squares  or  lozenges,  is  said  to  represent  the 
ground-floor  of  King  Solomon's  Temple ;  and  the  Indented  Tessel 
"that  beautiful  tesselated  border  which  surrounded  it."  The 
Blazing  Star  in  the  centre  is  said  to  be  '"an  emblem  of  Divine 
Providence,  and  commemorative  of  the  star  which  appeared  to 
guide  the  wise  men  of  the  East  to  the  place  of  our  Saviour's 
nativity."  But  "  there  was  no  stone  seen"  within  the  Temple. 
The  walls  were  covered  with  planks  of  cedar,  and  the  floor  was 
covered  with  planks  of  fir.  There  is  no  evidence  that  there  was 
such  a  pavement  or  floor  in  the  Temple,  or  such  a  bordering.  In 
England,  anciently,  the  Tracing-Board  was  surrounded  with  an 
indented  border;  and  it  is  only  in  America  that  such  a  border  is 
put  around  the  Mosaic  pavement.  The  tesserae,  indeed,  are  the 
squares  or  lozenges  of  the  pavement.  In  England,  also,  "  the 
indented  or  denticulated  border"  is  called  "tesselated,"  because  it 
has  four  "tassels,"  said  to  represent  Temperance,  Fortitude,  Pru- 
dence, and  Justice.  It  was  termed  the  Indented  Trassel ;  but  this 
is  a  misuse  of  words.  It  is  a  tesserated  pavement,  with  an  indented 
border  round  it. 

The  pavement,  alternately  black  and  white,  symbolizes,  whether 
so  intended  or  not,  the  Good  and  Evil  Principles  of  the  Egyptian 
and  Persian  creed.  It  is  the  warfare  of  Michael  and  Satan,  of  the 
Gods  and  Titans,  of  Balder  and  Lok ;  between  light  and  shadow, 
which  is  darkness ;  Day  and  Night ;  Freedom  and  Despotism ; 
Religious  Liberty  and  the  Arbitrary  Dogmas  of  a  Church  that 
thinks  for  its  votaries,  and  whose  Pontiff  claims  to  be  infallible, 
and  the  decretals  of  its  Councils  to  constitute  a  gospel. 

The  edges  of  this  pavement,  if  in  lozenges,  will  necessarily  be 
indented  or  denticulated,  toothed  like  a  saw ;  and  to  complete  and 
finish  it  a  bordering  is  necessary.  It  is  completed  by  tassels  as 
ornaments  at  the  corners.  If  these  and  the  bordering  have  any 
symbolic  meaning,  it  is  fanciful  and  arbitrary. 

To  find  in  the  BLAZING  STAR  of  five  points  an  allusion  to  the 


Divine  Providence,  is  also  fanciful ;  and  to  make  it  commemorative 
of  the  Star  that  is  said  to  have  guided  the  Magi,  is  to  give  it  a 
meaning  comparatively  modern.  Originally  it  represented  SIRIUS, 
or  the  Dog-star,  the  forerunner  of  the  inundation  of  the  Nile ;  the 
God  ANUBIS,  companion  of  Isis  in  her  search  for  the  body  of 
OSIRIS,  her  brother  and  husband.  Then  it  became  the  image  of 
HORUS,  the  son  of  OSIRIS,  himself  symbolized  also  by  the  Sun, 
the  author  of  the  Seasons,  and  the  God  of  Time ;  Son  of  Isis,  who 
was  the  universal  nature,  himself  the  primitive  matter,  inexhaust- 
ible source  of  Life,  spark  of  uncreated  fire,  universal  seed  of  all 
beings.  It  was  HERMES,  also,  the  Master  of  Learning,  whose 
name  in  Greek  is  that  of  the  God  Mercury.  It  became  the  sacred 
and  potent  sign  or  character  of  the  Magi,  the  PENTALPHA,  and  is 
the  significant  emblem  of  Liberty  and  Freedom,  blazing  with  a 
steady  radiance  amid  the  weltering  elements  of  good  and  evil  of 
Revolutions,  and  promising  serene  skies  and  fertile  seasons  to  the 
nations,  after  the  storms  of  change  and  tumult. 

In  the  East  of  the  Lodge,  over  the  Master,  inclosed  in  a.  tri- 
angle, is  the  Hebrew  letter  YUD  [  •»  or  (tf  ] .  In  the  English  and 
American  Lodges  the  Letter  G.'.  is  substituted  for  this,  as  the 
initial  of  the  word  GOD,  with  as  little  reason  as  if  the  letter  D., 
initial  of  DIEU,  were  used  in  French  Lodges  instead  of  the  proper 
letter.  YOD  is,  in  the  Kabalah,  the  symbol  of  Unity,  of  the 
Supreme  Deity,  the  first  letter  of  the  Holy  Name;  and  also  a 
symbol  of  the  Great  Kabalistic  Triads.  To  understand  its  mystic 
meanings,  you  must  open  the  pages  of  the  Sohar  and  Siphra  de 
Zeniutha,  and  other  kabalistic  books,  and  ponder  deeply  on  their 
meaning.  It  must  suffice  to  say,  that  it  is  the  Creative  Energy  of 
the  Deity,  is  represented  as  a  point,  and  that  point  in  the  centre  of 
the  Circle  of  immensity.  It  is  to  us  in  this  Degree,  the  symbol  of 
that  unmanifested  Deity,  the  Absolute,  who  has  no  name. 

Our  French  Brethren  place  this  letter  YOD  in  the  centre  of  the 
Blazing  Star.  And  in  the  old  Lectures,  our  ancient  English 
Brethren  said,  "The  Blazing  Star  or  Glory  in  the  centre  refers 
us  to  that  grand  luminary,  the  Sun,  which  enlightens  the  earth, 
and  by  its  genial  influence  dispenses  blessings  to  mankind."  They 
called  it  also  in  the  same  lectures,  an  emblem  of  PRUDENCE.  The 
word  Prudentia  means,  in  its  original  and  fullest  signification, 
Foresight;  and,  accordingly,  the  Blazing  Star  has  been  regarded 
as  an  emblem  of  Omniscience,  or  the  All-seeing  Eye,  which  to  the 


Egyptian  Initiates  was  the  emblem  of  Osiris,  the  Creator.  With 
the  VO"D  in  the  centre,  it  has  the  kabalistic  meaning  of  the  Divine 
Energy,  manifested  as  Light,  creating  the  Universe. 

The  Jewels  of  the  Lodge  are  said  to  be  six  in  number.  Three 
are  called  "Movable,"  and  three  "Immovable."  The  SQUARE,  the 
LEVEL,  and  the  PLUMB  were  anciently  and  properly  called  the 
Movable  Jewels,  because  they  pass  from  one  Brother  to  another. 
It  is  a  modern  innovation  to  call  them  immovable,  because  they 
must  always  be  present  in  the  Lodge.  The  immovable  jewels  are 
in  some  Rituals,  the  DOUBLE  CUBE,  and  the  TRACING-BOARD,  or 

Of  these  jewels  our  Brethren  of  the  York  Rite  say:  "The 
Square  inculcates  Morality;  the  Level,  Equality;  and  the  Plumb, 
Rectitude  of  Conduct."  Their  explanation  of  the  immovable 
Jewels  may  be  read  in  their  monitors. 

<      #  *  *  *  *  * 

Our  Brethren  of  the  York  Rite  say  that  "there  is  represented 
in  every  well-governed  Lodge,  a  certain  point,  within  a  circle ; 
the  point  representing  an  individual  Brother;  the  Circle,  the 
boundary  line  of  his  conduct,  beyond  which  he  is  never  to  suffer 
his  prejudices  or  passions  to  betray  him." 

This  is  not  to  interpret  the  symbols  of  Masonry.  It  is  said  by 
some,  \vith  a  nearer  approach  to  interpretation,  that  the  point 
within  the  circle  represents  God  in  the  centre  of  the  Universe.  It 
is  a  common  Egyptian  sign  for  the  Sun  and  Osiris,  and  is  still 
used  as  the  astronomical  sign  of  the  great  luminary.  In  the  Ka- 
balah  the  point  is  YO"D,  the  Creative  Energy  of  God,  irradiating 
with  light  the  circular  space  which  God,  the  universal  Light, 
left  vacant,  wherein  to  create  the  worlds,  by  withdrawing  His 
substance  of  Light  back  on  all  sides  from  one  point. 

Our  Brethren  add  that,  "this  circle  is  embordered  by  two 
perpendicular  parallel  lines,  representing  Saint  John  the  Baptist 
and  Saint  John  the  Evangelist,  and  upon  the  top  rest  the  Holy 
Scriptures"  (an  open  book).  "In  going  round  this  circle,"  they 
say,  "we  necessarily  touch  upon  these  two  lines  as  well  as  upon 
the  Holy.  Scriptures ;  and  while  a  Mason  keeps  himself  circum- 
scribed within  their  precepts,  it  is  impossible  that  he  should 
materially  err." 


It  would  be  a  waste  of  time  to  comment  upon  this.  Some 
writers  have  imagined  that  the  parallel  lines  represent  the  Tropics 
of  Cancer  and  Capricorn,  which  the  Sun  alternately  touches  upon 
at  the  Summer  and  Winter  solstices.  But  the  tropics  are  not  per- 
pendicular lines,  and  the  idea  is  merely  fanciful.  If  the  parallel 
lines  ever  belonged  to  the  ancient  symbol,  they  had  some  more 
recondite  and  more  fruitful  meaning.  They  probably  had  the 
same  meaning  as  the  twin  columns  Jachin  and  Boaz.  That  mean- 
ing is  not  for  the  Apprentice.  The  adept  may  find  it  in  the  Ka- 
balah.  The  JUSTICE  and  MERCY  of  God  are  in  equilibrium,  and 
the  result  is  HARMONY,  because  a  Single  and  Perfect  Wisdom 
presides  over  both. 

The  Holy  Scriptures  are  an  entirely  modern  addition  to  the 
symbol,  like  the  terrestrial  and  celestial  globes  on  the  columns  of 
the  portico.  Thus  the  ancient  symbol  has  been  denaturalized  by 
incongruous  additions,  like  that  of  Isis  weeping  over  the  broken 
column  containing  the  remains  of  Osiris  at  Byblos. 

#  jj:  *  %  %  % 

Masonry  has  its  decalogue,  which  is  a  law  to  its  Initiates.  These 
are  its  Ten  Commandments  : 

I.  ©.'.  God  is  the  Eternal,  Omnipotent,  Immutable  WISDOM 

and  Supreme  INTELLIGENCE  and  Exhaustless  LOVE. 
Thou  shalt  adore,  revere,  and  love  Him ! 
Thou  shalt  honor  Him  by  practising  the  virtues! 

II.  O.'.  Thy  religion  shall  be,  to  do  good  because  it  is  a  pleas- 

ure to  thee,  and  not  merely  because  it  is  a  duty. 
That  thou  mayest  become  the  friend  of  the  wise  man,  thou 

shalt  obey  his  precepts ! 
Thy  soul  is  immortal !  Thou  shalt  do  nothing  to  degrade  it ! 

III.  ©.'.Thou  shalt  unceasingly  war  against  vice! 

Thou  shalt  not  do  unto  others  that  which  thou  wouldst  not 

wish  them  to  do  unto  thee ! 
Thou  shalt  be  submissive  to  thy  fortunes,  and  keep  burning 

the  light  of  wisdom  ! 

IV.  O.'.  Thou  shalt  honor  thy  parents! 

Thou  shalt  pay  respect  and  homage  to  the  aged ! 
Thou  shalt  instruct  the  young ! 

Thou  shalt  protect  and  defend  infancy  and  innocence ! 
V.    ©.'.Thou  shalt  cherish  thy  wife  and  thy  children! 
Thou  shalt  love  thy  country,  and  obey  its  laws ! 


VI.  O.'.  Thy  friend  shall  be  to  thee  a  second  self ! 
Misfortune  shall  not  estrange  thee  from  him! 
Thou  shalt  do  for  his  memory  whatever  thou  wouldst  do 

for  him.  if  he  were  living! 

VII.   0.'.  Thou  shalt  avoid  and  flee  from  insincere  friendships! 
Thou  shalt  in  everything  refrain  from  excess ! 
Thou  shalt  fear  to  be  the  cause  of  a  stain  on  thy  memory ! 
VIII.  O.'.  Thou  shalt  allow  no  passions  to  become  thy  master! 

Thou  shalt  make  the  passions  of  others  profitable  lessons 

to  thyself! 

Thou  shalt  be  indulgent  to  error! 
IX.   ©.'.  Thou  shalt  hear  much:  Thou  shalt  speak  little:  Thou 

shalt  act  well! 
Thou  shalt  forget  injuries! 
Thou  shalt  render  good  for  evil ! 

Thou  shalt  not  misuse  either  thy  strength  or  thy  superiority ! 
X.  O.'.  Thou  shalt  study  to  know  men;  that  thereby  thou 

mayest  learn  to  know  thyself! 
Thou  shalt  ever  seek  after  virtue  ! 
Thou  shalt  be  just ! 
Thou  shalt  avoid  idleness ! 

But  the  great  commandment  of  Masonry  is  this :  "A  new  com- 
mandment give  I  unto  you :  that  ye  love  one  another !  He  that 
saith  he  is  in  the  light,  and  hateth  his  brother,  remaineth  still  in 
the  darkness." 

Such  are  the  moral  duties  of  a  Mason.  But  it  is  also  the  duty 
of  Masonry  to  assist  in  elevating  the  moral  and  intellectual  level 
of  society ;  in  coining  knowledge,  bringing  ideas  into  circulation, 
and  causing  the  mind  of  youth  to  grow ;  and  in  putting,  gradually, 
by  the  teachings  of  axioms  and  the  promulgation  of  positive  laws, 
the  human  race  in  harmony  with  its  destinies. 

To  this  duty  and  work  the  Initiate  is  apprenticed.  He  must  not 
imagine  that  he  can  effect  nothing,  and,  therefore,  despairing,  be- 
come inert.  It  is  in  this,  as  in  a  man's  daily  life.  Many  great 
deeds  are  done  in  the  small  struggles  of  life.  There  is,  we  are  told, 
a  determined  though  unseen  bravery,  which  defends  itself,  foot  to 
foot,  in  the  darkness,  against  the  fatal  invasion  of  necessity  and  of 
baseness.  There  are  noble  and  mysterious  triumphs,  which  no  eye 
sees,  which  no  renown  rewards,  which  no  flourish  of  trumpets 
salutes.  Life,  misfortune,  isolation,  abandonment,  poverty,  are 


battle-fields,  which  have  their  heroes, — heroes  obscure,  but  some- 
times greater  than  those  who  become  illustrious.  The  Mason 
should  struggle  in  the  same  manner,  and  with  the  same  bravery, 
against  those  invasions  of  necessity  and  baseness,  which  come  to 
nations  as  well  as  to  men.  He  should  meet  them,  too,  foot  to  foot, 
even  in  the  darkness,  and  protest  against  the  national  wrongs  and 
follies ;  against  usurpation  and  the  first  inroads  of  that  hydra, 
Tyranny.  There  is  no  more  sovereign  eloquence  than  the  truth  in 
indignation.  It  is  more  difficult  for  a  people  to  keep  than  to  gain 
their  freedom.  The  Protests  of  Truth  are  always  needed.  Con- 
tinually, the  right  must  protest  against  the  fact.  There  is,  in  fact, 
Eternity  in  the  Right.  The  Mason  should  be  the  Priest  and  Sol- 
dier of  that  Right.  If  his  country  should  be  robbed  of  her  liber- 
ties, 'he  should  still  not  despair.  The  protest  of  the  Right  against 
the  Fact  persists  forever.  The  robbery  of  a  people  never  becomes 
prescriptive.  Reclamation  of  its  rights  is  barred  by  no  length  of 
time.  Warsaw  can  no  more  be  Tartar  than  Venice  can  be  Teutonic. 
A  people  may  endure  military  usurpation,  and  subjugated  States 
kneel  to  States  and  wear  the  yoke,  while  under  the  stress  of 
necessity ;  but  when  the  necessity  disappears,  if  the  people  is  fit  to 
be  free,  the  submerged  country  will  float  to  the  surface  and  reappear, 
and  Tyranny  be  adjudged  by  History  to  have  murdered  its  victims. 
Whatever  occurs,  we  should  have  Faith  in  the  Justice  and  over- 
ruling Wisdom  of  God,  and  Hope  for  the  Future,  and  Loving- 
kindness  for  those  who  are  in  error.  God  makes  visible  to  men 
His  will  in  events ;  an  obscure  text,  written  in  a  mysterious  lan- 
guage. Men  make  their  translations  of  it  forthwith,  hasty,  incor- 
rect, full  of  faults,  omissions,  and  misreadings.  We  see  so  short  a 
way  along  the  arc  of  the  great  circle !  Few  minds  comprehend 
the  Divine  tongue.  The  most  sagacious,  the  most  calm,  the  most 
profound,  decipher  the  hieroglyphs  slowly;  and  when  they  arrive 
with  their  text,  perhaps  the  need  has  long  gone  by;  there  are 
already  twenty  translations  in  the  public  square — the  most  incor- 
rect being,  as  of  course,  the  most  accepted  and  popular.  From 
each  translation,  a  party  is  born ;  and  from  each  misreading,  a 
faction.  Each  party  believes  or  pretends  that  it  has  the  only  true 
text,  and  each  faction  believes  or  pretends  that  it  alone  possesses 
the  light.  Moreover,  factions  are  blind  men,  who  aim  straight, 
errors  are  excellent  projectiles,  striking  skillfully,  and  with  all  the 
violence  that  springs  from  false  reasoning,  wherever  a  want  of  logic 


in  those  who  defend  the  right,  like  a  defect  in  a  cuirass,  makes 
them  vulnerable. 

Therefore  it  is  that  we  shall  often  be  discomfited  in  combating 
error  before  the  people.  Antaeus  long  resisted  Hercules ;  and  the 
heads  of  the  Hydra  grew  as  fast  as  they  were  cut  off.  It  is  absurd 
to  say  that  Error,  wounded,  writhes  in  pain,  and  dus  amid  her 
worshippers.  Truth  conquers  slowly.  There  is  a  wondrous  vital- 
ity in  Error.  Truth,  indeed,  for  the  most  part,  shoots  over  the 
heads  of  the  masses ;  or  if  an  error  is  prostrated  for  a  moment,  it 
is  up  again  in  a  moment,  and  as  vigorous  as  ever.  It  will  not  die 
when  the  brains  are  out,  and  the  most  stupid  and  irrational  errors 
are  the  longest-lived. 

Nevertheless,  Masonry,  which  is  Morality  and  Philosophy,  must 
not  cease  to  do  its  duty.  We  never  know  at  what  moment  success 
awaits  our  efforts — generally  when  most  unexpected — nor  with 
what  effect  our  efforts  are  or  are  not  to  be  attended.  Succeed  or 
fail,  Masonry  must  not  bow  to  error,  or  succumb  under  discour- 
agement. There  were  at  Rome  a  few  Carthaginian  soldiers,  taken 
prisoners,  who  refused  to  bow  to  Flaminius,  and  had  a  little  of 
Hannibal's  magnanimity.  Masons  should  possess  an  equal  great- 
ness of  soul.  Masonry  should  be  an  energy ;  finding  its  aim  and 
effect  in  the  amelioration  of  mankind.  Socrates  should  enter  into 
Adam,  and  produce  Marcus  Aurelius,  in  other  words,  bring  forth 
from  the  man  of  enjoyments,  the  man  of  wisdom.  Masonry 
should  not  be  a  mere  watch-tower,  built  upon  mystery,  from  which 
to  gaze  at  ease  upon  the  world,  with  no  other  result  than  to  be  a 
convenience  for  the  curious.  To  hold  the  full  cup  of  thought  to  the 
thirsty  lips  of  men ;  to  give  to  all  the  true  ideas  of  Deity;  to  har- 
monize conscience  and  science,  are  the  province  of  Philosophy. 
Morality  is  Faith  in  full  bloom.  Contemplation  should  lead  to 
action,  and  the  absolute  be  practical ;  the  ideal  be  made  air  and 
food  and  drink,  to  the  human  mind.  Wisdom  is  a  sacred  commu- 
nion. It  is  only  on  that  condition  that  it  ceases  to  be  a  sterile  love 
of  Science,  and  becomes  the  one  and  supreme  method  by  which  to 
unite  Humanity  and  arouse  it  to  concerted  action.  Then  Philoso- 
phy becomes  Religion. 

And  Masonry,  like  History  and  Philosophy,  has  eternal  duties — 
eternal,  and,  at  the  same  time,  simple — to  oppose:  Caiaphas  as 
Bishop,  Draco  or  Jefferies  as  Judge,  Trimalcion  as  Legislator,  and 
Tiberius  as  Emperor.  These  are  the  symbols  of  the  tyranny  that 


degrades  and  crushes,  and  the  corruption  that  defiles  and  infests. 
In  the  works  published  for  the  use  of  the  Craft  we  are  told  that 
the  three  great  tenets  of  a  Mason's  profession,  are  Brotherly  Love, 
Relief,  and  Truth.  And  it  is  true  that  a  Brotherly  affection  and 
kindness  should  govern  us  in  all  our  intercourse  and  relations  with 
our  brethren ;  and  a  generous  and  liberal  philanthropy  actuate  us 
in  regard  to  all  men.  To  relieve  the  distressed  is  peculiarly  the 
duty  of  Masons — a  sacred  duty,  not  to  be  omitted,  neglected,  of 
coldly  or  inefficiently  complied  with.  It  is  also  most  true,  that 
Truth  is  a  Divine  attribute  and  the  foundation  of  every  virtue. 
To  be  true,  and  to  seek  to  find  and  learn  the  Truth,  are  the  great 
objects  of  every  good  Mason. 

As  the  Ancients  did,  Masonry  styles  Temperance,  Fortitude,  U  ^ 
Prudence,  and  Justice,  the  four  cardinal  virtues.  They  are  as 
necessary  to  nations  as  to  individuals.  The  people  that  would  be 
Free  and  Independent,  must  possess  Sagacity,  Forethought,  Fore- 
sight, and  careful  Circumspection,  all  which  are  included  in  the  -  ••">:- 
meaning  of  the  word  Prudence.  It  must  be  temperate  in  asserting 
its  rights,  temperate  in  its  councils,  economical  in  its  expenses ;  it 
must  be  bold,  brave,  courageous,  patient  under  reverses,  undis- 
mayed by  disasters,  hopeful  amid  calamities,  like  Rome  when  she 
sold  the  field  at  which  Hannibal  had  his  camp.  No  Cannae  or 
Pharsalia  or  Pavia  or  Agincourt  or  Waterloo  must  discourage  her. 
Let  her  Senate  sit  in  their  seats  until  the  Gauls  pluck  them  by  the 
beard.  She  must,  above  all  things,  be  just,  not  truckling  to  the 
strong  and  warring  on  or  plundering  the  weak ;  she  must  act  on 
the  square  with  all  nations,  and  the  feeblest  tribes ;  always  keep- 
ing her  faith,  honest  in  her  legislation,  upright  in  all  her  dealings. 
Whenever  such  a  Republic  exists,  it  will  be  immortal:  for  rash- 
ness, injustice,  intemperance  and  luxury  in  prosperity,  and  despair 
and  disorder  in  adversity,  are  the  causes  of  the  decay  and  dilapida- 
tion of  nations. 


IN  the  Ancient  Orient,  all  religion  was  more  or  less  a  mystery 
and  there  was  no  divorce  from  it  of  philosophy.  The  popular 
theology,  taking  the  multitude  of  allegories  and  symbols  for  real- 
ities, degenerated  into  a  worship  of  the  celestial  luminaries,  of 
imaginary  Deities  with  human  feelings,  passions,  appetites,  and 
lusts,  of  idols,  stones,  animals,  reptiles.  The  Onion  was  sacred 
to  the  Egyptians,  because  its  different  layers  were  a  symbol  of  the 
concentric  heavenly  spheres.  Of  course  the  popular  religion  could 
not  satisfy  the  deeper  longings  and  thoughts,  the  loftier  aspirations 
of  the  Spirit,  or  the  logic  of  reason.  The  first,  therefore,  was 
taught  to  the  initiated  in  the  Mysteries.  There,  also,  it  was  taught 
by  symbols.  The  vagueness  of  symbolism,  capable  of  many  inter- 
pretations, reached  what  the  palpable  and  conventional  creed 
could  not.  Its  indefiniteness  acknowledged  the  abstruseness  of  the 
subject:  it  treated  that  mysterious  subject  mystically:  it  endeav- 
ored to  illustrate  what  it  could  not  explain ;  to  excite  an  appro- 
priate feeling,  if  it  could  not  develop  an  adequate  idea;  and  to 
make  the  image  a  mere  subordinate  conveyance  for  the  conception, 
which  itself  never  became  obvious  or  familiar. 

Thus  the  knowledge  now  imparted  by  books  and  letters,  was  of 
old  conveyed  by  symbols ;  and  the  priests  invented  or  perpetuated 
a  display  of  rites  and  exhibitions,  which  were  not  only  more  at- 
tractive to  the  eye  than  words,  but  often  more  suggestive  and  more 
pregnant  with  meaning  to  the  mind. 

Masonry,  successor  of  the  Mysteries,  still  follows  the  ancient 
manner  of  teaching.  Her  ceremonies  are  like  the  ancient  mystic 
shows, — not  the  reading  of  an  essay,  but  the  opening  of  a  problem, 
'requiring  research,  and  constituting  philosophy  the  arch-ex- 
pounder. Her  symbols  are  the  instruction  she  gives.  The  lectures 
are  endeavors,  often  partial  and  one-sided,  to  interpret  these  sym- 
bols. He  who  would  become  an  accomplished  Mason  must  not  be 
content  merely  to  hear,  or  even  to  understand,  the  lectures;  he 


must,  aided  by  them,  and  they  having,  as  it  were,  marked  out  the 
way  for  him,  study,  interpret,  and  develop  these  symbols  for 



Though  Masonry  is  identical  with  the  ancient  Mysteries,  it  is  so 
only  in  this  qualified  sense :  that  it  presents  but  an  imperfect 
image  of  their  brilliancy,  the  ruins  only  of  their  grandeur,  and  a 
system  that  has  experienced  progressive  alterations,  the  fruits  of 
social  events,  political  circumstances,  and  the  ambitious  imbecility 
of  its  improvers.  After  leaving  Egypt,  the  Mysteries  were  modi- 
fied by  the  habits  of  the  different  nations  among  whom  they  were 
introduced,  and  especially  by  the  religious  systems  of  the  countries 
into  which  they  were  transplanted.  To  maintain  the  established 
government,  laws,  and  religion,  was  the  obligation  of  the  Initiate 
everywhere ;  and  everywhere  they  were  the  heritage  of  the  priests, 
who  were  nowhere  willing  to  make  the  common  people  co-proprie- 
tors with  themselves  of  philosophical  truth. 

Masonry  is  not  the  Coliseum  in  ruins.  It  is  rather  a  Roman 
palace  of  the  middle  ages,  disfigured  by  modern  architectural  im- 
provements, yet  built  on  a  Cyclopsean  foundation  laid  by  the  Etrus- 
cans, and  with  many  a  stone  of  the  superstructure  taken  from 
dwellings  and  temples  of  the  age  of  Hadrian  and  Antoninus. 

Christianity  taught  the  doctrine  of  FRATERNITY;  but  repudi- 
ated that  of  political  EQUALITY,  by  continually  inculcating  obedi- 
ence to  Caesar,  and  to  those  lawfully  in  authority.  Masonry  was 
the  first  apostle  of  EQUALITY.  In  the  Monastery  there  is  frater- 
nity and  equality,  but  no  liberty.  Masonry  added  that  also,  and 
claimed  for  man  the  three-fold  heritage,  LIBERTY,  EQUALITY,  and 

It  was  but  a  development  of  the  original  purpose  of  the  Myste- 
ries, which  was  to  teach  men  to  know  and  practice  their  duties  to 
themselves  and  their  fellows,  the  great  practical  end  of  all  philos- 
ophy and  all  knowledge. 

Truths  are  the  springs  from  which  duties  flow ;  and  it  is  but  a 
few  hundred  years  since  a  new  Truth  began  to  be  distinctly  seen ; 


HIM.  Man  has  natural  empire  over  all  institutions.  They  are 
for  him,  according  to  his  development ;  not  he  for  them.  This 
seems  to  us  a  very  simple  statement,  one  to  which  all  men,  every- 
where, ought  to  assent.  But  once  it  was  a  great  new  Truth, — not 


revealed  until  governments  had  been  in  existence  for  at  least  five 
thousand  rears.  Once  revealed,  it  imposed  new  duties  on  men. 
Man  owed  it  to  himself  to  be  free.  He  owed  it  to  his  country  to 
seek  to  give  her  freedom,  or  maintain  her  in  that  possession.  It 
made  Tyranny  and  Usurpation  the  enemies  of  the  Human  Race.  It 
created  a  general  outlawry  of  Despots  and  Despotisms,  temporal 
and  spiritual.  The  sphere  of  Duty  was  immensely  enlarged.  Pa- 
triotism had,  henceforth,  a  new  and  wider  meaning.  Free  Govern- 
ment, Free  Thought,  Free  Conscience,  Free  Speech !  All  these  came 
to  be  inalienable  rights,  which  those  who  had  parted  with  them  or 
been  robbed  of  them,  or  whose  ancestors  had  lost  them,  had  the 
right  summarily  to  retake.  Unfortunately,  as  Truths  always  be- 
come perverted  into  falsehoods,  and  are  falsehoods  when  misap- 
plied, this  Truth  became  the  Gospel  of  Anarchy,  soon  after  it  was 
first  preached. 

Masonry  early  comprehended  this  Truth,  and  recognized  its  own 
enlarged  duties.  Its  symbols  then  came  to  have  a  wider  meaning ; 
but  it  also  assumed  the  mask  of  Stone-masonry,  and  borrowed  its 
working-tools,  and  so  was  supplied  with  new  and  apt  symbols.  It 
aided  in  bringing  about  the  French  Revolution,  disappeared  with 
the  Girondists,  was  born  again  with  the  restoration  of  order,  and 
sustained  Napoleon,  because,  though  Emperor,  he  acknowledged 
the  right  of  the  people  to  select  its  rulers,  and  was  at  the  head  of 
a  nation  refusing  to  receive  back  its  old  kings.  He  pleaded,  with 
sabre,  musket,  and  cannon,  the  great  cause  of  the  People  against 
Royalty,  the  right  of  the  French  people  even  to  make  a  Corsican 
General  their  Emperor,  if  it  pleased  them. 

Masonry  felt  that  this  Truth  had  the  Omnipotence  of  God  on 
its  side;  and  that  neither  Pope  nor  Potentate  could  overcome  it. 
It  was  a  truth  dropped  into  the  world's  wide  treasury,  and  forming 
a  part  of  the  heritage  which  each  generation  receives,  enlarges,  and 
holds  in  trust,  and  of  necessity  bequeaths  to  mankind ;  the  per- 
sonal estate  of  man,  entailed  of  nature  to  the  end  of  time.  And 
Masonry  early  recognized  it  as  true,  that  to  set  forth  and  develop 
a  truth,  or  any  human  excellence  of  gift  or  growth,  is  to  make 
greater  the  spiritual  glory  of  the  race;  that  whosoever  aids  the 
march  of  a  Truth,  and  makes  the  thought  a  thing,  writes  in  the 
same  l-ine  with  MOSES,  and  with  Him  who  died  upon  the  cross; 
and  has  an  intellectual  sympathy  with  the  Deity  Himself. 

The  best  gift  we  can  bestow  on  man  is  manhood.     It  is  that 


which  Masonry  is  ordained  of  God  to  bestow  on  its  votaries :  not 
sectarianism  and  religious  dogma ;  not  a  rudirnental  morality,  that 
may  be  found  in  the  writings  of  Confucius,  Zoroaster,  Seneca,  and 
the  Rabbis,  in  the  Proverbs  and  Ecclesiastes ;  not  a  little  and  cheap 
common-school  knowledge;  but  manhood  and  science  and  phi- 

Not  that  Philosophy  or  Science  is  in  opposition  to  Religion.  For 
Philosophy  is  but  that  knowledge  of  God  and  the  Soul,  which  is 
derived  from  observation  of  the  manifested  action  of  God  and  the 
Soul,  and  from  a  wise  analogy.  It  is  the  intellectual  guide  which 
the  religious  sentiment  needs.  The  true  religious  philosophy  of 
an  imperfect  being,  is  not  a  system  of  creed,  but,  as  SOCRATES 
thought,  an  infinite  search  or  approximation.  Philosophy  is  that 
intellectual  and  moral  progress,  which  the  religious  sentiment  in- 
spires and  ennobles. 

As  to  Science,  it  could  not  walk  alone,  while  religion  was  sta- 
tionary. It  consists  of  those  matured  inferences  from  experience 
which  all  other  experience  confirms.  It  realizes  and  unites  all  that 
was  truly  valuable  in  both  the  old  schemes  of  mediation, — one 
heroic,  or  the  system  of  action  and  effort ;  and  the  mystical  theory 
of  spiritual,  contemplative  communion.  "  Listen  to  me,"  says 
GALEN,  "  as  to  the  voice  of  the  Eleusinian  Hierophant,  and  believe 
that  the  study  of  Nature  is  a  mystery  no  less  important  than  theirs, 
nor  less  adapted  to  display  the  wisdom  and  power  of  the  Great  Cre- 
ator. Their  lessons  and  demonstrations  were  obscure,  but  ours  are 
clear  and  unmistakable." 

We  deem  that  to  be  the  best  knowledge  we  can  obtain  of  the 
Soul  of  another  man,  which  is  furnished  by  his  actions  and  his 
life-long  conduct.  Evidence  to  the  contrary,  supplied  by  what 
another  man  informs  us  that  this  Soul  has  said  to  his,  would  weigh 
little  against  the  former.  The  first  Scriptures  for  the  human  race 
were  written  by  God  on  the  Earth  and  Heavens.  The  reading  of 
these  Scriptures  is  Science.  Familiarity  with  the  grass  and  trees, 
the  insects  and  the  infusoria,  teaches  us  deeper  lessons  of  love  and 
faith,  than  we  can  glean  from  the  writings  of  FENELON  and 
AUGUSTINE.  The  great  Bible  of  God  is  ever  open  before  mankind. 

Knowledge  is  convertible  into  power,  and  axioms  into  rules  of 

utility  and  duty.   But  knowledge  itself  is  not  Power.   Wisdom  is 

Power ;  and  her  Prime  Minister  is  JUSTICE,  which  is  the  perfected 

law  of  TRUTH.  The  purpose,  therefore,  of  Education  and  Science 



is  to  make  a  man  wise.  If  knowledge  does  not  make  him  so,  it  is 
wasted,  like  water  poured  on  the  sands.  To  know  the  formulas  of 
Masonry,  is  of  as  little  value,  by  itself,  as  to  know  so  many  words 
and  sentences  in  some  barbarous  African  or  Australasian  dialect. 
To  know  even  the  meaning  of  the  symbols,  is  but  little,  unless  that 
adds  to  our  wisdom,  and  also  to  our  charity,  which  is  to  justice 
like  one  hemisphere  of  the  brain  to  the  other. 

Do  not  lose  sight,  then,  of  the  true  object  of  your  studies  in 
Masonry.  It  is  to  add  to  your  estate  of  wisdom,  and  not  merely 
to  your  knowledge.  A  man  may  spend  a  lifetime  in  studying  a 
single  specialty  of  knowledge, — botany,  conchology,  or  entomol- 
ogy, for  instance, — in  committing  to  memory  names  derived  from 
the  Greek,  and  classifying  and  reclassifying ;  and  yet  be  no  wiser 
than  when  he  began.  It  is  the  great  truths  as  to  all  that  most 
concerns  a  man,  as  to  his  rights,  interests,  and  duties,  that  Ma- 
sonry seeks  to  teach  her  Initiates. 

The  wiser  a  man  becomes,  the  less  will  he  be  inclined  to  submit 
tamely  to  the  imposition  of  fetters  or  a  yoke,  on  his  conscience  or 
his  person.  For,  by  increase  of  wisdom  he  not  only  better  knows 
his  rights,  but  the  more  highly  values  them,  and  is  more  conscious 
of  his  worth  and  dignity.  His  pride  then  urges  him  to  assert  his 
independence.  He  becomes  better  able  to  assert  it  also ;  and  better 
able  to  assist  others  or  his  country,  when  they  or  she  stake  all,  even 
existence,  upon  the  same  assertion.  But  mere  knowledge  makes 
no  one  independent,  nor  fits  him  to  be  free.  It  often  only  makes 
him  a  more  useful  slave.  Liberty  is  a  curse  to  the  ignorant  and 

Political  science  has  £or  its  object  to  ascertain  in  what  manner 
and  by  means  of  what  institutions  political  and  personal  freedom 
may  be  secured  and  perpetuated:  not  license,  or  the  mere  right 
of  every  man  to  vote,  but  entire  and  absolute  freedom  of  thought 
and  opinion,  alike  free  of  the  despotism  of  monarch  and  mob  and 
prelate;  freedom  of  action  within  the  limits  of  the  general  law 
enacted  for  all ;  the  Courts  of  Justice,  with  impartial  Judges  and 
juries,  open  to  all  alike;  weakness  and  poverty  equally  potent 
in  those  Courts  as  power  and  wealth;  the  avenues  to  office  and 
honor  open  alike  to  all  the  worthy ;  the  military  powers,  in  war  or 
peace,  in  strict  subordination  to  the  civil  power-,  arbitrary  ar- 
rests for  acts  not  known  to  the  law  as  crimes,  impossible ;  Romish 
Inquisitions,  Star-Chambers,  Military  Commissions,  unknown ;  the 


means  of  instruction  within  reach  of  the  children  of  all ;  the  right 
of  Free  Speech ;  and  accountability  of  all  public  officers,  civil  and 

If  Masonry  needed  to  be  justified  for  imposing  political  as  well 
as  moral  duties  on  its  Initiates,  it  would  be  enough  to  point  to  the 
sad  history  of  the  world.  It  would  not  even  need  that  she  should 
turn  back  the  pages  of  history  to  the  chapters  written  by  Tacitus : 
that  she  should  recite  the  incredible  horrors  of  despotism  under 
Caligula  and  Domitian,  Caracalla  and  Commodus,  Vitellius  and 
Maximin.  She  need  only  point  to  the  centuries  of  calamity 
through  which  the  gay  French  nation  passed ;  to  the  long  oppres- 
sion of  the  -feudal  ages,  of  the  selfish  Bourbon  kings ;  to  those 
times  when  the  peasants  were  robbed  and  slaughtered  by  their  own 
lords  and  princes,  like  sheep ;  when  the  lord  claimed  the  first- 
fruits  of  the  peasant's  marriage-bed ;  when  the  captured  city  was 
given  up  to  merciless  rape  and  massacre ;  when  the  State-prisons 
groaned  with  innocent  victims,  and  the  Church  blessed  the  ban- 
ners of  pitiless  murderers,  and  sang  Te  Deums  for  the  crowning 
mercy  of  the  Eve  of  St.  Bartholomew. 

We  might  turn  over  the  pages,  to  a  later  chapter, — that  of  the 
reign  of  the  Fifteenth  Louis,  when  young  girls,  hardly  more  than 
children,  were  kidnapped  to  serve  his  lusts ;  when  lettres  de  cachet 
filled  the  Bastile  with  persons  accused  of  no  crime,  with  husbands 
who  were  in  the  way  of  the  pleasures  of  lascivious  wives  and  of 
villains  wearing  orders  of  nobility ;  when  the  people  were  ground 
between  the  upper  and  the  nether  millstone  of  taxes,  customs,  and 
excises ;  and  when  the  Pope's  Nuncio  and  the  Cardinal  de  la 
Roche-Ayman,  devoutly  kneeling,  one  on  each  side  of  Madame 
du  Barry,  the  king's  abandoned  prostitute,  put  the  slippers  on  her 
naked  feet,  as  she  rose  from  the  adulterous  bed.  Then,  indeed, 
suffering  and  toil  were  the  two  forms  of  man,  and  the  people  were 
but  beasts  of  burden. 

The  true  Mason  is  he  who  labors  strenuously  to  help  his  Order 
effect  its  great  purposes.  Not  that  the  Order  can  effect  them  by 
itself;  but  that  it,  too,  can  help.  It  also  is  one  of  God's  instru- 
ments. It  is  a  Force  and  a  Power;  and  shame  upon  it,  if  it  did 
not  exert  itself,  and  if  need  be,  sacrifice  its  children  in  the  cause 
of  humanity,  as  Abraham  was  ready  to  offer  up  Isaac  on  the  altar 
of  sacrifice.  It  will  not  forget  that  noble  allegory  of  Curtius 
leaping,  all  in  armor,  into  the  great  yawning  gulf  that  opened  to 


swallow  Rome.  It  will  TRY.  It  shall  not  be  its  fault  if  the  day 
never  comes  when  man  will  no  longer  have  to  fear  a  conquest,  an 
invasion,  a  usurpation,  a  rivalry  of  nations  with  the  armed  hand, 
an  interruption  of  civilization  depending  on  a  marriage-royal,  or  a 
birth  in  the  hereditary  tyrannies;  a  partition  of  the  peoples  by  a 
Congress,  a  dismemberment  by  the  downfall  of  a  dynasty,  a  com- 
bat of  two  religions,  meeting  head  to  head,  like  two  goats  of  dark- 
ness on  the  bridge  of  the  Infinite :  when  they  will  no  longer  have 
to  fear  famine,  spoliation,  prostitution  from  distress,  misery  from 
lack  of  work,  and  all  the  brigandages  of  chance  in  the  forest  of 
events:  when  nations  will  gravitate  about  the  Truth,  like  stars 
about  the  light,  each  in  its  own  orbit,  without  clashing  or  collision  ; 
and  everywhere  Freedom,  cinctured  with  stars,  crowned  with  the 
celestial  splendors,  and  with  wisdom  and  justice  on  either  hand, 
will  reign  supreme. 

In  your  studies  s.s  a  Fellow-Craft  you  must  be  guided  by  REA- 

We  do  not  now  discuss  the  differences  between  Reason  and 
Faith,  and  undertake  to  define  the  domain  of  each.  But  it  is 
necessary  to  say,  that  even  in  the  ordinary  affairs  of  life  we  are 
governed  far  more  by  what  we  believe  than  by  what  we  know;  by 
FAITH  and  ANALOGY,  than  by  REASON.  The  "Age  of  Reason" 
of  the  French  Revolution  taught,  we  know,  what  a  folly  it  is  to 
enthrone  Reason  by  itself  as  supreme.  Reason  is  at  fault  when  it 
deals  with  the  Infinite.  There  we  must  revere  and  believe.  Not- 
withstanding the  calamities  of  the  virtuous,  the  miseries  of  the 
deserving,  the  prosperity  of  tyrants  and  the  murder  of  martyrs, 
we  must  believe  there  is  a  wise,  just,  merciful,  and  loving  God,  an 
Intelligence  and  a  Providence,  supreme  over  all,  and  caring  for 
the  minutest  things  and  events.  A  Faith  is  a  necessity  to  man. 
Woe  to  him  who  believes  nothing! 

We  believe  that  the  soul  of  another  is  of  a  certain  nature  and 
possesses  certain  qualities,  that  he  is  generous  and  honest,  or  pe- 
nurious and  knavish,  that  she  is  virtuous  and  amiable,  or  vicious 
and  ill-tempered,  from  the  countenance  alone,  from  little  more 
than  a  glimpse  of  it,  without  the  means  of  knowing.  We  venture 
our  fortune  on  the  signature  of  a  man  on  the  other  side  of  the 
world,  whom  we  never  saw,  upon  the  belief  that  he  is  honest 
and  trustworthy.  We  believe  that  occurrences. have  taken  place, 
upon  the  assertion  of  others.  We  believe  that  one  will  acts  upon 


another,  and  in  the  reality  of  a  multitude  of  other  phenomena, 
that  Reason  cannot  explain. 

But  we  ought  not  to  believe  what  Reason  authoritatively  denies, 
that  at  which  the  sense  of  right  revolts,  that  which  is  absurd  or 
self-contradictory,  or  at  issue  with  experience  or  science,  or  that 
which  degrades  the  character  of  the  Deity,  and  would  make  Him 
revengeful,  malignant,  cruel,  or  unjust. 

A  man's  Faith  is  as  much  his  own  as  his  Reason  is.  His  Free- 
dom consists  as  much  in  his  faith  being  free  as  in  his  will  being 
uncontrolled  by  power.  All  the  Priests  and  Augurs  of  Rome  or 
Greece  had  not  the  right  to  require  Cicero  or  Socrates  to  believe  in 
the  absurd  mythology  of  the  vulgar.  All  the  Imaums  of  Mo- 
hammedanism have  not  the  right  to  require  a  Pagan  to  believe  that 
Gabriel  dictated  the  Koran  to  the  Prophet.  All  the  Brahmins 
that  ever  lived,  if  assembled  in  one  conclave  like  the  Cardinals, 
could  not  gain  a  right  to  compel  a  single  human  being  to  believe 
in  the  Hindu  Cosmogony.  No  man  or  body  of  men  can  be  infal- 
lible, and  authorized  to  decide  what  other  men  shall  believe,  as  to 
any  tenet  of  faith.  Except  to  those  who  first  receive  it,  every  reli- 
gion and  the  truth  of  all  inspired  writings  depend  on  human  tes- 
timony and  internal  evidences,  to  be  judged  of  by  Reason  and  the 
wise  analogies  of  Faith.  Each  man  must  necessarily  have  the 
right  to  judge  of  their  truth  for  himself;  because  no  one  man  can 
have  any  higher  or  better  right  to  judge  than  another  of  equal  in- 
formation and  intelligence. 

Domitian  claimed  to  be  the  Lord  God ;  and  statues  and  images 
of  him,  in  silver  and  gold,  were  found  throughout  the  known  world. 
He  claimed  to  be  regarded  as  the  God  of  all  men ;  and,  according  to 
Suetonius,  began  his  letters  thus :  "  Our  Lord  and  God  commands 
that  it  should  be  done  so  and  so;"  and  formally  decreed  that  no 
one  should  address  him  otherwise,  either  in  writing  or  by  word  of 
mouth.  Palfurius  Sura,  the  philosopher,  who  was  his  chief  de- 
lator, accusing  those  who  refused  to  recognize  his  divinity,  however 
much  he  may  have  believed  in  that  divinity,  had  not  the  right  to 
demand  that  a  single  Christian  in  Rome  or  the  provinces  should  do 
the  same. 

Reason  is  far  from  being  the  only  guide,  in  morals  or  in  political 
science.  Love  or  loving-kindness  must  keep  it  company,  to  ex- 
clude fanaticism,  intolerance,  and  persecution,  to  all  of  which  a 
morality  too  ascetic,  and  extreme  political  principles,  invariably 


lead.  We  must  also  have  faith  in  ourselves,  and  in  our  fellows  and 
the  people,  or  we  shall  be  easily  discouraged  by  reverses,  and  our 
ardor  cooled  by  obstacles.  We  must  not  listen  to  Reason  alone. 
Force  comes  more  from  Faith  and  Love:  and  it  is  by  the  aid  of 
these  that  man  scales  the  loftiest  heights  of  morality,  or  becomes 
the  Saviour  and  Redeemer  of  a  People.  Reason  must  hold  the 
helm ;  but  these  supply  the  motive  power.  They  are  the  wings  of 
the  soul.  Enthusiasm  is  generally  unreasoning;  and  without  it, 
and  Love  and  Faith,  there  would  have  been  no  RIENZI,  or  TELL, 
or  SYDNEY,  or  any  other  of  the  great  patriots  whose  names  are 
immortal.  If  the  Deity  had  been  merely  and  only  All-wise  and 
All-mighty,  He  would  never  have  created  the  Universe. 


It  is  GENIUS  that  gets  Power;  and  its  prime  lieutenants  are 
FORCE  and  WISDOM.  The  unruliest  of  men  bend  before  the 
leader  that  has  the  sense  to  see  and  the  will  to  do.  It  is  Genius 
that  rules  with  God-like  Power ;  that  unveils,  with  its  counsellors, 
the  hidden  human  mysteries,  cuts  asunder  with  its  word  the  huge 
knots,  and  builds  up  with  its  word  the  crumbled  ruins.  At  its 
glance  fall  down  the  senseless  idols,  whose  altars  have  been  on  all 
the  high  places  and  in  all  the  sacred  groves.  Dishonesty  and  im- 
becility stand  abashed  before  it.  Its  single  Yea  or  Nay  revokes 
the  wrongs  of  ages,  and  is  heard  among  the  future  generations. 
Its  power  is  immense,  because  its  wisdom  is  immense.  Genius  is 
the  Sun  of  the  political  sphere.  Force  and  Wisdom,  its  ministers, 
are  the  orbs  that  carry  its  light  into  darkness,  and  answer  it  with 
their  solid  reflecting  Truth. 

Development  is  symbolized  by  the  use  of  the  Mallet  and  Chisel ; 
the  development  of  the  energies  and  intellect,  of  the  individual 
and  the  people.  Genius  may  place  itself  at  the  head  of  an  unin- 
tellectual,  uneducated,  unenergetic  nation;  but  in  a  free  country, 
to  cultivate  the  intellect  of  those  who  elect,  is  the  only  mode  of 
securing  intellect  and  genius  for  rulers.  The  world  is  seldom 
ruled  by  the  great  spirits,  except  after  dissolution  and  new  birth. 
In  periods  of  transition  and  convulsion,  the  Long  Parliaments,  the 
Robespierres  and  Marats,  and  the  semi-respectabilities  of  intellect, 
too  often  hold  the  reins  of  power.  The  Cromwells  and  Napoleons 
come  later.  After  Marius  and  Sulla  and  Cicero  the-jhetorician, 
CAESAR.  The  great  intellect  is  often  too  sharp  for  the  granite  of 
this  life.  Legislators  may  be  very  ordinary  men;  for  legislation 


fa  very  ordinary  work ;  it  is  but  the  final    issue    of    a    million 

The  power  of  the  purse  or  the  sword,  compared  to  that  of  the 
spirit,  is  poor  and  contemptible.  As  to  lands,  you  may  have  agra- 
rian laws,  and  equal  partition.  But  a  man's  intellect  is  all  his 
own,  held  direct  from  God,  an  inalienable  fief.  It  is  the  most 
potent  of  weapons  in  the  hands  of  a  paladin.  If  the  people  com- 
prehend Force  in  the  physical  sense,  how  much  more  do  they  rev- 
erence the  intellectual !  Ask  Hildebrand,  or  Luther,  or  Loyola. 
They  fall  prostrate  before  it,  as  before  an  idol.  The  mastery  of 
mind  over  mind  is  the  only  conquest  worth  having.  The  other 
injures  both,  and  dissolves  at  a  breath;  rude  as  it  is,  the  great 
cable  falls  down  and  snaps  at  last.  But  this  dimly  resembles  the 
dominion  of  the  Creator.  It  does  not  need  a  subject  like  that  of 
Peter  the  Hermit.  If  the  stream  be  but  bright  and  strong,  it  will 
sweep  like  a  spring-tide  to  the  popular  heart.  Not  in  word  only, 
but  in  intellectual  act  lies  the  fascination.  It  is  the  homage  to 
the  Invisible.  This  power,  knotted  with  Love,  is  the  golden  chain 
let  down  into  the  well  of  Truth,  or  the  invisible  chain  that  binds 
the  ranks  of  mankind  together. 

Influence  of  man  over  man  is  a  law  of  nature,  whether  it  be  by 
a  great  estate  in  land  or  in  intellect.  It  may  mean  slavery,  a 
deference  to  the  eminent  human  judgment.  Society  hangs  spirit- 
ually together,  like  the  revolving  spheres  above.  The  free  country, 
in  which  intellect  and  genius  govern,  will  endure.  Where  they 
serve,  and  other  influences  govern,  the  national  life  is  short.  All 
the  nations  that  have  tried  to  govern  themselves  by  their  smallest, 
by  the  incapables,  or  merely  respectables,  have  come  to  nought. 
Constitutions  and  Laws,  without  Genius  and  Intellect  to  govern, 
will  not  prevent  decay.  In  that  case  they  have  the  dry-rot  and 
the  life  dies  out  of  them  by  degrees. 

To  give  a  nation  the  franchise  of  the  Intellect  is  the  only  sure, 
mode  of  perpetuating  freedom.  This  will  compel  exertion  and 
generous  care  for  the  people  from  those  on  the  higher  seats,  and 
honorable  and  intelligent  allegiance  from  those  below.  Then  politi- 
cal public  life  will  protect  all  men  from  self-abasement  in  sensual 
pursuits,  from  vulgar  acts  and  low  greed,  by  giving  the  noble  am- 
bition of  just  imperial  rule.  To  elevate  the  people  by  teaching 
loving-kindness  and  wisdom,  with  power  to  him  who  teaches  best ; 
and  so  to  develop  the  free  State  from  the  rough  ashlar; — this 


is  the  great  labor  in  which  Masonry  desires  to  lend  a  helping 

All  of  us  should  labor  in  building  up  the  great  monument  of  a 
nation,  the  Holy  House  of  the  Temple.  The  cardinal  virtues 
must  not  be  partitioned  among  men,  becoming  the  exclusive  prop- 
erty of  some,  like  the  common  crafts.  ALL  are  apprenticed  to 
the  partners,  Duty  and  Honor. 

Masonry  is  a  march  and  a  struggle  toward  the  Light.  For  the 
individual  as  well  as  the  nation,  Light  is  Virtue,  Manliness,  Intel- 
ligence, Liberty.  Tyranny  over  the  soul  or  body,  is  darkness. 
The  freest  people,  like  the  freest  man,  is  always  in  danger  of  re- 
lapsing into  servitude.  Wars  are  almost  always  fatal  to  Republics. 
They  create  tyrants,  and  consolidate  their  power.  They  spring,  for 
the  most  part,  from  evil  counsels.  When  the  small  and  the  base  are 
intrusted  with  power,  legislation  and  administration  become  but 
two  parallel  series  of  errors  and  blunders,  ending  in  war,  calam- 
ity, and  the  necessity  for  a  tyrant.  When  the  nation  feels  its  feet 
sliding  backward,  as  if  it  walked  on  the  ice,  the  time  has  come  for 
a  supreme  effort.  The  magnificent  tyrants  of  the  past  are  but  the 
types  of  those  of  the  future.  Men  and  nations  will  always  sell  them- 
selves into  slavery,  to  gratify  their  passions  and  obtain  revenge. 
The  tyrant's  plea,  necessity,  is  always  available;  and  the  tyrant 
once  in  power,  the  necessity  of  providing  for  his  safety  makes  him 
savage.  Religion  is  a  power,  and  he  must  control  that.  Inde- 
pendent, its  sanctuaries  might  rebel.  Then  it  becomes  unlawful 
for  the  people  to  worship  God  in  their  own  way,  and  the  old  spir- 
itual despotisms  revive.  Men  must  believe  as  Power  wills,  or  die ; 
and  even  if  they  may  believe  as  they  will,  all  they  have,  lands, 
houses,  body,  and  soul,  are  stamped  with  the  royal  brand.  "I  am 
the  State,"  said  Louis  the  Fourteenth  to  his  peasants;  "the  very 
shirts  on  your  backs  are  mine,  and  I  can  take  them  if  I  will." 

And  dynasties  so  established  endure,  like  that  of  the  Caesars  of 
Rome,  of  the  Caesars  of  Constantinople,  of  the  Caliphs,  the  Stu- 
arts, the  Spaniards,  the  Goths,  the  Valois,  until  the  race  wears  out, 
and  ends  with  lunatics  and  idiots,  who  still  rule.  There  is  no 
ccricord  among  men,  to  end  the  horrible  bondage.  The  State 
fafls  inwardly,  as  well  as  by  the  outward  blows  of  the  incoherent 
elements.  The  furious  human  passions,  the  sleeping  "human  indo- 
'ence,  the  stolid  human  ignorance,  the  rivalry  of  human  castes,  are 
£  good  for  the  kings  as  the  swords  of  the  Paladins.  The  worship- 


pers  have  all  bowed  so  long  to  the  old  idol,  that  they  cannot  go 
into  the  streets  and  choose  another  Grand  Llama.  And  so  the 
effete  State  floats  on  down  the  puddled  stream  of  Time,  until  the 
tempest  or  the  tidal  sea  discovers  that  the  worm  has  consumed  its 

strength,  and  it  crumbles  into  oblivion. 


Civil  and  religious  Freedom  must  go  hand  in  hand ;  and  Perse- 
cution matures  them  both.  A  people  content  with  the  thoughts 
made  for  them  by  the  priests  of  a  church  will  be  content  with 
Royalty  by  Divine  Right, — the  Church  and  the  Throne  mutually 
sustaining  each  other.  They  will  smother  schism  and  reap  infi- 
delity and  indifference ;  and  while  the  battle  for  freedom  goes  on 
around  them,  they  will  only  sink  the  more  apathetically  into  servi- 
tude and  a  deep  trance,  perhaps  occasionally  interrupted  by  furious 
fits  of  frenzy,  followed  by  helpless  exhaustion. 

Despotism  is  not  difficult  in  any  land  that  has  only  known  one 
master  from  its  childhood;  but  there  is  no  harder  problem  than 
to  perfect  and  perpetuate  free  government  by  the  people  them- 
selves ;  for  it  is  not  one  king  that  is  needed :  all  must  be  kings.  It 
is  easy  to  set  up  Masaniello,  that  in  a  few  days  he  may  fall  lower 
than  before.  But  free  government  grows  slowly,  like  the  individual 
human  faculties ;  and  like  the  forest-trees,  from  the  inner  heart 
outward.  Liberty  is  not  only  the  common  birth-right,  but  it  is 
lost  as  well  by  non-user  as  by  mis-user.  It  depends  far  more  on 
the  universal  effort  than  any  other  human  property.  It  has  no 
single  shrine  or  holy  well  of  pilgrimage  for  the  nation;  for  its 
waters  should  burst  out  freely  from  the  whole  soil. 

The  free  popular  power  is  one  that  is  only  known  in  its  strength 
in  the  hour  of  adversity :  for  all  its  trials,  sacrifices  and  expecta- 
tions are  its  own.  It  is  trained  to  think  for  itself,  and  also  to  act 
for  itself.  When  the  enslaved  people  prostrate  themselves  in  the 
dust  before  the  hurricane,  like  the  alarmed  beasts  of  the  field,  the 
free  people  stand  erect  before  it,  in  all  the  strength  of  unity,  in 
self-reliance,  in  mutual  reliance,  with  effrontery  against  all  but 
the  visible  hand  of  God.  It  is  neither  cast  down  by  calamity  nor 
elated  by  success. 

This  vast  power  of  endurance,  of  forbearance,  of  patience,  and 
of  performance,  is  only  acquired  by  continual  exercise  of  all  the 
functions,  like  the  healthful  physical  human  vigor,  like  the  indi- 
vidual moral  vigor. 


And  the  maxim  is  no  less  true  than  old,  that  eternal  vigilance  is 
the  price  of  liberty.  It  is  curious  to  observe  the  universal  pretext 
by  which  the  tyrants  of  all  times  take  away  the  national  liberties. 
It  is  stated  in  the  statutes  of  Edward  II.,  that  the  justices  and  the 
sheriff  should  no  longer  be  elected  by  the  people,  on  account  of  the 
riots  and  dissensions  which  had  arisen.  The  same  reason  was  given 
long  before  for  the  suppression  of  popular  election  of  the  bishops ; 
and  there  is  a  witness  to  this  untruth  in  the  yet  older  times,  when 
Rome  lost  her  freedom,  and  her  indignant  citizens  declared  that 

tumultuous  liberty  is  better  than  disgraceful  tranquillity. 

*  *  *  *  *  * 

With  the  Compasses  and  Scale,  we  can  trace  all  the  figures  used 
in  the  mathematics  of  planes,  or  in  what  are  called  GEOMETRY 
and  TRIGONOMETRY,  two  words  that  are  themselves  deficient 
in  meaning.  GEOMETRY,  which  the  letter  G.  in  most  Lodges  is 
said  to  signify,  means  measurement  of  land  or  the  earth — or  Sur- 
veying; and  TRIGONOMETRY,  the  measurement  of  triangles,  or 
figures  with  three  sides  or  angles.  The  latter  is  by  far  the  most 
appropriate  name  for  the  science  intended  to  be  expressed  by  the 
word  "Geometry."  Neither  is  of  a  meaning  sufficiently  wide : 
for  although  the  vast  surveys  of  great  spaces  of  the  earth's  sur- 
face, and  of  coasts,  by  which  shipwreck  and  calamity  to  mariners 
are  avoided,  are  effected  by  means  of  triangulation ; — though  it 
was  by  the  same  method  that  the  French  astronomers  measured  a 
degree  of  latitude  and  so  established  a  scale  of  measures  on  an 
immutable  basis ;  though  it  is  by  means  of  the  immense  triangle 
that  has  for  its  base  a  line  drawn  in  imagination  between  the  place 
of  the  earth  now  and  its  place  six  months  hence  in  space,  and  for 
its  apex  a  planet  or  star,  that  the  distance  of  Jupiter  or  Sirius  from 
the  earth  is  ascertained ;  and  though  there  is  a  triangle  still  more 
vast,  its  base  extending  either  way  from  us,  with  and  past  the 
horizon  into  immensity,  and  its  apex  infinitely  distant  above  us ; 
to  which  corresponds  a  similar  infinite  triangle  below — what  is 
above  equalling  tvhat  is  below,  immensity  equalling  immensity; — 
yet  the  Science  of  Numbers,  to  which  Pythagoras  attached  so  much 
importance,  and  whose  mysteries  are  found  everywhere  in  the 
ancient  religions,  and  most  of  all  in  the  Kabalah  arid  in  the  Bible,  is 
not  sufficiently  expressed  by  either  the  word  "  Geometry"  or  the 
word  "Trigonometry."  For  that  science  includes  these,  with  Arith- 
metic, and  also  with  Algebra,  Logarithms,  the  Integral  and  Differ- 


ential  Calculus;  and  by  means  of  it  are  worked  out  the  great 

problems  of  Astronomy  or  the  Laws  of  the  Stars. 

*  *  *  *  *  * 

Virtue  is  but  heroic  bravery,  to  do  the  thing  thought  to  be  true, 
in  spite  of  all  enemies  of  flesh  or  spirit,  in  despite  of  all  tempta- 
tions or  menaces.  Man  is  accountable  for  the  w/rightness  of  his 
doctrine,  but  not  for  the  Tightness  of  it.  Devout  enthusiasm  is 
far  easier  than  a  good  action.  The  end  of  thought  is  action ;  the 
sole  purpose  oi  Religion  is  an  Ethic.  Theory,  in  political  science, 
is  worthless,  except  for  the  purpose  of  being  realized  in  practice. 

In  every  credo,  religious  or  political  as  in  the  soul  of  man,  there 
are  two  regions,  the  Dialectic  and  the  Ethic ;  and  it  is  only  when 
the  two  are  harmoniously  blended,  that  a  perfect  discipline  is 
evolved.  There  are  men  who  dialectically  are  Christians,  as  there 
are  a  multitude  who  dialectically  are  Masons,  and  yet  who  are 
ethically  Infidels,  as  these  are  ethically  of  the  Profane,  in  the 
strictest  sense: — intellectual  believers,  but  practical  atheists: — 
men  who  will  write  you  "Evidences,"  in  perfect  faith  in  their  logic, 
but  cannot  carry  out  the  Christian  or  Masonic  doctrine,  owing  to 
the  strength,  or  weakness,  of  the  flesh.  On  the  other  hand,  there 
are  many  dialectical  skeptics,  but  ethical  believers,  as  there  are 
many  Masons  who  have  never  undergone  initiation ;  and  as  ethics 
are  the  end  and  purpose  of  religion,  so  are  ethical  believers  the 
most  worthy.  He  who  does  right  is  better  than  he  whr  thinks  right. 

But  you  must  not  act  upon  the  hypothesis  that  all  men  are 
hypocrites,  whose  conduct  does  not  square  with  their  sentiments. 
No  vice  is  more  rare,  for  no  task  is  more  difficult,  than  systematic 
hypocrisy.  When  the  Demagogue  becomes  a  Usurper  it  does  not 
follow  that  he  was  all  the  time  a  hypocrite.  Shallow  men  only  so 
judge  of  others. 

The  truth  is,  that  creed  has,  in  general,  very  little  influence  on 
the  conduct ;  in  religion,  on  that  of  the  individual ;  in  politics,  on 
that  of  party.  As  a  general  thing,  the  Mahometan,  in  the  Orient, 
is  far  more  honest  and  trustworthy  than  the  Christian.  A  Gospel 
of  Love  in  the  mouth,  is  an  Avatar  of  Persecution  in  the  heart. 
Men  who  believe  in  eternal  damnation  and  a  literal  sea  of  fire  and 
brimstone,  incur  the  certainty  of  it,  according  to  their  creed,  on 
the  slightest  temptation  of  appetite  or  passion.  Predestination 
insists  on  the  necessity  of  good  works.  In  Masonry,  at  the  least 
flow  of  passion,  one  speaks  ill  of  another  behind  his  back ;  and  so 


far  from  the  "Brotherhood"  of  Blue  Masonry  being  real,  and  the 
solemn  pledges  contained  in  the  use  of  the  word  "Brother"  being 
complied  with,  extraordinary  pains  are  taken  to  show  that  Masonry 
is  a  sort  of  abstraction,  which  scorns  to  interfere  in  worldly  mat- 
ters. The  rule  may  be  regarded  as  universal,  that,  where  there  is 
a  choice  to  be  made,  a  Mason  will  give  his  vote  and  influence,  in 
politics  and  business,  to  the  less  qualified  profane  in  preference  to 
the  better  qualified  Mason.  One  will  take  an  oath  to  oppose  any 
unlawful  usurpation  of  power,  and  then  become  the  ready  and  even 
eager  instrument  of  a  usurper.  Another  will  call  one  "Brother," 
and  then  play  toward  him  the  part  of  Judas  Iscariot,  or  strike 
him,  as  Joab  did  Abner,  under  the  fifth  rib,  with  a  lie  whose  au- 
thorship is  not  to  be  traced.  Masonry  does  not  change  human 
nature,  and  cannot  make  honest  men  out  of  born  knaves. 

While  you  are  still  engaged  in  preparation,  and  in  accumulating 
principles  for  future  use,  do  not  forget  the  words  of  the  Apostle 
James :  "For  if  any  be  a  hearer  of  the  word,  and  not  a  doer,  he  is 
like  unto  a  man  beholding  his  natural  face  in  a  glass,  for  he  be- 
holdeth  himself,  and  goeth  away,  and  straightway  forgetteth  what 
manner  of  man  he  was ;  but  whoso  looketh  into  the  perfect  law  of 
liberty,  and  continueth,  he  being  not  a  forgetful  hearer,  but  a  doer 
of  the  work,  this  man  shall  be  blessed  in  his  work.  If  any  man 
among  you  seem  to  be  religious,  and  bridleth  not  his  tongue,  but 
deceiveth  his  own  heart,  this  man's  religion  is  vain.  .  .  .  Faith,  if 
it  hath  not  works,  is  dead,  being  an  abstraction.  A  man  is  justi- 
fied by  works,  and  not  by  faith  only.  .  .  .  The  devils  believe, — and 
tremble.  ...  As  the  body  without  the  heart  is  dead,  so  is  faith 

without  works." 


In  political  science,  also,  free  governments  are  erected  and  free 
constitutions  framed,  upon  some  simple  and  intelligible  theory. 
Upon  whatever  theory  they  are  based,  no  sound  conclusion  is  to 
be  reached  except  by  carrying  the  theory  out  without  flinching, 
both  in  argument  oh  constitutional  questions  and  in  practice. 
Shrink  from  the  true  theory  through  timidity,  or  wander  from  it 
through  want  of  the  logical  faculty,  or  transgress  against  it 
through  passion  or  on  the  plea  of  necessity  or  expediency,  and  you 
have  denial  or  invasion  of  rights,  laws  that  offend  against  first 
principles,  usurpation  of  illegal  powers,  or  abnegation  and  abdica- 
tion of  legitimate  authority. 


Do  not  forget,  either,  that  as  the  showy,  superficial,  impudent 
and  self-conceited  will  almost  always  be  preferred,  even  in  utmost 
stress  of  danger  and  calamity  of  the  State,  to  the  man  of  solid 
learning,  large  intellect,  and  catholic  sympathies,  because  he  is 
nearer  the  common  popular  and  legislative  level,  so  the  highest 
truth  is  not  acceptable  to  the  mass  of  mankind. 

When  SOLON  was  asked  if  he  had  given  his  countrymen  the  best 
laws,  he  answered,  "The  best  they  are  capable  of  receiving."  This 
is  one  of  the  profoundest  utterances  on  record;  and  yet  like  all 
great  truths,  so  simple  as  to  be  rarely  comprehended.  It  contains 
the  whole  philosophy  of  History.  It  utters  a -truth  which,  had  it 
been  recognized,  would  have  saved  men  an  immensity  of  vain,  idle 
disputes,  and  have  led  them  into  the  clearer  paths  of  knowledge  in 
the  Past.  It  means  this, — that  all  truths  are  Truths  of  Period, 
and  not  truths  for  eternity;  that  whatever  great  fact  has  had 
strength  and  vitality  enough  to  make  itself  real,  whether  of  re- 
ligion, morals,  government,  or  of  whatever  else,  and  to  find  place 
in  this  world,  has  been  a  truth  for  the  time,  and  as  good  as  men 
were  capable  of  receiving. 

So,  too,  with  great  men.  The  intellect  and  capacity  of  a  people 
has  a  single  measure, — that  of  the  great  men  whom  Providence 
gives  it,  and  whom  it  receives.  There  have  always  been  men  too 
great  for  their  time  or  their  people.  Every  people  makes  such  men 
only  its  idols,  as  it  is  capable  of  comprehending. 

To  impose  ideal  truth  or  law  upon  an  incapable  and  merely  real 
man,  must  ever  be  a  vain  and  empty  speculation.  The  laws  of 
sympathy  govern  in  this  as  they  do  in  regard  to  men  who  are  put 
at  the  head.  We  do  not  know,  as  yet,  what  qualifications  the  sheep 
insist  on  in  a  leader.  With  men  who  are  too  high  intellectually, 
the  mass  have  as  little  sympathy  as  they  have  ,with  the  stars.  When 
BURKE,  the  wisest  statesman  England  ever  had,  rose  to  speak,  the 
House  of  Commons  was  depopulated  as  upon  an  agreed  signal. 
There  is  as  little  sympathy  between  the  mass  and  the  highest 
TRUTHS.  The  highest  truth,  being  incomprehensible  to  the  man  of 
realities,  as  the  highest  man  is,  and  largely  above  his  level,  will  be 
a  great  unreality  and  falsehood  to  an  unintellectual  man.  The  pro- 
foundest doctrines  of  Christianity  and  Philosophy  would  be  mere 
jargon  and  babble  to  a  Potawatomie  Indian.  The  popular  expla- 
nations of  the  symbols  of  Masonry  are  fitting  for  the  multitude 
that  have  swarmed  into  the  Temples, — being  fully  up  to  the  level 


of  their  capacity.  Catholicism  was  a  vital  truth  in  its  earliest  ages, 
but  it  became  obsolete,  and  Protestantism  arose,  flourished,  and 
deteriorated.  The  doctrines  of  ZOROASTER  were  the  best  which 
the  ancient  Persians  were  fitted  to  receive;  those  of  CONFUCIUS 
were  fitted  for  the  Chinese ;  those  of  MOHAMMED  for  the  idolatrous 
Arabs  of  his  age.  Each  was  Truth  for  the  time.  Each  was  a 
GOSPEL,  preached  by  a  REFORMER;  and  if  any  men  are  so  little 
fortunate  as  to  remain  content  therewith,  when  others  have  at- 
tained a  higher  truth,  it  is  their  misfortune  and  not  their  fault. 
They  are  to  be  pitied  for  it,  and  not  persecuted. 

Do  not  expect  easily  to  convince  men  of  the  truth,  or  to  lead 
them  to  think  aright.  The  subtle  human  intellect  can  weave  its 
mists  over  even  the  clearest  vision.  Remember  that  it  is  eccentric 
enough  to  ask  unanimity  from  a  jury;  but  to  ask  it  from  any 
large  number  of  men  on  any  point  of  political  faith  is  amazing. 
You  can  hardly  get  two  men  in  any  Congress  or  Convention  to 
agree ; — nay,  you  can  rarely  get  one  to  agree  with  himself.  The 
political  church  which  chances  to  be,  supreme  anywhere  has  an 
indefinite  number  of  tongues.  How  then  can  we  expect  men  to 
agree  as  to  matters  beyond  the  cognizance  of  the  senses?  How 
can  we  compass  the  Infinite  and  the  Invisible  with  any  chain  of 
evidence?  Ask  the  small  sea-waves  what  they  murmur  among 
the  pebbles !  How  many  of  those  words  that  come  from  the  invis- 
ible shore  are  lost,  like  the  birds,  in  the  long  passage  ?  How  vainly 
do  we  strain  the  eyes  across  the  long  Infinite !  We  must  be  con- 
tent, as  the  children  are,  with  the  pebbles  that  have  been  stranded, 
since  it  is  forbidden  us  to  explore  the  hidden  depths. 

The  Fellow-Craft  is  especially  taught  by  this  not  to  become 
wise  in  his  own  conceit.  Pride  in  unsound  theories  is  worse  than 
ignorance.  Humility  becomes  a  Mason.  Take  some  quiet,  sober 
moment  of  life,  and  add  together  the  two  ideas  of  Pride  and  Man ; 
behold  him,  creature  of  a  span,  stalking  through  infinite  space  in 
all  the  grandeur  of  littleness !  Perched  on  a  speck  of  the  Universe, 
every  wind  of  Heaven  strikes  into  his  blood  the  coldness  of  death ; 
his  soul  floats  away  from  his  body  like  the  melody  from  the  string. 
Day  and  night,  like  dust  on  the  wheel,  he  is  rolled  ajpng  the  heav- 
ens, through  a  labyrinth  of  worlds,  and  all  the  creations  of  God  are 
flaming  on  every  side,  further  than  even  his  imagination  can  reach. 
Is  this  a  creature  to  make  for  himself  a  crown  of  glory,  to  deny  his 
own  flesh,  to  mock  at  his  fellow,  sprung  with  him  from  that  dust 


to  which  both  will  soon  return?  Does  the  proud  man  not  err? 
Does  he  not  suffer?  Does  he  not  die?  When  he  reasons,  is  he 
never  stopped  short  by  difficulties  ?  When  he  acts,  does  he  never 
succumb  to  the  temptations  of  pleasure  ?  When  he  lives,  is  he  free 
from  pain  ?  Do  the  diseases  not  claim  him  as  their  prey  ?  When 
he  dies,  can  he  escape  the  common  grave?  Pride  is  not  the  heri- 
tage of  man.  Humility  should  dwell  with  frailty,  and  atone  for 
ignorance,  error,  and  imperfection. 

Neither  should  the  Mason  be  over-anxious  for  office  and  honor, 
however  certainly  he  may  feel  that  he  has  the  capacity  to  serve  the 
State.  He  should  neither  seek  nor  spurn  honors.  It  is  good  to 
enjoy  the  blessings  of  fortune ;  it  is  better  to  submit  without  a 
pang  to  their  loss.  The  greatest  deeds  are  not  done  in  the  glare  of 
light,  and  before  the  eyes  of  the  populace.  He  whom  God  has 
gifted  with  a  love  of  retirement  possesses,  as  it  were,  an  additional 
sense ;  and  among  the  vast  and  noble  scenes  of  nature,  we  find  the 
balm  for  the  wounds  we  have  received  among  the  pitiful  shifts  of 
policy;  for  the  attachment  to  solitude  is  the  surest  preservative 
from  the  ills  of  life. 

But  Resignation  is  the  more  noble  in  proportion  as  it  is  the  less 
passive.  Retirement  is  only  a  morbid  selfishness,  if  it  prohibit 
exertions  for  others ;  as  it  is  only  dignified  and  noble,  when  it  is 
the  shade  whence  the  oracles  issue  that  are  to  instruct  mankind ; 
and  retirement  of  this  nature  is  the  sole  seclusion  which  a  good 
and  wise  man  will  covet  or  commend.  The  very  philosophy  which 
makes  such  a  man  covet  the  quiet,  will  make  him  eschew  the  inu- 
tility  of  the  hermitage.  Very  little  praiseworthy  would  LORD 
BOLINGBROKE  have  seemed  among  his  haymakers  and  ploughmen, 
if  among  haymakers  and  ploughmen  he  had  looked  with  an  indif- 
ferent eye  upon  a  profligate  minister  and  a  venal  Parliament. 
Very  little  interest  would  have  attached  to  his  beans  and  vetches, 
if  beans  and  vetches  had  caused  him  to  forget  that  if  he  was  hap- 
pier on  a  farm  he  could  be  more  useful  in  a  Senate,  and  made  him 
forego,  in  the  sphere  of  a  bailiff,  all  care  for  re-entering  that  of  a 

Remember,  also,  that  there  is  an  education  which  quickens  the 
Intellect,  and  leaves  the  heart  hollower  or  harder  than  before. 
There  are  ethical  lessons  in  the  laws  of  the  heavenly  bodies,  in  the 
properties  of  earthly  elements,  in  geography,  chemistry,  geology, 
and  all  the  material  sciences.  Things  are  symbols  of  Truths. 

4<>  MORALS    AND   DOGMA. 

Properties  are  symbols  of  Truths.  Science,  not  teaching  moral 
and  spiritual  truths,  is  dead  and  dry,  of  little  more  real  value  than 
to  commit  to  the  memory  a  long  row  of  unconnected  dates,  or  of 
the  names  of  bugs  or  butterflies. 

Christianity,  it  is  said,  begins  from  the  burning  of  the  false  gods 
by  the  people  themselves.  Education  begins  with  the  burning  of 
our  intellectual  and  moral  idols:  our  prejudices,  notions,  conceits, 
our  worthless  or  ignoble  purposes.  Especially  it  is  necessary  to 
shake  off  the  love  of  worldly  gain.  With  Freedom  comes  the 
longing  for  worldly  advancement.  In  that  race  men  are  ever  fall- 
ing, rising,  running,  and  falling  again.  The  lust  for  wealth  and 
the  abject  dread  of  poverty  delve  the  furrows  on  many  a  noble 
brow.  The  gambler  grows  old  as  he  watches  the  chances.  Lawful 
hazard  drives  Youth  away  before  its  time ;  and  this  Youth  draws 
heavy  bills  of  exchange  on  Age.  Men  live,  like  the  engines,  at 
high  pressure,  a  hundred  years  in  a  hundred  months ;  the  ledger 
becomes  the  Bible,  and  the  day-book  the  Book  of  the  Morning 

Hence  flow  overreachings  and  sharp  practice,  heartless  traffic  in 
which  the  capitalist  buys  profit  with  the  lives  of  the  laborers, 
speculations  that  coin  a  nation's  agonies  into  wealth,  and  all  the 
other  devilish  enginery  of  Mammon.  This,  and  greed  for  office, 
are  the  two  columns  at  the  entrance  to  the  Temple  of  Moloch.  It 
is  doubtful  whether  the  latter,  blossoming  in  falsehood,  trickery, 
and  fraud,  is  not  even  more  pernicious  than  the  former.  At  all 
events  they  are  twins,  and  fitly  mated ;  and  as  either  gains  control 
of  the  unfortunate  subject,  his  soul  withers  away  and  decays,  and 
at  last  dies  out.  The  souls  of  half  the  human  race  leave  them 
long  before  they  die.  The  two  greeds  are  twin  plagues  of  the  lep- 
rosy, and  make  the  man  unclean ;  and  whenever  they  break  out 
they  spread  until  "they  cover  all  the  skin  of  him  that  hath  the 
plague,  from  his  head  even  to  his  foot."  Even  the  raw  flesh  of  the 

heart  becomes  unclean  with  it. 

*  *  *  *  *  * 

Alexander  of  Macedon  has  left  a  saying  behind  him  which  has 
survived  his  conquests:  "Nothing  is  nobler  than. work."  Work 
only  can  keep  even  kings  respectable.  And  when  a  king  is  a  king 
indeed,  it  is  an  honorable  office  to  give  tone  to  the  manners  and 
morals  of  a  nation ;  to  set  the  example  of  virtuous  conduct,  and 
restore  in  spirit  the  old  schools  of  chivalry,  in  which  the  young 


manhood  may  be  nurtured  to  real  greatness.  Work  and  wages 
will  go  together  in  men's  minds,  in  the  most  royal  institutions. 
We  must  ever  come  to  the  idea  of  real  work.  The  rest  that  fol- 
lows labor  should  be  sweeter  than  the  rest  which  follows  rest. 

Let  no  Fellow-Craft  imagine  that  the  work  of  the  lowly  and 
uninfluential  is  not  worth  the  doing.  There  is  no  legal  limit  to 
the  possible  influences  of  a  good  deed  or  a  wise  word  or  a  generous 
effort.  Nothing  is  really  small.  Whoever  is  open  to  the  deep  pen- 
etration of  nature  knows  this.  Although,  indeed,  no  absolute 
satisfaction  may  be  vouchsafed  to  philosophy,  any  more  in  circum- 
scribing the  cause  than  in  limiting  the  effect,  the  man  of.  thought 
and  contemplation  falls  into  unfathomable  ecstacies  in  view  of  all 
the  decompositions  of  forces  resulting  in  unity.  All  works  for  all. 
Destruction  is  not  annihilation,  but  regeneration. 

Algebra  applies  to  the  clouds ;  the  radiance  of  the  star  benefits 
the  rose;  no  thinker  would  dare  to  say  that  the  perfume  of  the 
hawthorn  is  useless  to  the  constellations.  Who,  then,  can  calcu- 
late the  path  of  the  molecule?  How  do  we  know  that  the  crea- 
tions of  worlds  are  not  determined  by  the  fall  of  grains  of  sand? 
Who,  then,  understands  the  reciprocal  flow  and  ebb  of  the  infi- 
nitely great  and  the  infinitely  small ;  the  echoing  of  causes  in  the 
abysses  of  beginning,  and  the  avalanches  of  creation?  A  flesh- 
worm  is  of  account ;  the  small  is  great ;  the  great  is  small ;  all  is 
in  equilibrium  in  necessity.  There  are  marvellous  relations  be- 
tween beings  and  things;  in  this  inexhaustible  Whole,  from  sun 
to  grub,  there  is  no  scorn:  all  need  each  other.  Light  does  not 
carry  terrestrial  perfumes  into  the  azure  depths,  without  knowing 
what  it  does  with  them ;  night  distributes  the  stellar  essence  to  the 
sleeping  plants.  Every  bird  which  flies  has  the  thread  of  the 
Infinite  in  its  claw.  Germination  includes  the  hatching  of  a  meteor, 
and  the  tap  of  a  swallow's  bill,  breaking  the  egg ;  and  it  leads  for- 
ward the  birth  of  an  earth-worm  and  the  advent  of  a  Socrates. 
Where  the  telescope  ends  the  microscope  begins.  Which  of  them 
the  grander  view?  A  bit  of  mould  is  a  Pleiad  of  flowers — a 
nebula  is  an  ant-hill  of  stars. 

There  is  the  same  and  a  still  more  wonderful  interpenetration 
between  the  things  of  the  intellect  and  the  things  of  matter.  Ele- 
ments and  principles  are  mingled,  combined,  espoused,  multiplied 
one  by  another,  to  such  a  degree  as  to  bring  the  material  world  and 
the  moral  world  into  the  same  light.  Phenomena  are  perpetually 


folded  back  upon  themselves.  In  the  vast  cosmical  changes  the 
universal  life  comes  and  goes  in  unknown  quantities,  enveloping 
all  in  the  invisible  mystery  of  the  emanations,  losing  no  dream 
from  no  single  sleep,  sowing  an  animalcule  here,  crumbling  a  star 
there,  oscillating,  and  winding  in  curves ;  making  a  force  of  Light, 
and  an  element  of  Thought;  disseminated  and  indivisible,  dis- 
solving all  save  that  point  without  length,  breadth,  or  thickness, 
The  MYSELF;  reducing  everything  to  the  Soul-atom;  making 
everything  blossom  into  God;  entangling  all  activities,  from  the 
highest  to  the  lowest,  in  the  obscurity  of  a  dizzying  mechanism; 
hanging  the  flight  of  an  insect  upon  the  movement  of  the  earth ; 
subordinating,  perhaps,  if  only  by  the  identity  of  the  law,  the 
eccentric  evolutions  of  the  comet  in  the  firmament,  to  the  whirl- 
ings of  the  infusoria  in  the  drop  of  water.  A  mechanism  made  of 
mind,  the  first  motor  of  which  is  the  gnat,  and  its  last  wheel  the 

A  peasant-boy,  guiding  Bliicher  by  the  right  one  of  two  roads,  the 
other  being  impassable  for  artillery,  enables  him  to  reach  Waterloo 
in  time  to  save  Wellington  from  a  defeat  that  would  have  been  a 
rout ;  and  so  enables  the  kings  to  imprison  Napoleon  on  a  barren 
rock  in  mid-ocean.  An  unfaithful  smith,  by  the  slovenly  shoeing  of 
a  horse,  causes  his  lameness,  and,  he  stumbling,  the  career  of  his 
world-conquering  rider  ends,  and  the  destinies  of  empires  are 
changed.  A  generous  officer  permits  an  imprisoned  monarch  to 
end  his  game  of  chess  before  leading  him  to  the  block ;  and  mean- 
while the  usurper  dies,  and  the  prisoner  reascends  the  throne. 
An  unskillful  workman  repairs  the  compass,  or  malice  or  stupidity 
disarranges  it,  the  ship  mistakes  her  course,  the  waves  swallow  a 
Caesar,  and  a  new  chapter  is  written  in  the  history  of  a  world. 
What  we  call  accident  is  but  the  adamantine  chain  of  indissoluble 
connection  between  all  created  things.  The  locust,  hatched  in  the 
Arabian  sands,  the  small  worm  that  destroys  the  cotton-boll,  one 
making  famine  in  the  Orient,  the  other  closing  the  mills  and  starv- 
ing the  workmen  and  their  children  in  the  Occident,  with  riots  and 
massacres,  are  as  much  the  ministers  of  God  as  the  earthquake ; 
and  the  fate  of  nations  depends  more  on  them  than  on  the  intel- 
lect of  its  kings  and  legislators.  A  civil  war  in  America  will  end 
in  shaking  the  world ;  and  that  war  may  be  caused  by  the  vote  of 
some  ignorant  prize-fighter  or  crazed  fanatic  in  a  city  or  in  a  Con- 
gress, or  of  some  stupid  boor  in  an  obscure  country  parish.  The 


electricity  of  universal  sympathy,  of  action  and  reaction,  pervades 
everything,  the  planets  and  the  motes  in  the  sunbeam.  FAUST, 
with  his  types,  or  LUTHER,  with  his  sermons,  worked  greater  re- 
sults than  Alexander  or  Hannibal.  A  single  thought  sometimes 
suffices  to  overturn  a  dynasty.  A  silly  song  did  more  to  unseat 
James  the  Second  than  the  acquittal  of  the  Bishops.  Voltaire, 
Condorcet,  and  Rousseau  uttered  words  that  will  ring,  in  change 
and  revolutions,  throughout  all  the  ages. 

Remember,  that  though  life  is  short,  Thought  and  the  influences 
of  what  we  do  or  say,  are  immortal ;  and  that  no  calculus  has  yet 
pretended  to  ascertain  the  law  of  proportion  between  cause  and 
effect.  The  hammer  of  an  English  blacksmith,  smiting  down  an 
insolent  official,  led  to  a  rebellion  which  came  near  being  a  revo- 
lution. The  word  well  spoken,  the  deed  fitly  done,  even  by  the 
feeblest  or  humblest,  cannot  help  but  have  their  effect.  More  or 
less,  the  effect  is  inevitable  and  eternal.  The  echoes  of  the  great- 
est deeds  may  die  away  like  the  echoes  of  a  cry  among  the  cliffs, 
and  what  has  been  done  seem  to  the  human  judgment  to  have 
been  without  result.  The  unconsidered  act  of  the  poorest  of 
men  may  fire  the  train  that  leads  to  the  subterranean  mine,  and 
an  empire  be  rent  by  the  explosion. 

The  power  of  a  free  people  is  often  at  the  disposal  of  a  single 
and  seemingly  an  unimportant  individual ; — a  terrible  and  truth- 
ful power ;  for  such  a  people  feel  with  one  heart,  and  therefore  can 
lift  up  their  myriad  arms  for  a  single  blow.  And,  again,  there  is 
no  graduated  scale  for  the  measurement  of  the  influences  of  differ- 
ent intellects  upon  the  popular  mind.  Peter  the  Hermit  held  no 

office,  yet  what  a  work  he  wrought ! 

*  *  *  *  *  * 

From  the  political  point  of  view  there  is  but  a  single  principle, — 
the  sovereignty  of  man  over  himself.  This  sovereignty  of  one's 
self  over  one's  self  is  called  LIBERTY.  Where  two  or  several  of 
these  sovereignties  associate,  the  State  begins.  But  in  this  associa- 
tion there  is  no  abdication.  Each  sovereignty  parts  with  a  certain 
portion  of  itself  to  form  the  common  right.  That  portion  is  the 
same  for  all.  There  is  equal  contribution  by  all  to  the  joint  sov- 
ereignty. This  identity  of  concession  which  each  makes  to  all,  is 
EQUALITY.  The  common  right  is  nothing  more  or  less  than  the 
protection  of  all,  pouring  its  rays  on  each.  This  protection  of 
each  by  all,  is  FRATERNITY. 


Liberty  is  the  summit,  Equality  the  base.  Equality  is  not  all 
vegetation  on  a  level,  a  society  of  big  spears  of  grass  and  stunted 
oaks,  a  neighborhood  of  jealousies,  emasculating  each  other.  It  is 
civilly,  all  aptitudes  having  equal  opportunity ;  politically,  all  votes 
having  equal  weight;  religiously,  all  consciences  having  equal 

Equality  has  an  organ ; — gratuitous  and  obligatory  instruction. 
We  must  begin  with  the  right  to  the  alphabet.  The  primary 
school  obligatory  upon  all ;  the  higher  school  offered  to  all.  Such 
is  the  law.  From  the  same  school  for  all  springs  equal  society. 
Instruction !  Light !  all  comes  from  Light,  and  all  returns  to  it. 

We  must  learn  the  thoughts  of  the  common  people,  if  we  would 
be  wise  and  do  any  good  work.  We  must  look  at  men,  not  so  much 
for  what  Fortune  has  given  to  them  with  her  blind  old  eyes,  as  for 
the  gifts  Nature  has  brought  in  her  lap,  and  for  the  use  that  has 
been  made  of  them.  We  profess  to  be  equal  in  a  Church  and  in 
the  Lodge:  we  shall  be  equal  in  the  sight  of  God  when  He  judges 
the  earth.  We  may  well  sit  on  the  pavement  together  here,  in  com- 
munion and  conference,  for  the  few  brief  moments  that  constitute 

A  Democratic  Government  undoubtedly  has  its  defects,  because 
it  is  made  and  administered  by  men,  and  not  by  the  Wise  Gods. 
It  cannot  be  concise  and  sharp,  like  the  despotic.  When  its  ire  is 
aroused  it  develops  its  latent  strength,  and  the  sturdiest  rebel  trem- 
bles. But  its  habitual  domestic  rule  is  tolerant,  patient,  and  inde- 
cisive. Men  are  brought  together,  first  to  differ,  and  then  to  agree. 
Affirmation,  negation,  discussion,  solution:  these  are  the  means 
of  attaining  truth.  Often  the  enemy  will  be  at  the  gates  before 
the  babble  of  the  disturbers  is  drowned  in  the  chorus  of  consent. 
In  the  Legislative  office  deliberation  will  often  defeat  decision. 
Liberty  can  play  the  fool  like  the  Tyrants. 

Refined  society  requires  greater  minuteness  of  regulation ;  and 
the  steps  of  all  advancing  States  are  more  and  more  to  be  picked 
among  the  old  rubbish  and  the  new  materials.  The  difficulty  lies 
in  discovering  the  right  path  through  the  chaos  of  confusion.  The 
adjustment  of  mutual  rights  and  wrongs  is  also  more  difficult  in 
democracies.  We  do  not  see  and  estimate  the  relative  importance 
of  objects  so  easily  and  clearly  from  the  level  or  the  Waving  land 
as  from  the  elevation  of  a  lone  peak,  towering  above  the  plain  ;  for 
each  looks  through  his  own  mist. 


Abject  dependence  on  constituents,  also,  is  too  common.  It  is 
as  miserable  a  thing  as  abject  dependence  on  a  minister  or  the 
favorite  of  a  Tyrant.  It  is  rare  to  find  a  man  who  can  speak  out 
the  simple  truth  that  is  in  him,  honestly  and  frankly,  without  fear, 
favor,  or  affection,  either  to  Emperor  or  People. 

Moreover,  in  assemblies  of  men,  faith  in  each  other  is  almost 
always  wanting,  unless  a  terrible  pressure  of  calamity  or  danger 
from  without  produces  cohesion.  Hence  the  constructive  power  of 
such  assemblies  is  generally  deficient.  The  chief  triumphs  of 
modern  days,  in  Europe,  have  been  in  pulling  down  and  obliterat- 
ing; not  in  building  up.  But  Repeal  is  not  Reform.  Time  must 
bring  with  him  the  Restorer  and  Rebuilder. 

Speech,  also,  is  grossly  abused  in  Republics;  and  if  the  use  of 
speech  be  glorious,  its  abuse  is  the  most  villainous  of  vices.  Rhet- 
oric, Plato  says,  is  the  art  of  ruling  the  minds  of  men.  But  in 
democracies  it  is  too  common  to  hide  thought  in  words,  to  overlay 
it,  to  babble  nonsense.  The  gleams  and  glitter  of  intellectual 
soap-and-water  bubbles  are  mistaken  for  the  rainbow-glories  of 
genius.  The  worthless  pyrites  is  continually  mistaken  for  gold. 
Even  intellect  condescends  to  intellectual  jugglery,  balancing 
thoughts  as  a  juggler  balances  pipes  on  his  chin.  In  all  Congresses 
we  have  the  inexhaustible  flow  of  babble,  and  Faction's  clamorous 
knavery  in  discussion,  until  the  divine  power  of  speech,  that  priv- 
ilege of  man  and  great  gift  of  God,  is  no  better  than  the  screech 
of  parrots  or  the  mimicry  of  monkeys.  The  mere  talker,  however 
fluent,  is  barren  of  deeds  in  the  day  of  trial. 

There  are  men  voluble  as  women,  and  as  well  skilled  in  fencing 
with  the  tongue :  prodigies  of  speech,  misers  in  deeds.  Too  much 
talking,  like  too  much  thinking,  destroys  the  power  of  action.  In 
human  nature,  the  thought  is  only  made  perfect  by  deed.  Silence 
is  the  mother  of  both.  The  trumpeter  is  not  the  bravest  of  the 
brave.  Steel  and  not  brass  wins  the  day.  The  great  doer  of  great 
deeds  is  mostly  slow  and  slovenly  of  speech.  There  are  some  men 
born  and  bred  to  betray.  Patriotism  is  their  trade,  and  their  cap- 
ital is  speech.  But  no  noble  spirit  can  plead  like  Paul  and  be  false 
to  itself  as  Judas. 

Imposture  too  commonly  rules  in  republics;  they  seem  to  be 
ever  in  their  minority;  their  guardians  are  self-appointed;  and 
the  unjust  thrive  better  than  the  just.  The  Despot,  like  the 
night-lion  roaring,  drowns  all  the  clamor  of  tongues  at  once,  and 


speech,  the  birthright  of  the  free  man,  becomes  the  bauble  of  the 

It  is  quite  true  that  republics  only  occasionally,  and  as  it  were 
accidentally,  select  their  wisest,  or  even  the  less  incapable  among 
the  incapables,  to  govern  them  and  legislate  for  them.  If  genius, 
armed  with  learning  and  knowledge,  will  grasp  the  reins,  the  people 
will  reverence  it ;  if  it  only  modestly  offers  itself  for  office,  it  will 
be  smitten  on  the  face,  even  when,  in  the  straits  of  distress  and 
the  agonies  of  calamity,  it  is  indispensable  to  the  salvation  of  the 
State.  Put  it  upon  the  track  with  the  showy  and  superficial,  the 
conceited,  the  ignorant,  and  impudent,  the  trickster  and  charlatan, 
and  the  result  shall  not  be  a  moment  doubtful.  The  verdicts  of 
Legislatures  and  the  People  are  like  the  verdicts  of  juries, — some- 
times right  by  accident. 

Offices,  it  is  true,  are  showered,  like  the  rains  of  Heaven,  upon 
the  just  and  the  unjust.  The  Roman  Augurs  that  used  to  laugh 
in  each  other's  faces  at  the  simplicity  of  the  vulgar,  were  also 
tickled  with  their  own  guile;  but  no  Augur  is  needed  to  lead  the 
people  astray.  They  readily  deceive  themselves.  Let  a  Republic 
begin  as  it  may,  it  will  not  be  out  of  its  minority  before  imbecility 
will  be  promoted  to  high  places;  and  shallow  pretence,  getting 
itself  puffed  into  notice,  will  invade  all  the  sanctuaries.  The  most 
unscrupulous  partisanship  will  prevail,  even  in  respect  to  judicial 
trusts ;  and  the  most  unjust  appointments  constantly  be  made, 
although  every  improper  promotion  not  merely  confers  one  unde- 
served favor,  but  may  make  a  hundred  honest  cheeks  smart  with 

The  country  is  stabbed  in  the  front  when  those  are  brought  into 
the  stalled  seats  who  should  slink  into  the  dim  gallery.  Every 
stamp  of  Honor,  ill-clutched,  is  stolen  from  the  Treasury  of 

Yet  the  entrance  into  the  public  service,  and  the  promotion  in 
it,  affect  both  the  rights  of  individuals  and  those  of  the  nation. 
Injustice  in  bestowing  or  withholding  office  ought  to  be  so  intoler- 
able in  democratic  communities  that  the  least  trace  of  it  should  be 
like  the  scent  of  Treason.  It  is  not  universally  true  that  all  citi- 
zens of  equal  character  have  an  equal  claim  to  knock  at  the  door 
of  every  public  office  and  demand  admittance.  When  any  man 
presents  himself  for  service  he  has  a  right  to  aspire  to  the  highest 
body  at  once,  if  he  can  show  his  fitness  for  such  a  beginning, — that 


he  is  fitter  than  the  rest  who  offer  themselves  for  the  same  post. 
The  entry  into  it  can  only  justly  be  made  through  the  door  of 
merit.  And  whenever  any  one  aspires  to  and  attains  such  high 
post,  especially  if  by  unfair  and  disreputable  and  indecent  means, 
and  is  afterward  found  to  be  a  signal  failure,  he  should  at  once  be 
beheaded.  He  is  the  worst  among  the  public  enemies. 

When  a  man  sufficiently  reveals  himself,  all  others  should  be 
proud  to  give  him  due  precedence.  When  the  power  of  promotion 
is  abused  in  the  grand  passages  of  life  whether  by  People,  Legis- 
lature, or  Executive,  the  unjust  decision  recoils  on  the  judge  at 
once.  That  is  not  only  a  gross,  but  a  willful  shortness  of  sight,  that 
cannot  discover  the  deserving.  If  one  will  look  hard,  long,  and 
honestly,  he  will  not  fail  to  discern  merit,  genius,  and  qualification ; 
and  the  eyes  and  voice  of  the  Press  and  Public  should  condemn 
and  denounce  injustice  wherever  she  rears  her  horrid  head. 

"The  tools  to  the  workmen!"  no  other  principle  will  save  a  Re- 
public from  destruction,  either  by  civil  war  or  the  dry-rot.  They 
tend  to  decay,  do  all  we  can  to  prevent  it,  like  human  bodies.  If 
they  try  the  experiment  of  governing  themselves  by  their  smallest, 
they  slide  downward  to  the  unavoidable  abyss  with  tenfold  ve- 
locity ;  and  there  never  has  been  a  Republic  that  has  not  followed 
that  fatal  course. 

But  however  palpable  and  gross  the  inherent  defects  of  demo- 
cratic governments,  and  fatal  as  the  results  finally  and  inevitably 
are,  we  need  only  glance  at  the  reigns  of  Tiberius,  Nero,  and  Ca- 
ligula, of  Heliogabalus  and  Caracalla,of  Domitian  and  Commodus, 
to  recognize  that  the  difference  between  freedom  and  despotism  is 
as  wide  as  that  between  Heaven  and  Hell.  The  cruelty,  baseness, 
and  insanity  of  tyrants  are  incredible.  Let  him  who  complains  of 
the  fickle  humors  and  inconstancy  of  a  free  people,  read  Pliny's 
character  of  Domitian.  If  the  great  man  in  a  Republic  cannot 
win  office  without  descending  to  low  arts  and  whining  beggary  and 
the  judicious  use  of  sneaking  lies,  let  him  remain  in  retirement, 
and  use  the  pen.  Tacitus  and  Juvenal  held  no  office.  Let  His- 
tory and  Satire  punish  the  pretender  as  they  crucify  the  despot. 
The  revenges  of  the  intellect  are  terrible  and  just. 

Let  Masonry  use  the  pen  and  the  printing-press  in  the  free 
State  against  the  Demagogue;  in  the  Despotism  against  the 
Tyrant.  History  offers  examples  and  encouragement.  All  history, 
for  four  thousand  years,  being  filled  with  violated  rights  and  the 


sufferings  of  the  people,  each  period  of  history  brings  with  it  such 
protest  as  is  possible  to  it.  Under  the  Caesars  there  was  no  insur- 
rection, but  there  was  a  Juvenal.  The  arousing  of  indigna- 
tion replaces  the  Gracchi.  Under  the  Caesars  there  is  the  exile  of 
Syene;  there  is  also  the  author  of  the  Annals.  As  the  Neros 
reign  darkly  they  should  be  pictured  so.  Work  with  the  graver 
only  would  be  pale ;  into  the  grooves  should  be  poured  a  concen- 
trated prose  that  bites. 

Despots  are  an  aid  to  thinkers.  Speech  enchained  is  speech  ter- 
rible. The  writer  doubles  and  triples  his  style,  when  silence  is 
imposed  by  a  master  upon  the  people.  There  springs  from  this 
silence  a  certain  mysterious  fullness,  which  filters  and  freezes  into 
brass  in  the  thoughts.  Compression  in  the  history  produces  con- 
ciseness in  the  historian.  The  granitic  solidity  of  some  celebrated 
prose  is  only  a  condensation  produced  by  the  Tyrant.  Tyranny 
constrains  the  writer  to  shortenings  of  diameter  which  are  in- 
creases of  strength.  The  Ciceronian  period,  hardly  sufficient  upon 
Verres,  would  lose  its  edge  upon  Caligula. 

The  Demagogue  is  the  predecessor  of  the  Despot.  One  springs 
from  the  other's  loins.  He  who  will  basely  fawn  on  those  who 
have  office  to  bestow,  will  betray  like  Iscariot,  and  prove  a  miser- 
able and  pitiable  failure.  Let  the  new  Junius  lash  such  men  as 
they  deserve,  and  History  make  them  immortal  in  infamy;  since 
their  influences  culminate  in  ruin.  The  Republic  that  employs 
and  honors  the  shallow,  the  superficial,  the  base, 

"who  crouch 
Unto  the  offal  of  an  office  promised," 

at  last  weeps  tears  of  blood  for  its  fatal  error.  Of  such  supreme 
folly,  the  sure  fruit  is  damnation.  Let  the  nobility  of  every  great 
heart,  condensed  into  justice  and  truth,  strike  such  creatures  like 
a  thunderbolt !  If  you  can  do  no  more,  you  can  at  least  condemn 
by  your  vote,  and  ostracise  by  denunciation. 

It  is  true  that,  as  the  Czars  are  absolute,  they  have  it  in  their 
power  to  select  the  best  for  the  public  service.  It  is  true  that  the 
beginner  of  a  dynasty  generally  does  so ;  and  that  when  monarch- 
ies are  in  their  prime,  pretence  and  shallowness  do  not  thrive  and 
prosper  and  get  power,  as  they  do  in  Republics.  All  do  not  gabble 
in  the  Parliament  of  a  Kingdom,  as  in  the  Congress  of  a  Democ- 
racy. The  incapables  do  not  go  undetected  there,  all  their  lives. 


But  dynasties  speedily  decay  and  run  out.  At  last  they  dwindle 
down  into  imbecility;  and  the  dull  or  flippant  Members  of  Con- 
gresses are  at  least  the  intellectual  peers  of  the  vast  majority  of 
kings.  The  great  man,  the  Julius  Caesar,  the  Charlemagne,  Crom- 
well, Napoleon,  reigns  of  right.  He  is  the  wisest  and  the  strong- 
est. The  incapables  and  imbeciles  succeed  and  are  usurpers ;  and 
fear  makes  them  cruel.  After  Julius  came  Caracalla  and  Galba ; 
after  Charlemagne,  the  lunatic  Charles  the  Sixth.  So  the  Sara- 
cenic dynasty  dwindled  out;  the  Capets,  the  Stuarts,  the  Bour- 
bons ;  the  last  of  these  producing  Bomba,  the  ape  of  Domitian. 
*  ***** 

Man  is  by  nature  cruel,  like  the  tigers.  The  barbarian,  and  the 
tool  of  the  tyrant,  and  the  civilized  fanatic,  enjoy  the  sufferings  of 
others,  as  the  children  enjoy  the  contortions  of  maimed  flies.  Ab- 
solute Power,  once  in  fear  for  the  safety  of  its  tenure,  cannot  but 
be  cruel. 

As  to  ability,  dynasties  invariably  cease  to  possess  any  after  a 
few  lives.  They  become  mere  shams,  governed  by  ministers,  favor- 
ites, or  courtesans,  like  those  old  Etruscan  kings,  slumbering  for 
long  ages  in  their  golden  royal  robes,  dissolving  forever  at  the  first 
breath  of  day.  Let  him  who  complains  of  the  short-comings  of 
democracy  ask  himself  if  he  would  prefer  a  Du  Barry  or  a  Pompa- 
dour, governing  in  the  name  of  a  Louis  the  Fifteenth,  a  Caligula 
making  his  horse  a  consul,  a  Domitian,  "that  most  savage  mon- 
ster," who  sometimes  drank  the  blood  of  relatives,  sometimes  em- 
ploying himself  with  slaughtering  the  most  distinguished  citizens 
before  whose  gates  fear  and  terror  kept  watch ;  a  tyrant  of  fright- 
ful aspect,  pride  on  his  forehead,  fire  in  his  eye,  constantly  seeking 
darkness  and  secrecy,  and  only  emerging  from  his  solitude  to  make 
solitude.  After  all,  in  a  free  government,  the  Laws  and  the  Con- 
stitution are  above  the  Incapables,  the  Courts  correct  their  legisla- 
tion, and  posterity  is  the  Grand  Inquest  that  passes  judgment  on 
them.  What  is  the  exclusion  of  worth  and  intellect  and  knowl- 
edge from  civil  office  compared  with  trials  before  Jeffries,  tortures 
in  the  dark  caverns  of  the  Inquisition,  Alva-butcheries  in  the 
Netherlands,  the  Eve  of  Saint  Bartholomew,  and  the  Sicilian 

Vespers  ? 

*  ***** 

The  Abbe  Barruel  in  his  Memoirs  for  the  History  of  Jaco- 
binism, declares  that  Masonry  in  France  gave,  as  its  secret,  the 


vvords  Equality  and  Liberty,  leaving  it  for  every  honest  and  reli- 
gious Mason  to  explain  them  as  would  best  suit  his  principles ;  but 
retained  the  privilege  of  unveiling  in  the  higher  Degrees  the  mean- 
ing of  those  words,  as  interpreted  by  the  French  Revolution.  And 
he  also  excepts  English  Masons  from  his  anathemas,  because  in 
England  a  Mason  is  a  peaceable  subject  of  the  civil  authorities, 
no  matter  where  he  resides,  engaging  in  no  plots  or  conspiracies 
igainst  even  the  worst  government.  England,  he  says,  disgusted 
with  an  Equality  and  a  Liberty,  the  consequences  of  which  she 
had  felt  in  the  struggles  of  her  Lollards,  Anabaptists,  and  Presby- 
terians, had  "purged  her  Masonry"  from  all  explanations  tending 
to  overturn  empires ;  but  there  still  remained  adepts  whom  disor- 
ganizing principles  bound  to  the  Ancient  Mysteries. 

Because  true  Masonry,  unemasculated,  bore  the  banners  of  Free- 
dom and  Equal  Rights,  and  was  in  rebellion  against  temporal  and 
spiritual  tyranny,  its  Lodges  were  proscribed  in  1735,  by  an  edict 
of  the  States  of  Holland.  In  1737,  Louis  XV.  forbade  them  in 
France.  In  1738,  Pope  Clement  XII.  issued  against  them  his 
famous  Bull  of  Excommunication,  which  was  renewed  by  Benedict 
XIV. ;  and  in  1743  the  Council  of  Berne  also  proscribed  them. 
The  title  of  the  Bull  of  Clement  is,  "The  Condemnation  of  the 
Society  of  Conventicles  de  Libert  Muratori,  or  of  the  Freemasons, 
under  the  penalty  of  ipso  facto  excommunication,  the  absolution 
from  which  is  reserved  to  the  Pope  alone,  except  at  the  point 
of  death."  And  by  it  all  bishops,  ordinaries,  and  inquisitors 
were  empowered  to  punish  Freemasons,  "as  vehemently  sus- 
pected of  heresy,"  and  to  call  in,  if  necessary,  the  help  of  the 
secular  arm ;  that  is,  to  cause  the  civil  authority  to  put  them  to 


*  *  *  *  *  * 

Also,  false  and  slavish  political  theories  end  in  brutalizing  the 
State.  For  example,  adopt  the  theory  that  offices  and  employ- 
ments in  it  are  to  be  given  as  rewards  for  services  rendered  to 
party,  and  they  soon  become  the  prey  and  spoil  of  faction,  the 
booty  of  the  victory  of  faction ; — and  leprosy  is  in  the  flesh  of  the 
State.  The  body  of  the  commonwealth  becomes  a  mass  of  corrup- 
tion, like  a  living  carcass  rotten  with  syphilis.  All  unsound  theories 
in  the  end  develop  themselves  in  one  foul  and  loathsome  disease 
or  other  of  the  body  politic.  The  State,  like  the  man,  must  use 
constant  effort  to  stay  in  the  paths  of  virtue  and  manliness.  The 


habit  of  electioneering  and  begging  for  office  culminates  in  bribery 
with  office,  and  corruption  in  office. 

A  chosen  man  has  a  visible  trust  from  God,  as  plainly  as  if  the 
commission  were  engrossed  by  the  notary.  A  nation  cannot  re- 
nounce the  executorship  of  the  Divine  decrees.  As  little  can  Ma- 
sonry. It  must  labor  to  do  its  duty  knowingly  and  wisely.  We 
must  remember  that,  in  free  States,  as  well  as  in  despotisms,  Injus- 
tice, the  spouse  of  Oppression,  is  the  fruitful  parent  of  Deceit,  Dis- 
trust, Hatred,  Conspiracy,  Treason,  and  Unfaithfulness.  Even  in 
assailing  Tyranny  we  must  have  Truth  and  Reason  as  our  chief 
weapons.  We  must  march  into  that  fight  like  the  old  Puritans, 
or  into  the  battle  with  the  abuses  that  spring  up  in  free  govern- 
ment, with  the  flaming  sword  in,  one  hand,  and  the  Oracles  of  God 
in  the  other. 

The  citizen  who  cannot  accomplish  well  the  smaller  purposes  of 
public  life,  cannot  compass  the  larger.  The  vast  power  of  endu- 
rance, forbearance,  patience,  and  performance,  of  a  free  people,  is 
acquired  only  by  continual  exercise  of  all  the  functions,  like  the 
healthful  physical  human  vigor.  If  the  individual  citizens  have 
it  not,  the  State  must  equally  be  without  it.  It  is  of  the  essence 
of  a  free  government,  that  the  people  should  not  only  be  concerned 
in  making  the  laws,  but  also  in  their  execution.  No  man  ought  to 
be  more  ready  to  obey  and  administer  the  law  than  he  who  has 
helped  to  make  it.  The  business  of  government  is  carried  on  for 
the  benefit  of  all,  and  every  co-partner  should  give  counsel  and  co- 

Remember  also,  as  another  shoal  on  which  States  are  wrecked, 
that  free  States  always  tend  toward  the  depositing  of  the  citizens 
in  strata,  the  creation  of  castes,  the  perpetuation  of  the  jus  divinum 
to  office  in  families.  The  more  democratic  the  State,  the  more 
sure  this  result.  For,  as  free  States  advance  in  power,  there  is  a 
strong  tendency  toward  centralization,  not  from  deliberate  evil 
intention,  but  from  the  course  of  events  and  the  indolence  of  hu- 
man nature.  The  executive  powers  swell  and  enlarge  to  inordinate 
dimensions ;  and  the  Executive  is  always  aggressive  with  respect 
to  the  nation.  Offices  of  all  kinds  are  multiplied  to  reward  parti- 
sans ;  the  brute  force  of  the  sewerage  and  lower  strata  of  the  mob 
obtains  large  representation,  first  in  the  lower  offices,  and  at  last 
in  Senates ;  and  Bureaucracy  raises  its  bald  head,  bristling  with 
pens,  girded  with  spectacles,  and  bunched  with  ribbon.  The  art 


of  Government  becomes  like  a  Craft,  and  its  guilds  tend  to  become 
exclusive,  as  those  of  the  Middle  Ages. 

Political  science  may  be  much  improved  as  a  subject  of  specu- 
lation ;  but  it  should  never  be  divorced  from  the  actual  national 
necessity.  The  science  of  governing  men  must  always  be  practi- 
cal, rather  than  philosophical.  There  is  not  the  same  amount  of 
positive  or  universal  truth  here  as  in  the  abstract  sciences;  what 
is  true  in  one  country  may  be  very  false  in  another ;  what  is  untrue 
to-day  may  become  true  in  another  generation,  and  the  truth  of 
to-day  be  reversed  by  the  judgment  of  to-morrow.  To  distinguish 
the  casual  from  the  enduring,  to  separate  the  unsuitable  from  the 
suitable,  and  to  make  progress  even  possible,  are  the  proper  ends 
of  policy.  But  without  actual  knowledge  and  experience,  and 
communion  of  labor,  the  dreams  of  the  political  doctors  may  be 
no  better  than  those  of  the  doctors  of  divinity.  The  reign  of  such 
a  caste,  with  its  mysteries,  its  myrmidons,  and  its  corrupting  influ- 
ence, may  be  as  fatal  as  that  of  the  despots.  Thirty  tyrants  are 
thirty  times  worse  than  one. 

Moreover,  there  is  a  strong  temptation  for  the  governing  people 
to  become  as  much  slothful  and  sluggards  as  the  weakest  of  abso- 
lute kings.  Only  give  them  the  power  to  get  rid,  when  caprice 
prompts  them,  of  the  great  and  wise  men,  and  elect  the  little,  and 
as  to  all  the  rest  they  will  relapse  into  indolence  and  indifference. 
The  central  power,  creation  of  the  people,  organized  and  cunning 
if  not  enlightened,  is  the  perpetual  tribunal  set  up  by  them  for  the 
redress  of  wrong  and  the  rule  of  justice.  It  soon  supplies  itself 
with  all  the  requisite  machinery,  and  is  ready  and  apt  for  all  kinds 
of  interference.  The  people  may  be  a  child  all  its  life.  The  cen- 
tral power  may  not  be  able  to  suggest  the  best  scientific  solution 
of  a  problem ;  but  it  has  the  easiest  means  of  carrying  an  idea 
into  effect.  If  the  purpose  to  be  attained  is  a  large  one,  it  requires 
a  large  comprehension ;  it  is  proper  for  the  action  of  the  central 
power.  If  it  be  a  small  one,  it  may  be  thwarted  by  disagreement. 
The  central  power  must  step  in  as  an  arbitrator  and  prevent  this. 
The  people  may  be  too  averse  to  change,  too  slothful  in  their  own 
business,  unjust  to  a  minority  or  a  majority.  The  central  power 
must  take  the  reins  when  the  people  drop  them. 

France  became  centralized  in  its  government  more  by  the  apa- 
thy and  ignorance  of  its  people  than  by  the  tyranny  of  its  kings. 
When  the  inmost  parish-life  is  given  up  to  the  direct  guardian- 


ship  of  the  State,  and  the  repair  of  the  belfry  of  a  country  church 
requires  a  written  order  from  the  central  power,  a  people  is  in  its 
dotage.  Men  are  thus  nurtured  in  imbecility,  from  the  dawn  of 
social  life.  When  the  central  government  feeds  part  of  the  people 
it  prepares  all  to  be  slaves.  When  it  directs  parish  and  county 
affairs,  they  are  slaves  already.  The  next  step  is  to  regulate  labor 
and  its  wages. 

Nevertheless,  whatever  follies  the  free  people  may  commit,  even 
to  the  putting  of  the  powers  of  legislation  in  the  hands  of  the 
little  competent  and  less  honest,  despair  not  of  the  final  result. 
The  terrible  teacher,  EXPERIENCE,  writing  his  lessons  on  hearts 
desolated  with  calamity  and  wrung  by  agony,  will  make  them  wiser 
in  time.  Pretence  and  grimace  and  sordid  beggary  for  votes  will 
some  day  cease  to  avail.  Have  FAITH,  and  struggle  on,  against  all 
evil  influences  and  discouragements !  FAITH  is  the  Saviour  and 
Redeemer  of  nations.  When  Christianity  had  grown  weak,  profit- 
less, and  powerless,  the  Arab  Restorer  and  Iconoclast  came,  like  a 
cleansing  hurricane.  When  the  battle  of  Damascus  was  about  to 
be  fought,  the  Christian  bishop,  at  the  early  dawn,  in  his  robes,  at 
the  head  of  his  clergy,  with  the  Cross  once  so  triumphant  raised 
in  the  air,  came  down  to  the  gates  of  the  city,  and  laid  open  be- 
fore the  army  the  Testament  of  Christ.  The  Christian  general, 
THOMAS,  laid  his  hand  on  the  book,  and  said,  "Oh  God!  IF  our 
faith  be  true,  aid  us,  and  deliver  us  not  into  the  hands  of  its  ene- 
mies!" But  KHALED,  "the  Sword  of  God,"  who  had  marched 
from  victory  to  victory,  exclaimed  to  his  wearied  soldiers,  "Let  no 
man  sleep!  There  will  be  rest  enough  in  the  bowers  of  Paradise; 
sweet  will  be  the  repose  never  more  to  be  folloived  by  labor."  The 
faith  of  the  Arab  had  become  stronger  than  that  of  the  Christian, 
and  he  conquered. 

The  Sword  is  also,  in  the  Bible,  an  emblem  of  SPEECH,  or  of  the 
utterance  of  thought.  Thus,  in  that  vision  or  apocalypse  of  the 
sublime  exile  of  Patmos,  a  protest  in  the  name  of  the  ideal,  over- 
whelming the  real  world,  a  tremendous  satire  uttered  in  the  name 
of  Religion  and  Liberty,  and  with  its  fiery  reverberations  smiting 
the  throne  of  the  Caesars,  a  sharp  two-edged  sword  comes  out  of 
the  mouth  of  the  Semblance  of  the  Son  of  Man,  encircled  by  the 
seven  golden  candlesticks,  and  holding  in  his  right  hand  seven 
stars.  "The  Lord,"  says  Isaiah,  "hath  made  my  mouth  like  a 
sharp  sword."  "I  have  slain  them/"  says  Hosea,  "by  the  words 


of  my  mouth."  "The  word  of  God,"  says  the  writer  of  the  apos- 
tolic letter  to  the  Hebrews,  "is  quick  and  powerful,  and  sharper 
than  any  two-edged  sword,  piercing  even  to  the  dividing  asunder 
of  soul  and  spirit."  "The  sword  of  the  Spirit,  which  is  the  Word 
of  God,"  says  Paul,  writing  to  the  Christians  at  Ephesus.  "I  will 
fight  against  them  with  the  sword  of  my  mouth,"  it  is  said  in  the 

Apocalypse,  to  the  angel  of  the  church  at  Pergamos. 


The  spoken  discourse  may  roll  on  strongly  as  the  great  tidal 
wave ;  but,  like  the  wave,  it  dies  at  last  feebly  on  the  sands.  It  is 
heard  by  few,  remembered  by  still  fewer,  and  fades  away,  like  an 
echo  in  the  mountains,  leaving  no  token  of  power.  It  is  nothing 
to  the  living  and  coming  generations  of  men.  It  was  the  written 
human  speech,  that  gave  power  and  permanence  to  human  thought. 
It  is  this  that  makes  the  whole  human  history  but  one  individual 

To  write  on  the  rock  is  to  write  on  a  solid  parchment;  but  it 
requires  a  pilgrimage  to  see  it.  There  is  but  one  copy,  and  Time 
wears  eve"n  that.  To  write  on  skins  or  papyrus  was  to  give,  as  it 
were,  but  one  tardy  edition,  and  the  rich  only  could  procure  it. 
The  Chinese  stereotyped  not  only  the  unchanging  wisdom  of  old 
sages,  but  also  the  passing  events.  The  process  tended  to  suffocate 
thought,  and  to  hinder  progress;  for  there  is  continual  wandering 
in  the  wisest  minds,  and  Truth  writes  her  last  words,  not  on  clean 
tablets,  but  on  the  scrawl  that  Error  has  made  and  often  mended. 

Printing  made  the  movable  letters  prolific.  Thenceforth  the 
orator  spoke  almost  visibly  to  listening  nations;  and  the  author 
wrote,  like  the  Pope,  his  oecumenic  decrees,  urbi  et  orbi,  and  or- 
dered them  to  be  posted  up  in  all  the  market-places ;  remaining, 
if  he  chose,  impervious  to  human  sight.  The  doom  of  tyrannies 
was  thenceforth  sealed.  Satire  and  invective  became  potent  as 
armies.  The  unseen  hands  of  the  Juniuses  could  launch  the  thun- 
derbolts, and  make  the  ministers  tremble.  One  whisper  from  this 
giant  fills  the  earth  as  easily  as  Demosthenes  filled  the  Agora.  It 
will  soon  be  heard  at  the  antipodes  as  easily  as  in  the  next  street. 
It  travels  with  the  lightning  under  the  oceans.  It  makes  the 
mass  one  man,  speaks  to  it  in  the  same  common  language,  and 
elicits  a  sure  and  single  response.  Speech  passes  into  thought,  and 
thence  promptly  into  act.  A  nation  becomes  truly  one,  with  one 
large  heart  and  a  single  throbbing  pulse.  Men  are  invisibly  pres- 


ent  to  each  other,  as  if  already  spiritual  beings ;  and  the  thinker 
who  sits  in  an  Alpine  solitude,  unknown  to  or  forgotten  by  all  the 
world,  among  the  silent  herds  and  hills,  may  flash  his  words  to  all 
the  cities  and  over  all  the  seas. 

Select  the  thinkers  to  be  Legislators ;  and  avoid  the  gabblers. 
Wisdom  is  rarely  loquacious.  Weight  and  depth  of  thought  are 
unfavorable  to  volubility.  The  shallow  and  superficial  are  gen- 
erally voluble  and  often  pass  for  eloquent.  More  words,  less 
thought, — is  the  general  rule.  The  man  who  endeavors  to  say 
something  worth  remembering  in  every  sentence,  becomes  fastidi- 
ous, and  condenses  like  Tacitus.  The  vulgar  love  a  more  diffuse 
stream.  The  ornamentation  that  does  not  cover  strength  is  the 
gewgaws  of  babble. 

Neither  is  dialectic  subtlety  valuable  to  public  men.  The  Chris- 
tian faith  has  it,  had  it  formerly  more  than  now ;  a  subtlety  that 
might  have  entangled  Plato,  and  which  has  rivalled  in  a  fruitless 
fashion  the  mystic  lore  of  Jewish  Rabbis  and  Indian  Sages.  It  is 
not  this  which  converts  the  heathen.  It  is  a  vain  task  to  balance 
the  great  thoughts  of  the  earth,  like  hollow  straws,  on  the  finger- 
tips of  disputation.  It  is  not  this  kind  of  warfare  which  makes 
the  Cross  triumphant  in  the  hearts  of  the  unbelievers;  but  the 
actual  power  that  lives  in  the  Faith. 

So  there  is  a  political  scholasticism  that  is  merely  useless.  The 
dexterities  of  subtle  logic  rarely  stir  the  hearts  of  the  people,  or 
convince  them.  The  true  apostle  of  Liberty,  Fraternity,  and  Equal- 
ity makes  it  a  matter  of  life  and  death.  His  combats  are  like 
those  of  Bossuet, — combats  to  the  death.  The  true  apostolic  fire 
is  like  the  lightning :  it  flashes  conviction  into  the  soul.  The  true 
word  is  verily  a  two-edged  sword.  Matters  of  government  and 
political  science  can  be  fairly  dealt  with  only  by  sound  reason,  and 
the  logic  of  common  sense :  not  the  common  sense  of  the  igno- 
rant, but  of  the  wise.  The  acutest  thinkers  rarely  succeed  in  be- 
coming leaders  of  men.  A  watchword  or  a  catchword  is  more 
potent  with  the  people  than  logic,  especially  if  this  be  the  least 
metaphysical.  When  a  political  prophet  arises,  to  stir  the  dream- 
ing, stagnant  nation,  and  hold  back  its  feet  from  the  irretrievable 
descent,  to  heave  the  land  as  with  an  earthquake,  and  shake  the 
silly-shallow  idols  from  their  seats,  his  words  will  come  straight 
from  God's  own  mouth,  and  be  thundered  into  the  conscience.  He 
will  reason,  teach,  warn,  and  rule.  The  real  "Sword  of  the  Spirit" 


is  keener  than  the  brightest  blade  of  Damascus.  Such  men  rule 
a  land,  in  the  strength  of  justice,  with  wisdom  and  with  power. 
Still,  the  men  of  dialectic  subtlety  often  rule  well,  because  in  prac- 
tice they  forget  their  finely-spun  theories,  and  use  the  trenchant 
logic  of  common  sense.  But  when  the  great  heart  and  large  intel- 
lect are  left  to  the  rust  in  private  life,  and  small  attorneys,  brawlers 
in  politics,  and  those  who  in  the  cities  would  be  only  the  clerks  of 
notaries,  or  practitioners  in  the  disreputable  courts,  are  made  na- 
tional Legislators,  the  country  is  in  her  dotage,  even  if  the  beard 
has  not  yet  grown  upon  her  chin. 

In  a  free  country,  human  speech  must  needs  be  free ;  and  the 
State  must  listen  to  the  maunderings  of  folly,  and  the  screechings 
of  its  geese,  and  the  brayings  of  its  asses,  as  well  as  to  the  golden 
oracles  of  its  wise  and  great  men.  Even  the  despotic  old  kings 
allowed  their  wise  fools  to  say  what  they  liked.  The  true  alchem- 
ist will  extract  the  lessons  of  wisdom  from  the  babblings  of  folly. 
He  will  hear  what  a  man  has  to  say  on  any  given  subject,  even  if 
the  speaker  end  only  in  proving  himself  prince  of  fools.  Even  a 
fool  will  sometimes  hit  the  mark.  There  is  some  truth  in  all  men 
who  are  not  compelled  to  suppress  their  souls  and  speak  other 
men's  thoughts.  The  finger  even  of  the  idiot  may  point  to  the 
great  highway. 

A  people,  as  well  as  the  sages,  must  learn  to  forget.  If  it  neither 
learns  the  new  nor  forgets  the  old,  it  is  fated,  even  if  it  has  been 
royal  for  thirty  generations.  To  unlearn  is  to  learn ;  and  also  it  is 
sometimes  needful  to  learn  again  the  forgotten.  The  antics  of 
fools  make  the  current  follies  more  palpable,  as  fashions  are  shown 
to  be  absurd  by  caricatures,  which  so  lead  to  their  extirpation.  The 
buffoon  and  the  zany  are  useful  in  their  places.  The  ingenious 
artificer  and  craftsman,  like  Solomon,  searches  the  earth  for  his 
materials,  and  transforms  the  misshapen  matter  into  glorious 
workmanship.  The  world  is  conquered  by  the  head  even  more 
than  by  the  hands.  Nor  will  any  assembly  talk  forever.  After  a 
time,  when  it  has  listened  long  enough,  it  quietly  puts  the  silly, 
the  shallow,  and  the  superficial  to  one  side, — it  thinks,  and  sets  to 

The  human  thought,  especially  in  popular  assemblies,  runs  in 
the  most  singularly  crooked  channels,  harder  to  trace  and  follow 
than  the  blind  currents  of  the  ocean.  No  notion  is  so  absurd  that 
it  may  not  find  a  place  there.  The  master-workman  must  train 


these  notions  and  vagaries  with  his  two-handed  hammer.  They 
twist  out  of  the  way  of  the  sword-thrusts;  and  are  invulnerable 
all  over,  even  in  the  heel,  against  logic.  The  martel  or  mace,  the 
battle-axe,  the  great  double-edged  two-handed  sword  must  deal 
with  follies;  the  rapier  is  no  better  against  them  than  a  wand, 
unless  it  be  the  rapier  of  ridicule. 

The  SWORD  is  also  the  symbol  of  war  and  of  the  soldier.  Wars, 
like  thunder-storms,  are  often  necessary,  to  purify  the  stagnant 
atmosphere.  War  is  not  a  demon,  without  remorse  or  reward.  It 
restores  the  brotherhood  in  letters  of  fire.  When  men  are  seated 
in  their  pleasant  places,  sunken  in  ease  and  indolence,  with  Pre- 
tence and  Incapacity  and  littleness  usurping  all  the  high  places 
of  State,  war  is  the  baptism  of  blood  and  fire,  by  which  alone 
they  can  be  renovated.  It  is  the  hurricane  that  brings  the  ele- 
mental equilibrium,  the  concord  of  Power  and  Wisdom.  So 
long  as  these  continue  obstinately  divorced,  it  will  continue  to 

In  the  mutual  appeal  of  nations  to  God,  there  is  the  acknowl- 
edgment of  His  might.  It  lights  the  beacons  of  Faith  and  Free- 
dom, and  heats  the  furnace  through  which  the  earnest  and  loyal 
pass  to  immortal  glory.  There  is  in  war  the  doom  of  defeat,  the 
quenchless  sense  of  Duty,  the  stirring  sense  of  Honor,  the  meas- 
ureless solemn  sacrifice  of  devotedness,  and  the  incense  of  success. 
Even  in  the  flame  and  smoke  of  battle,  the  Mason  discovers  his 
brother,  and  fulfills  the  sacred  obligations  of  Fraternity. 

Two,  or  the  Duad,  is  the  symbol  of  Antagonism ;  of  Good  and 
Evil,  Light  and  Darkness.  It  is  Cain  and  Abel,  Eve  and  Lilith, 
Jachin  and  Boaz,  Ormuzd  and  Ahriman,  Osiris  and  Typhon. 

THREE,  or  the  Triad,  is  most  significantly  expressed  by  the  equi- 
lateral and  the  right-angled  triangles.  There  are  three  principal 
colors  or  rays  in  the  rainbow,  which  by  intermixture  make  seven. 
The  three  are  the  green,  the  yellow,  and  the  red.  The  Trinity  of 
the  Deity,  in  one  mode  or  other,  has  been  an  article  in  all  creeds. 
He  creates,  preserves,  and  destroys.  He  is  the  generative  power, 
the  productive  capacity,  and  the  result.  The  immaterial  man,  ac- 
cording to  the  Kabalah,  is  composed  of  vitality,  or  life,  the  breath 
of  life ;  of  soul  or  mind,  and  spirit.  Salt,  sulphur,  and  mercury 
are  the  great  symbols  of  the  alchemists.  To  them  man  was  body, 
soul,  and  spirit. 

FOUR  is  expressed  by  the  square,  or  four-sided  right-angled 


tigure.  Out  of  the  symbolic  Garden  of  Eden  flowed  a  river,  divid- 
ing into  four  streams, — PISON,  which  flows  around  the  land  of 
gold,  or  light ;  GIHON,  which  flows  around  the  land  of  Ethiopia 
or  Darkness;  HIDDEKEL,  running  eastward  to  Assyria;  and  the 
EUPHRATES.  Zechariah  saw  four  chariots  coming  out  from  be- 
tween two  mountains  of  bronze,  in  the  first  of  which  were  red 
horses ;  in  the  second,  black;  in  the  third,  white;  and  in  the 
fourth,  grizzled:  "and  these  were  the  four  winds  of  the  heavens, 
that  go  forth  from  standing  before  the  Lord  of  all  the  earth." 
Ezekiel  saw  the  four  living  creatures,  each  with  four  faces  and 
four  wings,  the  faces  of  a  man  and  a  lion,  an  ox  and  an  eagle; 
and  the  four  wheels  going  upon  their  four  sides ;  and  Saint  John 
beheld  the  four  beasts,  full  of  eyes  before  and  behind,  the  LION, 
the  young  Ox,  the  MAN,  and  the  flying  EAGLE.  Four  was  the 
signature  of  the  Earth.  Therefore,  in  the  I48th  Psalm,  of  those 
who  must  praise  the  Lord  on  the  land,  there  are  four  times  four, 
and  four  in  particular  of  living  creatures.  Visible  nature  is  de- 
scribed as  the  four  quarters  of  the  world,  and  the  four  corners  of 
the  earth.  "There  are  four,"  says  the  old  Jewish  saying,  "which 
take  the  first  place  in  this  world ;  man,  among  the  creatures ; 
the  eagle  among  birds;  the  ox  among  cattle;  and  the  lion 
among  wild  beasts."  Daniel  saw  four  great  beasts  come  up  from 
the  sea. 

FIVE  is  the  Duad  added  to  the  Triad.  It  is  expressed  by  the 
five-pointed  or  blazing  star,  the  mysterious  Pentalpha  of  Pythago- 
ras. It  is  indissolubly  connected  with  the  number  seven.  Christ 
fed  His  disciples  and  the  multitude  with  five  loaves  and  tzt'o  fishes, 
and  of  the  fragments  there  remained  twelve,  that  is,  five  and  seven, 
baskets  full.  Again  He  fed  them  with  seven  loaves  and  a  few  little 
fishes,  and  there  remained  seven  baskets  full.  The  five  apparently 
small  planets.  Mercury,  Venus,  Mars,  Jupiter,  and  Saturn,  with 
the  two  greater  ones,  the  Sun  and  Moon,  constituted  the  seven 
celestial  spheres. 

SEVEN  was  the  peculiarly  sacred  number.  There  were  seven 
planets  and  spheres  presided  over  by  seven  archangels.  There  were 
seven  colors  in  the  rainbow ;  and  the  Phoenician  Deity  was  called 
the  HEPTAKIS  or  God  of  seven  rays ;  seven  days  of  the  week ; 
and  seven  and  five  made  the  number  of  months,  tribes,  and  apos- 
tles. Zechariah  saw  a  golden  candlestick,  with  seven  lamps  and 
seven  pipes  to  the  lamps,  and  an  olive-tree  on  each  side.  "Since 


he  says,  "the  seven  eyes  of  the  Lord  shall  rejoice,  and  shall  see  the 
plummet  in  the  hand  of  Zerubbabel."  John,  in  the  Apocalypse, 
writes  seven  epistles  to  the  seven  churches.  In  the  seven  epistles 
there  are  twelve  promises.  What  is  said  of  the  churches  in  praise 
or  blame,  is  completed  in  the  number  three.  The  refrain,  "who 
has  ears  to  hear,"  etc.,  has  ten  words,  divided  by  three  and  seven, 
and  the  seven  by  three  and  four;  and  the  seven  epistles  are  also  so 
divided.  In  the  seals,  trumpets,  and  vials,  also,  of  this  symbolic 
vision,  the  seven  are  divided  by  four  and  three.  He  who  sends  his 
message  to  Ephesus,  "holds  the  seven  stars  in  his  right  hand,  and 
walks  amid  the  seven  golden  lamps." 

In  six  days,  or  periods,  God  created  the  Universe,  and  paused  on 
the  seventh  day.  Of  clean  beasts,  Noah  was  directed  to  take  by 
sevens  into  the  ark  ;  and  of  fowls  by  sevens;  because  in  seven  days 
the  rain  was  to  commence.  On  the  seventeenth  day  of  the  month, 
the  rain  began ;  on  the  seventeenth  day  of  the  seventh  month,  the 
ark  rested  on  Ararat.  When  the  dove  returned,  Noah  waited 
seven  days  before  he  sent  her  forth  again ;  and  again  seven,  after 
she  returned  with  the  olive-leaf.  Enoch  was  the  seventh  patriarch, 
Adam  included,  and  Lamech  lived  777  years. 

There  were  scv-en  lamps  in  the  great  candlestick  of  the  Taberna- 
cle and  Temple,  representing  the  seven  planets.  Seven  times  Moses 
sprinkled  the  anointing  oil  upon  the  altar.  The  days  of  consecra- 
tion of  Aaron  and  his  sons  were  seven  in  number.  A  woman  was 
unclean  seven  days  after  child-birth ;  one  infected  with  leprosy 
was  shut  up  seven  days ;  seven  times  the  leper  was  sprinkled  with 
the  blood  of  a  slain  bird ;  and  seven  days  afterwards  he  must  re- 
main abroad  out  of  his  tent.  Seven  times,  in  purifying  the  leper, 
the  priest  was  to  sprinkle  the  consecrated  oil ;  and  seven  times  to 
sprinkle  with  the  blood  of  the  sacrificed  bird  the  house  to  be  puri- 
fied. Seven  times  the  blood  of  the  slain  bullock  was  sprinkled  on 
the  mercy-seat;  and  seven  times  on  the  altar.  The  seventh  year 
was  a  Sabbath  of  rest ;  and  at  the  end  of  seven  times  seven  years 
came  the  great  year  of  jubilee.  Seven  days  the  people  ate  unleav- 
ened bread,  in  the  month  of  Abib.  Seven  weeks  were  counted 
from  the  time  of  first  putting  the  sickle  to  the  wheat.  The  Feast 
of  the  Tabernacles  lasted  seven  days. 

Israel  was  in  the  land  of  Midian  seven  years,  before  Gideon  de- 
livered them.  The  bullock  sacrificed  by  him  was  seven  years  old. 
Samson  told  Delilah  to  bind  him  with  seven  green  withes;  and 


she  wove  the  seven  locks  of  his  head,  and  afterwards  shaved  them 
off.  Balaam  told  Barak  to  build  for  him  seven  altars.  Jacob 
served  seven  years  for  Leah  and  seven  for  Rachel.  Job  had  seven 
sons  and  three  daughters,  making  the  perfect  number  ten.  He 
had  also  seven  thousand  sheep  and  three  thousand  camels.  His 
friends  sat  clown  with  him  seven  days  and  seven  nights.  His  friends 
were  ordered  to  sacrifice  seven  bullocks  and  seven  rams ;  and  again, 
at  the  end,  he  had  seven  sons  and  three  daughters,  and  twice  seven 
thousand  sheep,  and  lived  an  hundred  and  forty,  or  twice  seven 
times  ten  years.  Pharaoh  saw  in  his  dream  seven  fat  and  seven 
lean  kine,  seven  good  ears  and  seven  blasted  ears  of  wheat;  and 
there  were  seven  years  of  plenty,  and  seven  of  famine.  Jericho 
fell,  when  seven  priests,  with  seven  trumpets,  made  the  circuit  of 
the  city  on  seven  successive  days ;  once  each  day  for  six  days,  and 
seven  times  on  the  seventh.  "The  seven  eyes  of  the  Lord,"  says 
Zechariah,  "run  to  and  fro  through  the  whole  earth."  Solomon  was 
seven  years  in  building  the  Temple.  Seven  angels,  in  the  Apoca- 
lypse, pour  out  seven  plagues,  from  seven  vials  of  wrath.  The 
scarlet-colored  beast,  on  which  the  woman  sits  in  the  wilderness, 
has  seven  heads  and  ten  horns.  So  also  has  the  beast  that  rises 
up  out  of  the  sea.  Seven  thunders  uttered  their  voices.  Seven 
angels  sounded  seven  trumpets.  Seven  lamps  of  fire,  the  seven 
spirits  of  God,  burned  before  the  throne ;  and  the  Lamb  that  was 
slain  had  seven  horns  and  seven  eyes. 

EIGHT  is  the  first  cube,  that  of  two.  NINE  is  the  square  of 
three,  and  represented  by  the  triple  triangle. 

TEN  includes  all  the  other  numbers.  It  is  especially  seven  and 
three;  and  is  called  the  number  of  perfection.  Pythagoras  rep- 
resented it  by  the  TETRACTYS,  which  had  many  mystic  meanings. 
This  symbol  is  sometimes  composed  of  dots  or  points,  sometimes 
of  commas  or  yods,  and  in  the  Kabalah,  of  the  letters  of  the  name 
of  Deity.  It  is  thus  arranged : 


9  9 



The  Patriarchs  from  Adam  to  Noah,  inclusive,  are  ten  in  num- 
ber, and  the  same  number  is  that  of  the  Commandments. 

TWELVE  is  the  number  of  the  lines  of  equal  length  that  form  a 
cube.  It  is  the  number  of  the  months,  the  tribes,  and  the  apos- 
tles; of  the  oxen  under  the  Brazen  Sea,  of  the  stones  on  the 
breast-plate  of  the  high  priest. 




To  understand  literally  the  symbols  and  allegories  of  Oriental 
books  as  to  ante-historical  matters,  is  willfully  to  close  our  eyes 
against  the  Light.  To  translate  the  symbols  into  the  trivial  and 
commonplace,  is  the  blundering  of  mediocrity. 

All  religious  expression  is  symbolism  ;  since  we  can  describe  only 
what  we  see,  and  the  true  objects  of  religion  are  THE  SEEN.  The 
earliest  instruments  of  education  were  symbols ;  and  they  and  all 
other  religious  forms  differed  and  still  differ  according  to  external 
circumstances  and  imagery,  and  according  to  differences  of  knowl- 
edge and  mental  cultivation.  All  language  is  symbolic,  so  far  as 
it  is  applied  to  mental  and  spiritual  phenomena  and  action.  All 
words  have,  primarily,  a  material  sense,  however  they  may  after- 
ward get,  for  the  ignorant,  a  spiritual  wow-sense.  "To  retract," 
for  example,  is  to  draiv  back,  and  when  applied  to  a  statement,  is 
symbolic,  as  much  so  as  a  picture  of  an  arm  drawn  back,  to  express 
the  same  thing,  would  be.  The  very  word  "spirit"  means  "breath" 
from  the  Latin  verb  spiro,  breathe. 

To  present  a  visible  symbol  to  the  eye  of  another,  is  not  neces- 
sarily to  inform  him  of  the  meaning  which  that  symbol  has  to  you. 
Hence  the  philosopher  soon  superadded  to  the  symbols  explana- 
tions addressed  to  the  ear,  susceptible  of  more  precision,  but  less 
effective  and  impressive  than  the  painted  or  sculptured  forms 
which  he  endeavored  to  explain.  Out  of  these  explanations  grew 
by  degrees  a  variety  of  narrations,  whose  true  object  and  meaning 
were  gradually  forgotten,  or  lost  in  contradictions  and  incongrui- 
ties. And  when  these  were  abandoned,  and  Philosophy  resorted 
to  definitions  and  formulas,  its  language  was  but  a  more  compli- 
cated symbolism,  attempting  in  the  dark  to  grapple  with  and  pic- 
ture ideas  impossible  to  be  expressed.  For  as  with  the  visible 
symbol,  so  with  the  word :  to  utter  it  to  you  does  not  inform  you 
of  the  exact  meaning  which  it  has  to  me;  and  thus* -religion  and 
philosophy  became  to  a  great  extent  disputes  as  to  the  meaning 
62  • 


of  words.  The  most  abstract  expression  for  DEITY,  which  language 
can  supply,  is  but  a  sign  or  symbol  for  an  object  beyond  our  com- 
prehension, and  not  more  truthful  and  adequate  than  the  images 
of  OSIRIS  and  VISHNU,  or  their  names,  except  as  being  less  sensu- 
ous and  explicit.  We  avoid  sensuousness,  only  by  resorting  to 
simple  negation.  We  come  at  last  to  define  spirit  by  saying  that 
it  is  not  matter.  Spirit  is — spirit. 

A  single  example  of  the  symbolism  of  words  will  indicate  to  you 
one  branch  of  Masonic  study.  We  find  in  the  English  Rite  this 
phrase :  "I  will  always  hail,  ever  conceal,  and  never  reveal ;"  and 
in  the  Catechism,  these : 

Q.\  "I  hail." 

A.'.  "I  conceal;" 

and  ignorance,  misunderstanding  the  word  "hail,"  has  interpolated 
the  phrase,  "From  whence  do  you  hail?" 

But  the  word  is  really  "hele,"  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  verb  pelan, 
helan,  to  cover,  hide,  or  conceal.  And  this  word  is  rendered  by  the 
Latin  verb  tegere,  to  cover  or  roof  over.  "That  ye  fro  me  no 
thynge  woll  hele,"  says  Gower.  "They  hele  fro  me  no  priuyte," 
says  the  Romaunt  of  the  Rose.  "To  heal  a  house,"  is  a  common 
phrase  in  Sussex;  and  in  the  west  of  England,  he  that  covers  a 
house  with  slates  is  called  a  Healer.  Wherefore,  to  "heal"  means 
the  same  thing  as  to  "tile," — itself  symbolic,  as  meaning,  prima- 
rily, to  cover  a  house  with  tiles, — and  means  to  cover,  hide,  or  con- 
ceal. Thus  language  too  is  symbolism,  and  words  are  as  much 
misunderstood  and  misused  as  more  material  symbols  are. 

Symbolism  tended  continually  to  become  more  complicated ;  and 
all  the  powers  of  Heaven  were  reproduced  on  earth,  until  a  web  of 
fiction  and  allegory  was  woven,  partly  by  art  and  partly  by  the  ig- 
norance of  error,  which  the  wit  of  man,  with  his  limited  means  of 
explanation,  will  never  unravel.  Even  the  Hebrew  Theism  be- 
came involved  in  symbolism  and  image-worship,  borrowed  prob- 
ably from  an  older  creed  and  remote  regions  of  Asia, — the  wor- 
ship of  the  Great  Semitic  Nature-God  AL  or  ELS  and  its  symboli- 
cal representations  of  JEHOVAH  Himself  were  not  even  confined 
to  poetical  or  illustrative  language.  The  priests  were  monothe- 
ists :  the  people  idolaters. 

There  are  dangers  inseparable  from  symbolism,  which  afford  PM 
impressive  lesson  in  regard  to  the  similar  risks  attendant  0:1  the 
use  of  language.  The  imagination,  called  in  to  assist  the  reason, 


usurps  its  place  or  leaves  its  ally  helplessly  entangled  in  its  web. 
Names  which  stand  for  things  are  confounded  with  them;  the 
means  are  mistaken  for  the  end ;  the  instrument  of  interpretation 
for  the  object ;  and  thus  symbols  come  to  usurp  an  independent 
character  as  truths  and  persons.  Though  perhaps  a  necessary 
path,  they  were  a  dangerous  one  by  which  to  approach  the  Deity ; 
in  which  many,  says  PLUTARCH,  "mistaking  the  sign  for  the  thing 
signified,  fell  into  a  ridiculous  superstition ;  while  others,  in  avoid- 
ing one  extreme,  plunged  into  the  no  less  hideous  gulf  of  irreligion 
and  impiety." 

It  is  through  the  Mysteries,  CICERO  says,  that  we  have  learned 
the  first  principles  of  life ;  wherefore  the  term  "initiation"  is  used 
with  good  reason ;  and  they  not  only  teach  us  to  live  more  happily 
and  agreeably,  but  they  soften  the  pains  of  death  by  the  hope  of  a 
better  life  hereafter. 

The  Mysteries  were  a  Sacred  Drama,  exhibiting  some  legend 
significant  of  nature's  changes,  of  the  visible  Universe  in  which  the 
Divinity  is  revealed,  and  whose  import  was  in  many  respects  as 
open  to  the  Pagan  as  to  the  Christian.  Nature  is  the  great  Teacher 
of  man ;  for  it  is  the  Revelation  of  God.  It  neither  dogmatizes  nor 
attempts  to  tyrannize  by  compelling  to  a  particular  creed  or  spec- 
ial interpretation.  It  presents  its  symbols  to  us,  and  adds  nothing 
by  way  of  explanation.  It  is  the  text  without  the  commentary; 
and,  as  we  well  know,  it  is  chiefly  the  commentary  and  gloss  that 
lead  to  error  and  heresy  and  persecution.  The  earliest  instructors 
of  mankind  not  only  adopted  the  lessons  of  Nature,  but  as  far  as 
possible  adhered  to  her  method  of  imparting  them.  In  the  Myste- 
ries, beyond  the  current  traditions  or  sacred  and  enigmatic  recitals 
of  the  Temples,  few  explanations  were  given  to  the  spectators, 
who  were  left,  as  in  the  school  of  nature,  to  make  inferences  for 
themselves.  No  other  method  could  have  suited  every  degree  of 
cultivation  and  capacity.  To  employ  nature's  universal  symbolism 
instead  of  the  technicalities  of  language,  rewards  the  humblest  in- 
quirer, and  discloses  its  secrets  to  every  one  in  proportion  to  his 
preparatory  training  and  his  power  to  comprehend  them.  If  their 
philosophical  meaning  was  above  the  comprehension  of  some,  their 
moral  and  political  meanings  are  within  the  reach  of  all. 

These  mystic  shows  and  performances  were  not  the  reading  of 
a  lecture,  but  the  opening  of  a  problem.  Requiring  research,  they 
were  calculated  to  arouse  the  dormant  intellect.  They  implied  no 


hostility  to  Philosophy,  because  Philosophy  is  the  great  expounder 
of  symbolism ;  although  its  ancient  interpretations  were  often  ill- 
founded  and  incorrect.  The  alteration  from  symbol  to  dogma  is 
fatal  to  beauty  of  expression,  and  leads  to  intolerance  and  assured 



If,  in  teaching  the  great  doctrine  of  the  divine  nature  of  the 
Soul,  and  in  striving  to  explain  its  longings  after  immortality,  and 
in  proving  its  superiority  over  the  souls  of  the  animals,  which  hav.e 
no  aspirations  Heavenward,  the  ancients  struggled  in  vain  to 
express  the  nature  of  the  soul,  by  comparing  it  to  FIRE  and  LIGHT,, 
it  will  be  well  for  us  to  consider  whether,  with  all  our  boasted 
knowledge,  we  have  any  better  or  clearer  idea  of  its  nature,  and 
whether  we  have  not  despairingly  taken  refuge  in  having  none  at 
all.  And  if  they  erred  as  to  its  original  place  of  abode,  and  under- 
stood literally  the  mode  and  path  of  its  descent,  these  were  but  the 
accessories  of  the  great  Truth,  and  probably,  to  the  Initiates,  mere 
allegories,  designed  to  make  the  idea  more  palpable  and  impressive 
to  the  mind. 

They  are  at  least  no  more  fit  to  be  smiled  at  by  the  self-conceit 
of  a  vain  ignorance,  the  wealth  of  whose  knowledge  consists  solely 
in  words,  than  the  bosom  of  Abraham,  as  a  home  for  the  spirits  of 
the  just  dead ;  the  gulf  of  actual  fire,  for  the  eternal  torture  of 
spirits;  and  the  City  of  the  New  Jerusalem,  with  its  walls  of 
jasper  and  its  edifices  of  pure  gold  like  clear  glass,  its  foundations 
of  precious  stones,  and  its  gates  each  of  a  single  pearl.  "I  knew 
a  man,"  says  PAUL,  "caught  up  to  the  third  Heaven ; .  . .  .  that  he 
was  caught  up  into  Paradise,  and  heard  ineffable  words,  which  it 
is  not  possible  for  a  man  to  utter."  And  nowhere  is  the  antagon- 
ism and  conflict  between  the  spirit  and  body  more  frequently  and 
forcibly  insisted  on  than  in  the  writings  of  this  apostle,  nowhere 
the  Divine  nature  of  the  soul  more  strongly  asserted.  "With  the 
mind,"  he  says,  "I  serve  the  law  of  God;  but  with  the  flesh  the 
law  of  sin ....  As  many  as  are  led  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  are  the 
sons  of  God ....  The  earnest  expectation  of  the  created  waits 
for  the  manifestation  of  the  sons  of  God. ..  .  The  created  shall 
be  delivered  from  the  bondage  of  corruption,  of  the  flesh  liable  to 

decay,  into  the  glorious  liberty  of  the  children  of  God." 

Two  forms  of  government  are  favorable  to  the  prevalence  of 


falsehood  and  deceit.  Under  a  Despotism,  men  are  false,  treacher- 
ous, and  deceitful  through  fear,  like  slaves  dreading  the  lash. 
Under  a  Democracy  they  are  so  as  a  means  of  attaining  popularity 
and  office,  and  because  of  the  greed  for  wealth.  Experience  will 
probably  prove  that  these  odious  and  detestable  vices  will  grow 
most  rankly  and  spread  most  rapidly  in  a  Republic.  When  office 
and  wealth  become  the  gods  of  a  people,  and  the  most  unworthy 
and  unfit  most  aspire  to  the  former,  and  fraud  becomes  the  high- 
way to  the  latter,  the  land  will  reek  with  falsehood  and  sweat  lies 
and  chicane.  When  the  offices  are  open  to  all,  merit  and  stern  in- 
tegrity and  the  dignity  of  unsullied  honor  will  attain  them  only 
rarely  and  by  accident.  To  be  able  to  serve  the  country  well,  will 
cease  to  be  a  reason  why  the  great  and  wise  and  learned  should  be 
selected  to  render  service.  Other  qualifications,  less  honorable, 
will  be  more  available.  To  adapt  one's  opinions  to  the  popular 
humor;  to  defend,  apologize  for,  and  justify  the  popular  follies;  to 
advocate  the  expedient  and  the  plausible  ;  to  caress,  cajole,  and  flat- 
ter the  elector ;  to  beg  like  a  spaniel  for  his  vote,  even  if  he  be  a 
negro  three  removes  from  barbarism ;  to  profess  friendship  for  a 
competitor  and  stab  him  by  innuendo ;  to  set  on  foot  that  which  at 
third  hand  shall  become  a  lie,  being  cousin-german  to  it  when  ut- 
tered, and  yet  capable  of  being  explained  away, — who  is  there  that 
has  not  seen  these  low  arts  and  base  appliances  put  into  practice, 
and  becoming  general,  until  success  cannot  be  surely  had  by  any 
more  honorable  means  ? — the  result  being  a  State  ruled  and  ruined 
by  ignorant  and  shallow  mediocrity,  pert  self-conceit,  the  green- 
ness of  unripe  intellect,  vain  of  a  school-boy's  smattering  of  know- 

The  faithless  and  the  false  in  public  and  in  political  life,  will  be 
faithless  and  false  in  private.  The  jockey  in  politics,  like  the 
jockey  on  the  race-course,  is  rotten  from  skin  to  core.  Every- 
where he  will  see  first  to  his  own  interests,  and  whoso  leans  on  him 
will  be  pierced  with  a  broken  reed.  His  ambition  is  ignoble,  like 
himself;  and  therefore  he  will  seek  to  attain  office  by  ignoble 
means,  as  he  will  seek  to  attain  any  other  coveted  object, — land, 
money,  or  reputation. 

At  length,  office  and  honor  are  divorced.  The.  place  that  the 
small  and  shallow,  the  knave  or  the  trickster,  is  deemed  competent 
and  fit  to  fill,  ceases  to  be  worthy  'the  ambition  of  the  great  and 
capable ;  or  if  not,  these  shrink  from  a  contest,  the  weapons  to  be 
used  wherein  are  unfit  for  a  gentleman  to  handle.  Then  the  habits 


of  unprincipled  advocates  in  law  courts  are  naturalized  in  Senates, 
and  pettifoggers  wrangle  there,  when  the  fate  of  the  nation  and 
the  lives  of  millions  are  at  stake.  States  are  even  begotten  by  vil- 
lamv  and  brought  forth  by  fraud,  and  rascalities  are  justified  by 
legislators  claiming  to  be  honorable.  Then  contested  elections  are 
decided  by  perjured  votes  or  party  considerations;  and  all  the 
practices  of  the  worst  times  of  corruption  are  revived  and  exag- 
gerated in  Republics. 

It  is  strange  that  reverence  for  truth,  that  manliness  and  gen- 
uine loyalty,  and  scorn  of  littleness  and  unfair  advantage,  and 
genuine  faith  and  godliness  and  large-heartedness  should  diminish, 
among  statesmen  and  people,  as  civilization  advances,  and  freedom 
becomes  more  general,  and  universal  suffrage  implies  universal 
worth  and  fitness !  In  the  age  of  Elizabeth,  without  universal 
suffrage,  or  Societies  for  the  Diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge,  or  pop- 
ular lecturers,  or  Lycaea,  the  statesman,  the  merchant,  the  burgher, 
the  sailor,  were  all  alike  heroic,  fearing  God  only,  and  man  not 
at  all.  Let  but  a  hundred  or  two  years  elapse,  and  in  a  Monarchy 
or  Republic  of  the  same  race,  nothing  is  less  heroic  than  the  mer- 
chant, the  shrewd  speculator,  the  office-seeker,  fearing  man  only, 
and  God  not  at  all.  Reverence  for  greatness  dies  out,  and  is  suc- 
ceeded by  base  envy  of  greatness.  Every  man  is  in  the  way  of 
many,  either  in  the  path  to  popularity  or  wealth.  There  is  a  gen- 
eral feeling  of  satisfaction  when  a  great  statesman  is  displaced,  or 
a  general,  who  has  been  for  his  brief  hour  the  popular  idol,  is  un- 
fortunate and  sinks  from  his  high  estate.  It  becomes  a  misfor- 
tune, if  not  a  crime,  to  be  above  the  popular  level. 

We  should  naturally  suppose  that  a  nation  in  distress  would  take 
counsel  with  the  wisest  of  its  sons.  But,  on  the  contrary,  great 
men  seem  never  so  scarce  as  when  they  are  most  needed,  and  small 
men  never  so  bold  to  insist  on  infesting  place,  as  when  mediocrity 
and  incapable  pretence  and  sophomoric  greenness,  and  showy  and 
sprightly  incompetency  are  most  dangerous.  When  France  was 
in  the  extremity  of  revolutionary  agony,  she  was  governed  by  an 
assembly  of  provincial  pettifoggers,  and  Robespierre,  Marat,  and 
Couthon  ruled  in  the  place  of  Mirabeau,  Vergniaud,  and  Carnot. 
England  was  governed  by  the  Rump  Parliament,  after  she  had  be- 
headed her  king.  Cromwell  extinguished  one  body,  and  Xapoleon 
the  other. 

Fraud,  falsehood,  trickery,  and  deceit  in  national  affairs,  are  the 


signs  of  decadence  in  States  and  precede  convulsions  or  paralysis. 
To  bully  the  weak  and  crouch  to  the  strong,  is  the  policy  of  na- 
tions governed  by  small  mediocrity.  The  tricks  of  the  canvass  for 
office  are  re-enacted  in  Senates.  The  Executive  becomes  the  dis- 
penser of  patronage,  chiefly  to  the  most  unworthy;  and  men  are 
bribed  with  offices  instead  of  money,  to  the  greater  ruin  of  the 
Commonwealth.  The  Divine  in  human  nature  disappears,  and  in- 
terest, greed,  and  selfishness  take  its  place.  That  is  a  sad  and  true 
allegory  which  represents  the  companions  of  Ulysses  changed  by 

the  enchantments  of  Circe  into  swine. 


"Ye  cannot,"  said  the  Great  Teacher,  "serve  God  and  Mam- 
mon." When  the  thirst  for  wealth  becomes  general,  it  will  be 
sought  for  as  well  dishonestly  as  honestly ;  by  frauds  and  over- 
reachings,  by  the  knaveries  of  trade,  the  heartlessness  of  greedy 
speculation,  by  gambling  in  stocks  and  commodities  that  soon  de- 
moralizes a  whole  community.  Men  will  speculate  upon  the  needs 
of  their  neighbors  and  the  distresses  of  their  country.  Bubbles 
that,  bursting,  impoverish  multitudes,  will  be  blown  up  by  cun- 
ning knavery,  with  stupid  credulity  as  its  assistant  and  instru- 
ment. Huge  bankruptcies,  that  startle  a  country  like  the  earth- 
quakes, and  are  more  fatal,  fraudulent  assignments,  engulfment  of 
the  savings  of  the  poor,  expansions  and  collapses  of  the  currency, 
the  crash  of  banks,  the  depreciation  of  Government  securities, 
prey  on  the  savings  of  self-denial,  and  trouble  with  their  depreda- 
tions the  first  nourishment  of  infancy  and  the  last  sands  of  life, 
and  fill  with  inmates  the  churchyards  and  lunatic  asylums.  But 
the  sharper  and  speculator  thrives  and  fattens.  If  his  country  is 
fighting  by  a  levy  en  masse  for  her  very  existence,  he  aids  her  by 
depreciating  her  paper,  so  that  he  may  accumulate  fabulous 
amounts  with  little  outlay.  If  his  neighbor  is  distressed,  he  buys 
his  property  for  a  song.  If  he  administers  upon  an  estate,  it  turns 
out  insolvent,  and  the  orphans  are  paupers.  If  his  bank  explodes, 
he  is  found  to  have  taken  care  of  himself  in  time.  Society  wor- 
ships its  paper-and-credit  kings,  as  the  old  Hindus-  and  Egyptians 
worshipped  their  worthless  idols,  and  often  the  most  obsequiously 
when  in  actual  solid  wealth  they  are  the  veriest  .paupers.  No 
wonder  men  think  there  ought  to  be  another  world,  in  which  the 
injustices  of  this  may  be  atoned  for,  when  they  see  the  friends  of 
ruined  families  begging  the  wealthy  sharpers  to  give  alms  to  pre- 

THE   MASTER.  69 

vent  the  orphaned  victims  from  starving,  until  they  may  find 

ways  of  supporting  themselves. 

£  *  *  *  *  * 

States  are  chiefly  avaricious  of  commerce  and  of  territory.  The 
latter  leads  to  the  violation  of  treaties,  encroachments  upon  feeble 
neighbors,  and  rapacity  toward  their  wards  whose  lands  are  cov- 
eted. Republics  are,  in  this,  as  rapacious  and  unprincipled  as 
Despots,  never  learning  from  history  that  inordinate  expansion  by 
rapine  and  fraud  has  its  inevitable  consequences  in  dismember- 
ment or  subjugation.  When  a  Republic  begins  to  plunder  its 
neighbors,  the  words  of  doom  are  already  written  on  its  walls. 
There  is  a  judgment  already  pronounced  of  God,  upon  whatever  is 
unrighteous  in  the  conduct  of  national  affairs.  When  civil  war 
tears  the  vitals  of  a  Republic,  let  it  look  back  and  see  if  it  has  not 
been  guilty  of  injustices;  and  if  it  has,  let  it  humble  itself  in  the 
dust ! 

When  a  nation  becomes  possessed  with  a  spirit  of  commercial 
greed,  beyond  those  just  and  fair  limits  set  by  a  due  regard  to  a 
moderate  and  reasonable  degree  of  general  and  individual  prosper- 
ity, it  is  a  nation  possessed  by  the  devil  of  commercial  avarice,  a 
passion  as  ignoble  and  demoralizing  as  avarice  in  the  individual ; 
and  as  this  sordid  passion  is  baser  and  more  unscrupulous  than 
ambition,  so  it  is  more  hateful,  and  at  last  makes  the  infected  na- 
tion to  be  regarded  as  the  enemy  of  the  human  race.  To  grasp  at 
the  lion's  share  of  commerce,  has  always  at  last  proven  the  ruin  of 
States,  because  it  invariably  leads  to  injustices  that  make  a  State 
detestable;  to  a  selfishness  and  crooked  policy  that  forbid  other 
nations  to  be  the  friends  of  a  State  that  cares  only  for  itself. 

Commercial  avarice  in  India  was  the  parent  of  more  atrocities 
and  greater  rapacity,  and  cost  more  human  lives,  than  the  nobler 
ambition  for  extended  empire  of  Consular  Rome.  The  nation 
that  grasps  at  the  commerce  of  the  world  cannot  but  become 
selfish,  calculating,  dead  to  the  noblest  impulses  and  sympathies 
which  ought  to  actuate  States.  It  will  submit  to  insults  that 
wound  its  honor,  rather  than  endanger  its  commercial  interests  by 
war;  while,  to  subserve  those  interests,  it  will  wage  unjust  war, 
on  false  or  frivolous  pretexts,  its  free  people  cheerfully  allying 
themselves  with  despots  to  crush  a  commercial  rival  that  has 
dared  to  exile  its  kings  and  elect  its  own  ruler. 

Thus  the  cold  calculations  of  a  sordid  self-interest,  in  nations 


commercially  avaricious,  always  at  last  displace  the  sentiments  and 
lofty  impulses  of  Honor  and  Generosity  by  which  they  rose  to 
greatness;  which  made  Elizabeth  and  Cromwell  alike  the  pro- 
tectors of  Protestants  beyond  the  four  seas  of  England,  against 
crowned  Tyranny  and  mitred  Persecution ;  and,  if  they  had 
lasted,  would  have  forbidden  alliances  with  Czars  and  Autocrats 
and  Bourbons  to  re-enthrone  the  Tyrannies  of  Incapacity,  and 
arm  the  Inquisition  anew  with  its  instruments  of  torture.  The 
soul  of  the  avaricious  nation  petrifies,  like  the  soul  of  the  individ- 
ual who  makes  gold  his  god.  The  Despot  will  occasionally  act 
upon  noble  and  generous  impulses,  and  help  the  weak  against  the 
strong,  the  right  against  the  wrong.  But  commercial  avarice  is 
essentially  egotistic,  grasping,  faithless,  overreaching,  crafty,  cold, 
ungenerous,  selfish,  and  calculating,  controlled  by  considerations 
of  self-interest  alone.  Heartless  and  merciless,  it  has  no  senti- 
ments of  pity,  sympathy,  or  honor,  to  make  it  pause  in  its  remorse- 
less career;  and  it  crushes  down  all  that  is  of  impediment  in  its 
way,  as  its  keels  of  commerce  crush  under  them  the  murmuring 
and  unheeded  waves. 

A  war  for  a  great  principle  ennobles  a  nation.  A  war  for  com- 
mercial supremacy,  upon  some  shallow  pretext,  is  despicable,  and 
more  than  aught  else  demonstrates  to  what  immeasurable  depths 
of  baseness  men  and  nations  can  descend.  Commercial  greed  val- 
ues the  lives  of  men  no  more  than  it  values  the  lives  of  ants.  The 
slave-trade  is  as  acceptable  to  a  people  enthralled  by  that  greed,  as 
the  trade  in  ivory  or  spices,  if  the  profits  are  as  large.  It  will  by- 
and-by  endeavor  to  compound  with  God  and  quiet  its  own  con- 
science, by  compelling  those  to  whom  it  sold  the  slaves  it  bought 
or  stole,  to  set  them  free,  and  slaughtering  them  by  hecatombs  if 
they  refuse  to  obey  the  edicts  of  its  philanthropy. 

Justice  in  no  wise  consists  in  meting  out  to  another  that  exact 
measure  of  reward  or  punishment  which  we  think  and  decree  his 
merit,  or  what  we  call  his  crime,  which  is  more  often  merely  his 
error,  deserves.  The  justice  of  the  father  is  not  incompatible 
with  forgiveness  by  him  of  the  errors  and  offences  of  his  child. 
The  Infinite  Justice  of  God  does  not  consist  in  meting  out  exact 
measures  of  punishment  for  human  frailties  and  sins.  We  are  too 
apt  to  erect  our  own  little  and  narrow  notions  of  what  is  right  and 
just,  into  the  law  of  justice,  and  to  insist  that  God  shall  adopt 
that  as  Kis  law;  to  measure  off  something  with  our  own  little 


tape-line,  and  call  it  God's  law  of  justice.  Continually  we  seek  to 
ennoble  our  own  ignoble  love  of  revenge  and  retaliation,  by  mis- 
naming it  justice. 

Nor  does  justice  consist  in  strictly  governing  our  conduct  to- 
ward other  men  by  the  rigid  rules  of  legal  right.  If  there  were  a 
community  anywhere,  in  which  all  stood  upon  the  strictness  of  this 
rule,  there  should  be  written  over  its  gates,  as  a  warning  to  the 
unfortunates  desiring  admission  to  that  inhospitable  realm,  the 
words  which  DANTE  says  are  written  over  the  great  gate  of  Hell : 

"LET   THOSE   WHO   ENTER    HERE  LEAVE    HOPE   BEHIND!"     It   IS   not 

just  to  pay  the  laborer  in  field  or  factory  or  workshop  his  current 
wages  and  no  more,  the  lowest  market-value  of  his  labor,  for  so 
long  only  as  we  need  that  labor  and  he  is  able  to  work ;  for  when 
sickness  or  old  age  overtakes  him,  that  is  to  leave  him  and  his 
family  to  starve ;  and  God  will  curse  with  calamity  the  people  in 
which  the  children  of  the  laborer  out  of  work  eat  the  boiled  grass 
of  the  field,  and  mothers  strangle  their  children,  that  they  may  buy 
food  for  themselves  with  the  charitable  pittance  given  for  burial 
expenses.  The  rules  of  what  is  ordinarily  termed  "Justice,"  may 
be  punctiliously  observed  among  the  fallen  spirits  that  are  the 

aristocracy  of  Hell. 


Justice,  divorced  from  sympathy,  is  selfish  indifference,  not  in 
the  least  more  laudable  than  misanthropic  isolation.  There  is 
sympathy  even  among  the  hair-like  oscillatorias,  a  tribe  of  simple 
plants,  armies  of  which  may  be  discovered,  with  the  aid  of  the 
microscope,  in  the  tiniest  bit  of  scum  from  a  stagnant  pool.  For 
these  will  place  themselves,  as  if  it  were  by  agreement,  in  separate 
companies,  on  the  side  of  a  vessel  containing  them,  and  seem 
marching  upward  in  rows ;  and  when  a  swarm  grows  weary  of  its 
situation,  and  has  a  mind  to  change  its  quarters,  each  army  holds 
on  its  way  without  confusion  or  intermixture,  proceeding  with 
great  regularity  and  order,  as  if  under  the  directions  of  wise  lead- 
ers. The  ants  and  bees  give  each  other  mutual  assistance,  beyond 
what  is  required  by  that  which  human  creatures  are  apt  to  regard 
as  the  strict  law  of  justice. 

Surely  \ve  need  but  reflect  a  little,  to  be  convinced  that  the  indi- 
vidual man  is  but  a  fraction  of  the  unit  of  society,  and  that  he  is 
indissolubly  connected  with  the  rest  of  his  race.  Not  only  the 
actions,  but  the  will  and  thoughts  of  other  men  make  or  mar  his 


fortunes,  control  his  destinies,  are  unto  him  life  or  death,  dishonor 
or  honor.  The  epidemics,  physical  and  moral, contagious  and  infec- 
tious, public  opinion,  popular  delusions,  enthusiasms,  and  the  other 
great  electric  phenomena  and  currents,  moral  and  intellectual, 
prove  the  universal  sympathy-.  The  vote  of  a  single  and  obscure 
man,  the  utterance  of  self-will,  ignorance,  conceit,  or  spite,  decid- 
ing an  election  and  placing  Folly  or  Incapacity  or  Baseness  in  a 
Senate,  involves  the  country  in  war,  sweeps  away  our  fortunes, 
slaughters  our  sons,  renders  the  labors  of  a  life  unavailing,  and 
pushes  us,  helpless,  with  all  our  intellect  to  resist,  into  the  grave. 

These  considerations  ought  to  teach  us  that  justice  to  others 
and  to  ourselves  is  the  same ;  that  we  cannot  define  our  duties  by 
mathematical  lines  ruled  by  the  square,  but  must  fill  with  them 
the  great  circle  traced  by  the  compasses;  that  the  circle  of  hu- 
manity is  the  limit,  and  we  are  but  the  point  in  its  centre,  the 
drops  in  the  great  Atlantic,  the  atom  or  particle,  bound  by  a  mys- 
terious law  of  attraction  which  we  term  sympathy  to  every  other 
atom  in  the  mass ;  that  the  physical  and  moral  welfare  of  others 
cannot  be  indifferent  to  us ;  that  we  have  a  direct  and  immediate 
interest  in  the  public  morality  and  popular  intelligence,  in  the 
well-being  and  physical  comfort  of  the  people  at  large.  The  igno- 
rance of  the  people,  their  pauperism  and  destitution,  and  conse- 
quent degradation,  their  brutalization  and  demoralization,  are  all 
diseases ;  and  we  cannot  rise  high  enough  above  the  people,  nor 
shut  ourselves  up  from  them  enough,  to  escape  the  miasmatic  con- 
tagion and  the  great  magnetic  currents. 

Justice  is  peculiarly  indispensable  to  nations.  The  unjust  State 
is  doomed  of  God  to  calamity  and  ruin.  This  is  the  teaching  of 
the  Eternal  Wisdom  and  of  history.  "  Righteousness  exalteth  a 
nation ;  but  wrong  is  a  reproach  to  nations."  "  The  Throne  is 
established  by  Righteousness.  Let  the  lips  of  the  Ruler  pronounce 
the  sentence  that  is  Divine ;  and  his  mouth  do  no  wrong  in  judg- 
ment!" The  nation  that  adds  province  to  province  by  fraud  and 
violence,  that  encroaches  on  the  weak  and  plunders  its  wards,  and 
violates  its  treaties  and  the  obligation  of  its  contracts,  and  for  the 
law  of  honor  and  fair-dealing  substitutes  the  exigencies  of  greed 
and  the  base  precepts  of  policy  and  craft  and  the  ignoble  tenets  of 
expediency,  is  predestined  to  destruction ;  for  here,  as  with  the  in- 
dividual, the  consequences  of  wrong  are  inevitable  and  eternal. 
A  sentence  is  written  against  all  that  is  unjust,  written  by  God 


in  the  nature  of  man  and  in  the  nature  of  the  Universe,  because  it 
is  in  the  nature  of  the  Infinite  God.  No  wrong  is  really  successful. 
The  gain  of  injustice  is  a  loss;  its  pleasure,  suffering.  Iniquity 
often  seems  to  prosper,  but  its  success  is  its  defeat  and  shame.  If 
its  consequences  pass  by  the  doer,  they  fall  upon  and  crush  his 
children.  It  is  a  philosophical,  physical,  and  moral  truth,  in  the 
form  of  a  threat,  that  God  visits  the  iniquity  of  the  fathers  upon 
the  children,  to  the  third  and  fourth  generation  of  those  who  vio- 
late His  laws.  After  a  long  while,  the  day  of  reckoning  always 
comes,  to  nation  as  to  individual ;  and  always  the  knave  deceives 
himself,  and  proves  a  failure. 

Hypocrisy  is  the  homage  that  vice  and  wrong  pay  to  virtue  and 
justice.  It  is  Satan  attempting  to  clothe  himself  in  the  angelic 
vesture  of  light.  It  is  equally  detestable  in  morals,  politics,  and 
religion ;  in  the  man  and  in  the  nation.  To  do  injustice  under  the 
pretence  of  equity  and  fairness ;  to  reprove  vice  in  public  and  com- 
mit it  in  private ;  to  pretend  to  charitable  opinion  and  censoriously 
condemn ;  to  profess  the  principles  of  Masonic  beneficence,  and 
close  the  ear  to  the  wail  of  distress  and  the  cry  of  suffering;  to 
eulogize  the  intelligence  of  the  people,  and  plot  to  deceive  and  be- 
tray them  by  means  of  their  ignorance  and  simplicity ;  to  prate  of 
purity,  and  peculate;  of  honor,  and  basely  abandon  a  sinking 
cause ;  of  disinterestedness,  and  sell  one's  vote  for  place  and  pow- 
er, are  hypocrisies  as  common  as  they  are  infamous  and  disgrace- 
ful. To  steal  the  livery  of  the  Court  of  God  to  serve  the  Devil  with- 
al ;  to  pretend  to  believe  in  a  God  of  mercy  and  a  Redeemer  of  love, 
and  persecute  those  of  a  different  faith ;  to  devour  widows'  houses, 
and  for  a  pretence  make  long  prayers ;  to  preach  continence,  and 
wallow  in  lust ;  to  inculcate  humility,  and  in  pride  surpass  Lucifer  ; 
to  pay  tithe,  and  omit  the  weightier  matters  of  the  law,  judgment, 
mercy,  and  faith  ;  to  strain  at  a  gnat,  and  swallow  a  camel ;  to  make 
clean  the  outside  of  the  cup  and  platter,  keeping  them  full  within 
of  extortion  and  excess ;  to  appear  outwardly  righteous  unto  men, 
but  within  be  full  of  hypocrisy  and  iniquity,  is  indeed  to  be  like 
unto  whited  sepulchres,  which  appear  beautiful  outward,  but  are 
within  full  of  bones  of  the  dead  and  of  all  uncleanness. 

The  Republic  cloaks  its  ambition  with  the  pretence  of  a  desire 
and  duty  to  "extend  the  area  of  freedom,"  and  claims  it  as  its 
"manifest  destiny"  to  annex  other  Republics  or  the  States  or 
Provinces  of  others  to  itself,  by  open  violence,  or  under  obsolete, 



empty,  and  fraudulent  titles.  The  Empire' founded  by  a  successful 
soldier,  claims  its  ancient  or  natural  boundaries,  and  makes  neces- 
sity and  its  safety  the  plea  for  open  robbery.  The  great  Merchant 
Nation,  gaining  foothold  in  the  Orient,  finds  a  continual  necessity 
for  extending  its  dominion  by  arms,  and  subjugates  India.  The 
great  Royalties  and  Despotisms,  without  a  plea,  partition  among 
themselves  a  Kingdom,  dismember  Poland,  and  prepare  to  wrangle 
over  the  dominions  of  the  Crescent.  To  maintain  the  balance  of 
power  is  a  plea  for  the  obliteration  of  States.  Carthage,  Genoa, 
and  Venice,  commercial  Cities  only,  must  acquire  territory  by  force 
or  fraud,  and  become  States.  Alexander  marches  to  the  Indus ; 
Tamerlane  seeks  universal  empire;  the  Saracens  conquer  Spain 
and  threaten  Vienna. 

The  thirst  for  power  is  never  satisfied.  It  is  insatiable.  Neither 
men  nor  nations  ever  have  power  enough.  When  Rome  was  the 
mistress  of  the  world,  the  Emperors  caused  themselves  to  be  wor- 
shipped as  gods.  The  Church  of  Rome  claimed  despotism  over 
the  soul,  and  over  the  whole  life  from  the  cradle  to  the  grave.  It 
gave  and  sold  absolutions  for  past  and  future  sins.  It  claimed  to 
be  infallible  in  matters  of  faith.  It  decimated  Europe  to  purge  it 
of  heretics.  It  decimated  America  to  convert  the  Mexicans  and 
Peruvians.  It  gave  and  took  away  thrones ;  and  by  excommuni- 
cation and  interdict  closed  the  gates  of  Paradise  against  Nations. 
Spain,  haughty  with  its  dominion  over  the  Indies,  endeavored  to 
crush  out  Protestantism  in  the  Netherlands,  while  Philip  the 
Second  married  the  Queen  of  England,  and  the  pair  sought  to  win 
that  kingdom  back  to  its  allegiance  to  the  Papal  throne.  After- 
ward Spain  attempted  to  conquer  it  with  her  "invincible"  Ar- 
mada. Napoleon  set  his  relatives  and  captains  on  thrones,  and 
parcelled  among  them  half  of  Europe.  The  Czar  rules  over  an 
empire  more  gigantic  than  Rome.  The  history  of  all  is  or  will  be 
the  same, — acquisition,  dismemberment,  ruin.  There  is  a  judg- 
ment of  God  against  all  that  is  unjust. 

To  seek  to  subjugate  the  will  of  others  and  take  the  soul  cap- 
tive, because  it  is  the  exercise  of  the  highest  power,  seems  to  be  the 
highest  object  of  human  ambition.  It  is  at  the  bottom  of  all  pros- 
elyting and  propagandism,  from  that  of  Mesmer  to  that  of  the 
Church  of  Rome  and  the  French  Republic.  That  was  the  aposto- 
late  alike  of  Joshua  and  of  Mahomet.  Masonry  alone  preacnes 
Toleration,  the  right  of  man  to  abide  by  his  own  faith,  tne  right 


of  all  States  to  govern  themselves.  It  rebukes  alike  the  monarch 
who  seeks  to  extend  his  dominions  by  conquest,  the  Church 
that  claims  the  right  to  repress  heresy  by  fire  and  steel,  and  the  con- 
federation of  States  that  insist  on  maintaining  a  union  by  force 
and  restoring  brotherhood  by  slaughter  and  subjugation. 

It  is  natural,  when  we  are  wronged,  to  desire  revenge;  and  to 
persuade  ourselves  that  we  desire  it  less  for  our  own  satisfaction 
than  to  prevent  a  repetition  of  the  wrong,  to  which  the  doer  would 
be  encouraged  by  immunity  coupled  with  the  profit  of  the  wrong. 
To  submit  to  be  cheated  is  to  encourage  the  cheater  to  continue ; 
and  we  are  quite  apt  to  regard  ourselves  as  God's  chosen  instru- 
ments to  inflict  His  vengeance,  and  for  Him  and  in  His  stead  to 
discourage  wrong  by  making  it  fruitless  and  its  punishment  sure. 
Revenge  has  been  said  to  be  "a  kind  of  wild  justice;"  but  it  is 
always  taken  in  anger,  and  therefore  is  unworthy  of  a  great  soul, 
which  ought  not  to  suffer  its  equanimity  to  be  disturbed  by  ingrat- 
itude or  villainy.  The  injuries  done  us  by  the  base  are  as  much 
unworthy  of  our  angry  notice  as  those  done  us  by  the  insects  and 
the  beasts;  and  when  we  crush  the  adder,  or  slay  the  wolf  or 
hyena,  we  should  do  it  without  being  moved  to  anger,  and  with  no 
more  feeling  of  revenge  than  we  have  in  rooting  up  a  noxious  weed. 

And  if  it  be  not  in  human  nature  not  to  take  revenge  by  way  of 
punishment,  let  the  Mason  truly  consider  that  in  doing  so  he  is 
God's  agent,  and  so  let  his  revenge  be  measured  by  justice  and 
tempered  by  mercy.  The  law  of  God  is,  that  the  consequences  of 
wrong  and  cruelty  and  crime  shall  be  their  punishment;  and  the 
injured  and  the  wronged  and  the  indignant  are  as  much  His  instru- 
ments to  enforce  that  law,  as  the  diseases  and  public  detestation, 
and  the  verdict  of  history  and  the  execration  of  posterity  are.  No 
one  will  say  that  the  Inquisitor  who  has  racked  and  burned  the 
innocent;  the  Spaniard  who  hewed  Indian  infants,  living,  into 
pieces  with  his  sword,  and  fed  the  mangled  limbs  to  his  blood- 
hounds ;  the  military  tyrant  who  has  shot  men  without  trial,  the 
knave  who  has  robbed  or  betrayed  his  State,  the  fraudulent  banker 
or  bankrupt  who  has  beggared  orphans,  the  public  officer  who  has 
violated  his  oath,  the  judge  who  has  sold  injustice,  the  legislator 
who  has  enabled  Incapacity  to  work  the  ruin  of  the  State,  ought 
not  to  be  punished.  Let  them  be  so ;  and  let  the  injured  or  the 
sympathizing  be  the  instruments  of  God's  just  vengeance ;  but 
always  out  of  a  higher  feeling  than  mere  personal  revenge. 


Remember  that  every  moral  characteristic  of  man  finds  its  pro-- 
totype  among  creatures  of  lower  intelligence ;  that  the  cruel  foul- 
ness of  the  hyena,  the  savage  rapacity  of  the  wolf,  the  merciless 
rage  of  the  tiger,  the  crafty  treachery  of  the  panther,  are  found 
among  mankind,  and  ought  to  excite  no  other  emotion,  when 
found  in  the  man,  than  when  found  in  the  beast.  Why  should  the 
true  man  be  angry  with  the  geese  that  hiss,  the  peacocks  that 
strut,  the  asses  that  bray,  and  the  apes  that  imitate  and  chatter, 
although  they  wear  the  human  form?  Always,  also,  it  remains 
true,  that  it  is  more  noble  to  forgive  than  to  take  revenge;  and 
that,  in  general,  we  ought  too  much  to  despise  those  who  wrong 
us.  to  feel  the  emotion  of  anger,  or  to  desire  revenge. 

At  the  sphere  of  the  Sun,  you  are  in  the  region  of  LIGHT.  * 
*  *  The  Hebrew  word  for  gold,  ZAHAB,  also  means  Light,  of 
which  the  Sun  is  to  the  Earth  the  great  source.  So,  in  the  great 
Oriental  allegory  of  the  Hebrews,  the  River  PISON  compasses  the 
land  of  Gold  or  Light;  and  the  River  GIHON  the  land  of  Ethiopia 
or  Darkness. 

What  light  is,  we  no  more  know  than  the  ancients  did.  Accord- 
ing to  the  modern  hypothesis,  it  is  not  composed  of  luminous' 
particles  shot  out  from  the  sun  with  immense  velocity ;  but  that 
body  only  impresses,  on  the  ether  which  fills  all  space,  a  powerful 
vibratory  movement  that  extends,  in  the  form  of  luminous  waves, 
beyond  the  most  distant  planets,  supplying  them  with  light  and 
heat.  To  the  ancients,  it  was  an  outflowing  from  the  Deity.  To 
us,  as  to  them,  it  is  the  apt  symbol  of  truth  and  knowledge.  To  us, 
also,  the  upward  journey  of  the  soul  through  the  Spheres  is  symbol- 
ical ;  but  we  are  as  little  informed  as  they  whence  the  soul  comes, 
where  it  has  its  origin,  and  whither  it  goes  after  death.  They  en- 
deavored to  have  some  belief  and  faith,  some  creed,  upon  those 
points.  At  the  present  day,  men  are  satisfied  to  think  nothing  in 
regard  to  all  that,  and  only  to  believe  that  the  soul  is  a  something 
separate  from  the  body  and  out-living  it,  but  whether  existing  be- 
fore it,  neither  to  inquire  nor  care.  No  one  asks  whether  it  ema- 
nates from  the  Deity,  or  is  created  out  of  nothing,  or  is  generated 
like  the  body,  and  the  issue  of  the  souls  of  the  father  and  the 
mother.  Let  us  not  smile,  therefore,  at  the  ideas  of  the  ancients, 
until  we  have  a  better  belief;  but  accept  their  symbols"  as  meaning1 
that  the  soul  is  of  a  Divine  nature,  originating  in  a  sphere  nearer 
the  Deity,  and  returning  to  that  when  freed  from  the  enthrallment 

THE   MASTER.  77 

of  the  body ;  and  that  it  can  only  return  there  when  purified  of 
all  the  sordidness  and  sin  which  have,  as  it  were,  become  part  of 
its  substance,  by  its  connection  with  the  body. 

It  is  not  strange  that,  thousands  of  years  ago,  men  worshipped 
the  Sun,  and  that  to-day  that  worship  continues  among  the  Par- 
sees.  Originally  they  looked  beyond  the  orb  to  the  invisible  God, 
of  whom  the  Sun's  light,  seemingly  identical  with  generation  and 
life,  was  the  manifestation  and  outflowing.  Long  before  the 
Chaldaean  shepherds  watched  it  on  their  plains,  it  came  up  regu- 
larly, as  it  now  does,  in  the  morning,  like  a  god,  and  again  sank, 
like  a  king  retiring,  in  the  west,  to  return  again  in  due  time  in  the 
same  array  of  majesty.  We  worship  Immutability.  It  was  that 
steadfast,  immutable  character  of  the  Sun  that  the  men  of  Baalbec 
worshipped.  His  light-giving  and  life-giving  powers  were  second- 
ary attributes.  The  one  grand  idea  that  compelled  worship  was 
the  characteristic  of  God  which  they  saw  reflected  in  his  light, 
and  fancied  they  saw  in  its  originality  the  changelessness  of  Deity. 
He  had  seen  thrones  crumble,  earthquakes  shake  the  world  and 
hurl  down  mountains.  Beyond  Olympus,  beyond  the  Pillars  of 
Hercules,  he  had  gone  daily  to  his  abode,  and  had  come  daily  again 
in  the  morning  to  behold  the  temples  they  built  to  his  worship. 
They  personified  him  as  BRAHMA,  AMUN,  OSIRIS,  BEL,  ADONIS, 
MALKARTH,  MITHRAS,  and  APOLLO;  and  the  nations  that  did  so 
grew  old  and  died.  Moss  grew  on  the  capitals  of  the  great  col- 
umns of  his  temples,  and  he  shone  on  the  moss.  Grain  by  grain 
the  dust  of  his  temples  crumbled  and  fell,  and  was  borne  off  on 
the  wind,  and  still  he  shone  on  crumbling  column  and  architrave. 
The  roof  fell  crashing  on  the  pavement,  and  he  shone  in  on  the 
Holy  of  Holies  with  unchanging  rays.  It  was  not  strange  that 
men  worshipped  the  Sun. 

There  is  a  water-plant,  on  whose  broad  leaves  the  drops  of  water 
roll  about  without  uniting,  like  drops  of  mercury.  So  arguments 
on  points  of  faith,  in  politics  or  religion,  roll  over  the  surface  of 
the  mind.  An  argument  that  convinces  one  mind  has  no  effect  on 
another.  Few  intellects,  or  souls  that  are  the  negations  of  intel- 
lect, have  any  logical  power  or  capacity.  There  is  a  singular  obli- 
quity in  the  human  mind  that  makes  the  false  logic  more  effective 
than  the  true  with  nine-tenths  of  those  who  are  regarded  as  men 
of  intellect.  Even  among  the  judges,  not  one  in  ten  can  argue 
logically.  Each  mind  sees  the  truth,  distorted  through  its  own 


medium.  Truth,  to  most  men,  is  like  matter  in  the  spheroidal 
state.  Like  a  drop  of  cold  water  on  the  surface  of  a  red-hot  metal 
plate,  it  dances,  trembles,  and  spins,  and  never  comes  into  contact 
with  it;  and  the  mind  may  be  plunged  into  truth,  as  the  hand 
moistened  with  sulphurous  acid  may  into  melted  metal,  and  be  not 

even  warmed  by  the  immersion. 


The  word  Khairum  or  Khurum  is  a  compound  one.  Gesenius 
renders  Khurum  by  the  word  noble  or  free-born:  Khur  meaning 
white,  noble.  It  also  means  the  opening  of  a  window,  the  socket 
of  the  eye.  Khri  also  means  white,  or  an  opening;  and  Khris,  the 
orb  of  the  Sun,  in  Job,  viii.  13,  and  x.  7.  Krishna  is  the  Hindu 
Sun-God.  Khur,  the  Parsi  word,  is  the  literal  name  of  the  Sun. 

From  Kur  or  Khur,  the  Sun,  comes  Khora,  a  name  of  Lower 
Egypt.  The  Sun,  Bryant  says  in  his  Mythology,  was  called  Kur; 
and  Plutarch  says  that  the  Persian?  called  the  Sun  Kuros.  Knrios, 
Lord,  in  Greek,  like  Adonai,  Lord,  in  Phoenician  and  Hebrew, 
was  applied  to  the  Sun.  Many  places  were  sacred  to  the  Sun,  and 
called  Kura,  Kuria,  Kuropolis,  Kurene,  Kureschata,  Kuresta,  and 
Corusia  in  Scythia. 

The  Egyptian  Deity  called  by  the  Greeks  "Horus,"  was  Her-Ra, 
or  Har-ocris,  Hor  or  Har,  the  Sun.  Hari  is  a  Hindu  name  of  the 
Sun.  Ari-al,  Ar-es,  Ar,  Aryaman,  Areimonios,  the  AR  meaning 
Fire  or  Flame,  are  of  the  same  kindred.  Hermes  or  Har-mcs, 
(Aram,  Remus,  Haram,  Harameias},  was  Kadmos,  the  Divine 
Light  or  Wisdom.  Mar-kuri,  says  Movers,  is  Mar,  the  Sun. 

In  the  Hebrew,  AOOR,  11K,  is  Light,  Fire,  or  the  Sun. 
Cyrus,  said  Ctesias,  was  so  named  from  Kuros,  the  Sun.  Kuris, 
Hesychius  says,  was  Adonis.  Apollo,  the  Sun-god,  was  called 
Kurraios,  from  Kurra,  a  city  in  Phocis.  The  people  of  Kurene, 
originally  Ethiopians  or  Cuthites,  worshipped  the  Sun  under  the 
title  of  Achoor  and  Achor. 

We  know,  through  a  precise  testimony  in  the  ancient  annals  of 
Tsur,  that  the  principal  festivity  of  Mal-karth,  the  incarnation  of 
the  Sun  at  the  Winter  Solstice, held  at  Tsur,  was  called  his  re-birth 
or  his  awakening,  and  that  it  was  celebrated  by  means  of  a  pyre, 
on  which  the  god  was  supposed  to  regain,  through  the  aid  of  fire, 
a  new  life.  This  festival  was  celebrated  in  the* -month  Peri  tins 
(Barith),  the  second  day  of  which  corresponded  to  the  25th  of 
December.  KHUR-UM,  King  of  Tyre,  Movers  says,  first  performed 


this  ceremony.  These  facts  we  learn  from  Josephus,  Sen-ins  on 
the  ^Eneid,  and  the  Dionysiacs  of  Nonnus;  and  through  a  coinci- 
dence that  cannot  be  fortuitous,  the  same  day  was  at  Rome  the 
Dies  Natalis  Solis  Invicti,  the  festal  day  of  the  invincible  Sun. 
Under  this  title,  HERCULES,  HAR-acles,  was  worshipped  at  Tsur. 
Thus,  while  the  temple  was  being  erected,  the  death  and  resurrec- 
tion of  a  Sun-God  was  annually  represented  at  Tsur,  by  Solomon's 
ally,  at  the  winter  solstice,  by  the  pyre  of  MAL-KARTH,  the  Tsurian 

AROERIS  or  HAR-oeris,  the  elder  HORUS,  is  from  the  same  old 
root  that  in  the  Hebrew  has  the  form  Aur,  or,  with  the  definite 
article  prefixed,  Hour,  Light,  or  the  Light,  splendor,  flame,  the  Sun 
and  his  rays.  The  hieroglyphic  of  the  younger  HORUS  was  the 
point  in  a  circle ;  of  the  Elder,  a  pair  of  eyes ;  and  the  festival  of 
the  thirtieth  day  of  the  month  Epiphi,  when  the  sun  and  moon 
were  supposed  to  be  in  the  same  right  line  with  the  earth,  was 
called  "The  birth-day  of  the  eyes  of  Horus." 

In  a  papyrus  published  by  Champollion,  this  god  is  styled  "Har- 
oeri,  Lord  of  the  Solar  Spirits,  the  beneficent  eye  of  the  Sun." 
Plutarch  calls  him  "Har-pocrates;"  but  there  is  no  trace  of  the 
latter  part  of  the  name  in  the  hieroglyphic  legends.  He  is  the  son 
of  OSIRIS  and  Isis ;  and  is  represented  sitting  on  a  throne  sup- 
ported by  lions;  the  same  word,  in  Egyptian,  meaning  Lion  and 
Snn.  So  Solomon  made  a  great  throne  of  ivory,  plated  with  gold, 
with  six  steps,  at  each  arm  of  which  was  a  lion,  and  one  on  each 
side  to  each  step,  making  seven  on  each  side. 

Again,  the  Hebrew  word  Tl,  Khi,  means  "living;"  and  CS1 
rani,  "was,  or  shall  be,  raised  or  lifted  up."  The  latter  is  the  same 
as  DTI,  CViK,  D"in,  room,  arodm,  hanlin,  whence  Aram,  for  Syria, 
or  Aramcea,  High-land.  Khairiim,  therefore,  would  mean  "was 
raised  up  to  life,  or  living." 

S6,  in  Arabic,  hrm,  an  unused  root,  meant,  "was  high,"  "made 
great"  "exalted;"  and  Hirm  means  an  ox,  the  symbol  of  the  Sun 
in  Taurus,  at  the  Vernal  Equinox. 

KHURUM,  therefore,  improperly  called  Hiram,  is  KHUR-OM,  the 
same  as  Her-ra,  Her-ines,  and  Hcr-ades,  the  "Heracles  Tyrius 
In-cictus"  the  personification  of  Light  and  the  Son,  the  Mediator, 
Redeemer,  and  Saviour.  From  the  Egyptian  word  Ra  came  the 
Coptic  Ouro,  and  the  Hebrew  Aur,  Light.  Har-ocri,  is  PI  or  or 
Har,  the  chief  or  master.  Hor  is  also  heat ;  and  hora,  season  or 



hour ;  and  hence,  in  several  African  dialects,  as  names  of  the  Sun, 
Airo,  Ayero,  eer,  uiro,  ghurrah,  and  the  like.  The  royal  name 
rendered  Pharaoh,  was  PHRA,  that  is,  Pai-ra,  the  Sun. 

The  legend  of  the  contest  between  Hor-ra  and  Set,  or  Set-nu-bi, 
the  same  as  Bar  or  Bal,  is  older  than  that  of  the  strife  between 
Osiris  and  Typhon;  as  old,  at  least,  as  the  nineteenth  dynasty.  It 
is  called  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  "The  day  of  the  battle  between 
Horus  and  Set."  The  later  myth  connects  itself  with  Phoenicia 
and  Syria.  The  body  of  OSIRIS  went  ashore  at  Gebal  or  Byblos, 
sixty  miles  above  Tsur.  You  will  not  fail  to  notice  that  in  the 
name  of  each  murderer  of  Khurum,  that  of  the  Evil  God  Bal  is 



Har-oeri  was  the  god  of  TIME,  as  well  as  of  Life.  The  Egyptian 
legend  was  that  the  King  of  Byblos  cut  down  the  tamarisk-tree 
containing  the  body  of  OSIRIS,  and  made  of  it  a  column  for  his 
palace.  Isis,  employed  in  the  palace,  obtained  possession  of  the 
column,  took  the  body  out  of  it,  and  carried  it  away.  Apuleius 
describes  her  as  "a  beautiful  female,  over  whose  divine  neck  her 
long  thick  hair  hung  in  graceful  ringlets ;"  and  in  the  procession 
female  attendants,  with  ivory  combs,  seemed  to  dress  and  ornament 
the  royal  hair  of  the  goddess.  The  palm-tree,  and  the  lamp  in  the 
shape  of  a  boat,  appeared  in  the  procession.  If  the  symbol  we  are 
speaking  of  is  not  a  mere  modern  invention,  it  is  to  these  things  it 

The  identity  of  the  legends  is  also  confirmed  by  this  hieroglyphic 
picture,  copied  from  an  ancient  Egyptian  monument,  which  may 
also  enlighten  you  as  to  the  Lion's  grip  and  the  Master's  gavel. 


2tf,  in  the  ancient  Phoenician  character,^  ^X  and  in  the  Sama- 
ritan, ^  /f,  A  B,  (the  two  letters  representing  the  numbers  i,  2, 
or  Unity  and  Duality,  means  Father,  and  is  a  primitive  noun,  com- 
mon to  all  the  Semitic  languages. 

It  also  means  an  Ancestor,  Originator,  Inventor,  Head,  Chief  or 
Ruler,  Manager,  Overseer,  Master,  Priest,  Prophet. 

\2N  is  simply  Father,  when  it  is  in  construction,  that  is,  when 
it  precedes  another  word,  and  in  English  the  preposition  "of"  is 
interposed,  as  ^K-^N,  Abi-Al,  the  Father  of  Al. 

Also,  the  final  Yod  means  "my";  so  that  ''iN  by  itself  means 
"My  father."  i^tf  "PIT,  David  my  father,  2.  Chron.  ii.  3. 

1,  (Vav)  final  is  the  possessive  pronoun  "his"';  and  V3N,  Abiu 
(which  we  read  "Abif")  means  "of  my  father's."  Its  full  mean- 
ing, as  connected  with  the  name  of  Khurum,  no  doubt  is,  "for- 
merly one  of  my  father's  servants,"  or  "slaves." 

The  name  of  the  Phrenician  artificer  is,  in  Samuel  and  Kings, 
QTn  and  DWI— [2  Sam.  v.  n  ;  i  Kings,  v.  15;  I  Kings,  vii.  40]. 
In  Chronicles  it  is  DTin,  with  the  addition  of  ^K.  [2  Chron.  ii.  12]  ; 
and  of  V2K.  [2  Chron.  iv.  16]. 

It  is  merely  absurd  to  add  the  word  "Abif,"  or  "Abiff,"  as  part 
of  the  name  of  the  artificer.  And  it  is  almost  as  absurd  to  add 
the  word  "Abi,"  which  was  a  title  and  not  part  of  the  name.  Jo- 
seph says  [Gen.  xlv.  8],  "God  has  constituted  me  'Ab  I'Paraah, 
as  Father  to  Paraah,  i.  e.,  Vizier  or  Prime  Minister."  So  Haman 
was  called  the  Second  Father  of  Artaxerxes ;  and  when  King  Khu- 
rum used  the  phrase  "Khurum  Abi,"  he  meant  that  the  artificer 
he  sent  Schlomoh  was  the  principal  or  chief  workman  in  his  line 
at  Tsur. 

A  medal  copied  by  Montfaucon  exhibits  a  female  nursing  a  child, 
with  ears  of  wheat  in  her  hand,  and  the  legend  was  (lao.)  She  is 
seated  on  clouds,  a  star  at  her  head,  and  three  ears  of  wheat  rising 
from  an  altar  before  her. 

HORUS  was  the  mediator,  who  was  buried  three  days,  was  regen- 
erated, and  triumphed  over  the  evil  principle. 

The  word  HERI,  in  Sanscrit,  means  Shepherd,  as  well  as  Saviour. 
CRISHNA  is  called  Hen,  as  JESUS  called  Himself  the  Good  Shep- 

*nn,  Khar,  means  an  aperture  of  a  window,  a  cave,  or  the  eye. 
Also  it  means  white.  In  Syriac,  f  j  g^. 

'in  also  means  an  opening,  and  noble,  free-born,  high-born. 


Din,   KHURM  means  consecrated,  devoted;  in  yEthiopic  ^  /.  o  j 
It  is  the  name  of  a  city,  [Josh.  xix.  38]  ;  and  of  a  man,  [Ezr.  ii.  32, 
x.  31  ;  Neh.  iii.  u]. 

Him,  Khirah,  means  nobility,  a  noble  race. 

Buddha  is  declared  to  comprehend  in  his  own  person  the 
essence  of  the  Hindu  Trimurti;  and  hence  the  tri-literal  mono- 
syllable Om  or  Aum  is  applied  to  him  as  being  essentially  the 
same  as  Brahma- Vishnu-Siva.  He  is  the  same  as  Hermes,  Thoth, 
Taut,  and  Teutates.  One  of  his  names  is  Heri-maya  or  Her- 
maya,  which  are  evidently  the  same  name  as  Hermes  and  Khirm 
or  Khurm.  Heri,  in  Sanscrit,  means  Lord. 

A  learned  Brother  places  over  the  two  symbolic  pillars,  from 
right  to  left,  the  two  words  Z'^flfand  2£\7Q>  ^  and  ^J/2,Inu 
and  BAL  :  followed  by  the  hieroglyphic  equivalent,  <y^  of  the 
Sun-God,  Amun-ra.  Is  it  an  accidental  coincidence,  r~3  that  in 
the  name  of  each  murderer  are  the  two  names  of  the  Good  and  Evil 
Deities  of  the  Hebrews ;  for  Yn-bel  is  but  Yehu-Bal  orYeho-Bal? 
and  that  the  three  final  syllables  of  the  names,  a,  o,  urn,  make 
A.'.U.'.M.'.  the  sacred  word  of  the  Hindoos,  meaning  the  Triune- 
God,  Life-giving,  Life-preserving,  Life-destroying:  represented  by 
the  mystic  character  Y"  ? 

The  genuine  Acacia,  also,  is  the  thorny  tamarisk,  the  sanle  tree 
which  grew  up  around  the  body  of  Osiris.  It  was  a  sacred  tree 
among  the  Arabs,  who  made  of  it  the  idol  Al-Uzza,  which  Mo- 
hammed destroyed.  It  is  abundant  as  a  bush  in  the  Desert  of 
Thur :  and  of  it  the  "crown  of  thorns"  was  composed,  which  was 
set  on  the  forehead  of  Jesus  of  Nazareth.  It  is  a  fit  type  of  im- 
mortality on  account  of  its  tenacity  of  life ;  for  it  has  been  known, 
when  planted  as  a  door-post,  to  take  root  again  and  shoot  out 

budding  boughs  above  the  threshold. 


Every  commonwealth  must  have  its  periods  of  trial  and  transi- 
tion, especially  if  it  engages  in  war.  It  is  certain  at  some  time  to 
be  wholly  governed  by  agitators  appealing  to  all  the  baser  ele- 
ments of  the  popular  nature ;  by  moneyed  corporations ;  by  those 
enriched  by  the  depreciation  of  government  securities  or  paper ;  by 
small  attorneys,  schemers,  money-jobbers,  speculators  and  adven- 
turers— an  ignoble  oligarchy,  enriched  by  the  distresses  of  the  State, 
and  fattened  on  the  miseries  of  the  people.  Then  all  the  deceitful 
visions  of  equality  and  the  rights  of  man  end;  and  the  wronged 

THE   MASTER.  83 

and  plundered  State  can  regain  a  real  liberty  only  by  passing 
through  "great  varieties  of  untried  being,"  purified  in  its  trans- 
migration by  fire  and  blood. 

In  a  Republic,  it  soon  comes  to  pass  that  parties  gather  round 
the  negative  and  positive  poles  of  some  opinion  or  notion,  and 
that  the  intolerant  spirit  of  a  triumphant  majority  will  allow  no 
deviation  from  the  standard  of  orthodoxy  which  it  has  set  up  for 
itself.  Freedom  of  opinion  will  be  professed  and  pretended  to, 
but  every  one  will  exercise  it  at  the  peril  of  being  banished  from 
political  communion  with  those  who  hold  the  reins  and  prescribe 
the  policy  to  be  pursued.  Slavishness  to  party  and  obsequiousness 
to  the  popular  whims  go  hand  in  hand.  Political  independence 
only  occurs  in  a  fossil  state ;  and  men's  opinions  grow  out  of  the 
acts  they  have  been  constrained  to  do  or  sanction.  Flattery, 
either  of  individual  or  people,  corrupts  both  the  receiver  and  the 
giver ;  and  adulation  is  not  of  more  service  to  the  people  than  to 
kings.  A  Caesar,  securely  seated  in  power,  cares  less  for  it  than  a 
free  democracy ;  nor  will  his  appetite  for  it  grow  to  exorbitance, 
as  that  of  a  people  will,  until  it  becomes  insatiate.  The  effect 
of  liberty  to  individuals  is,  that  they  may  do  what  they  please ; 
to  a  people,  it  is  to  a  great  extent  the  same.  If  accessible  to  flat- 
tery, as  this  is  always  interested,  and  resorted  to  on  low  and  base 
motives,  and  for  evil  purposes,  either  individual  or  people  is  sure, 
in  doing  what  it  pleases,  to  do  what  in  honor  and  conscience 
should  have  been  left  undone.  One' ought  not  even  to  risk  con- 
gratulations, which  may  soon  be  turned  into  complaints ;  and  as 
both  individuals  and  peoples  are  prone  to  make  a  bad  use  of  power, 
to  flatter  them,  wrhich  is  a  sure  way  to  mislead  them,  well  deserves 
to  be  called  a  crime. 

The  first  principle  in  a  Republic  ought  to  be,  "that  no  man  or 
set  of  men  is  entitled  to  exclusive  or  separate  emoluments  or  pri- 
vileges from  the  community,  but  in  consideration  of  public  ser- 
vices ;  which  not  being  descendible,  neither  ought  the  offices  of 
magistrate,  legislature, ^nor  judge,  to  be  hereditary."  It  is  a  volume 
of  Truth  and  Wisdom,  a  lesson  for  the  study  of  nations,  em- 
bodied in  a  single  sentence,  and  expressed  in  language  which 
every  man  can  understand.  If  a  deluge  of  despotism  were 
to  overthrow  the  world,  and  destroy  all  institutions  under 
which  freedom  is  protected,  so  that  they  should  no  longer  be  re- 
membered among  men,  this  sentence,  preserved,  would  be  suffi- 


cient  to  rekindle  the  fires  of  liberty  and  revive  the  race  of  free 

But,  to  preserve  liberty,  another  must  be  added:  "that  a  free 
State  does  not  confer  office  as  a  reward,  especially  for  questionable 
services,  unless  she  seeks  her  own  ruin;  but  all  officers  are  em- 
ployed by  her,  in  consideration  solely  of  their  will  and  ability  to 
render  service  in  the  future ;  and  therefore  that  the  best  and  most 
competent  are  always  to  be  preferred." 

For,  if  there  is  to  be  any  other  rule,  that  of  hereditary  succession 
is  perhaps  as  good  as  any.  By  no  other  rule  is  it  possible  to  pre- 
serve the  liberties  of  the  State.  By  no  other  to  intrust  the  power  of 
making-  the  laws  to  those  only  who  have  that  keen  instinctive  sense 
of  injustice  and  wrong  which  enables  them  to  detect  baseness  and 
corruption  in  their  most  secret  hiding-places,  and  that  moral 
courage  and  generous  manliness  and  gallant  independence  that 
make  them  fearless  in  dragging  out  the  perpetrators  to  the  light 
of  day,  and  calling  down  upon  them  the  scorn  and  indignation  of 
the  world.  The  flatterers  of  the  people  are  never  such  men.  On 
the  contrary,  a  time  always  comes  to  a  Republic,  when  it  is  not 
content,  like  Tiberius,  with  a  single  Sejanus,  but  must  have  a 
host ;  and  when  those  most  prominent  in  the  lead  of  affairs  are 
men  without  reputation,  statesmanship,  ability,  or  information, 
the  mere  hacks  of  party,  owing  their  places  to  trickery  and  want 
of  qualification,  with  none  of  the  qualities  of  head  or  heart  that 
make  great  and  wise  men,  and,  at  the  same  time,  filled  with  all 
the  narrow  conceptions  and  bitter  intolerance  of  political  bigotry. 
These  die ;  and  the  world  is  none  the  wiser  for  what  they  have 
said  and  done.  Their  names  sink  in  the  bottomless  pit  of  obliv- 
ion ;  but  their  acts  of  folly  or  knavery  curse  the  body  politic  and 
at  last  prove  its  ruin. 

Politicians,  in  a  free  State,  are  generally  hollow,  heartless,  and 
selfish.  Their  own  aggrandisement  is  the  end  of  their  patriotism ; 
and  they  always  look  with  secret  satisfaction  on  the  disappoint- 
ment or  fall  of  one  whose  loftier  genius  and  superior  talents  over- 
shadow their  own  self-importance,  or  whose  integrity  and  incor- 
ruptible honor  are  in  the  way  of  their  selfish  ends.  The  influence 
of  the  small  aspirants  is  always  against  the  great  man.  His 
accession  to  power  may  be  almost  for  a  lifetime.  One  of  them- 
selves will  be  more  easily  displaced,  and  each  hopes  to  succeed 
him;  and  so  it  at  length  comes  to  pass  that  men  impudently 

THE   MASTER.  85 

aspire  to  and  actually  win  the  highest  stations,  who  are  unfit  for 
the  lowest  clerkships ;  and  incapacity  and  mediocrity  become  the 
surest  passports  to  office. 

The  consequence  is,  that  those  who  feel  themselves  competent 
and  qualified  to  serve  the  people,  refuse  with  disgust  to  enter  into 
the  struggle  for  office,  where  the  wicked  and  Jesuitical  doctrine 
that  all  is  fair  in  politics  is  an  excuse  for  every  species  of  low 
villainy ;  and  those  who  seek  even  the  highest  places  of  the  State 
do  not  rely  upon  the  power  of  a  magnanimous  spirit,  on  the  sym- 
pathizing impulses  of  a  great  soul,  to  stir  and  move  the  people  to 
generous,  noble,  and  heroic  resolves,  and  to  wise  and  manly  action  ; 
but,  like  spaniels  erect  on  their  hind  legs,  with  fore-paws  obsequi- 
ously suppliant,  fawn,  flatter,  and  actually  beg  for  votes.  Rather 
than  descend  to  this,  they  stand  contemptuously  aloof,  disdain- 
fully refusing  to  court  the  people,  and  acting  on  the  maxim,  that 
"mankind  has  no  title  to  demand  that  we  shall  serve  them  in 

spite  of  themselves." 


It  is  lamentable  to  see  a  country  split  into  factions,  each  fol- 
lowing this  or  that  great  or  brazen- fronted  leader  with  a  blind, 
unreasoning,  unquestioning  hero-worship ;  it  is  contemptible  to 
see  it  divided  into  parties,  whose  sole  end  is  the  spoils  of  victory, 
and  their  chiefs  the  low,  the  base,  the  venal  and  the  small.  Such 
a  country  is  in  the  last  stages  of  decay,  and  near  its  end,  no  matter 
how  prosperous  it  may  seem  to  be.  It  wrangles  over  the  volcano 
and  the  earthquake.  But  it  is  certain  that  no  government  can  be 
conducted  by  the  men  of  the  people,  and  for  the  people,  without  a 
rigid  adherence  to  those  principles  which  our  reason  commends 
as  fixed  and  sound.  These  must  be  the  tests  of  parties,  men,  and 
measures.  Once  determined,  they  must  be  inexorable  in  their 
application,  and  all  must  either  come  up  to  the  standard  or  de- 
clare against  it.  Men  may  betray :  principles  never  can.  Oppres- 
sion is  one  invariable  consequence  of  misplaced  confidence  in 
treacherous  man ;  it  is  never  the  result  of  the  working  or  applica- 
tion of  a  sound,  just,  well-tried  principle.  Compromises  which 
bring  fundamental  principles  into  doubt,  in  order  to  unite  in  one 
party  men  of  antagonistic  creeds,  are  frauds,  and  end  in  ruin,  the 
just  and  natural  consequence  of  fraud.  Whenever  you  have  set- 
tled upon  your  theory  and  creed,  sanction  no  departure  from  it  in 
practice,  on  any  ground  of  expediency.  It  is  the  Master's  word. 



Yield  it  up  neither  to  flattery  nor  force !  Let  no  defeat  or  perse- 
cution rob  you  of  it!  Believe  that  he  who  once  blundered  in 
statesmanship  will  blunder  again ;  that  such  blunders  are  as  fatal 
as  crimes ;  and  that  political  near-sightedness  does  not  improve 
by  age.  There  are  always  more  impostors  than  seers  among  public 
men,  more  false  prophets  than  true  ones,  more  prophets  of  Baal 
than  of  Jehovah;  and  Jerusalem  is  always  in  danger  from  the 

Sallust  said  that  after  a  State  has  been  corrupted  by  luxury  and 
idleness,  it  may  by  its  mere  greatness  bear  up  under  the  burden  of 
its  vices.  But  even  while  he  wrote,  Rome,  of  which  he  spoke,  had 
played  out  her  masquerade  of  freedom.  Other  causes  than  luxury 
and  sloth  destroy  Republics.  If  small,  their  larger  neighbors  ex- 
tinguish them  by  absorption.  If  of  great  extent,  the  cohesive 
force  is  too  feeble  to  hold  them  together,  and  they  fall  to  pieces  by 
their  own  weight.  The  paltry  ambition  of  small  men  disintegrates 
them.  The  want  of  wisdom  in  their  councils  creates  exasperating 
issues.  Usurpation  of  power  plays  its  part,  incapacity  seconds 
corruption,  the  storm  rises,  and  the  fragments  of  the  incoherent 
raft  strew  the  sandy  shores,  reading  to  mankind  another  lesson  for 
it  to  disregard. 

The  Forty-Seventh  Proposition  is  older  than  Pythagoras.  It  is 
this  :  "In  every  right-angled  triangle,  the  sum  of  the"  squares  of  the 
base  and  perpendicular  is  equal  to  the  square  of  the  hypothenuse." 

THE   MASTER.  87 

The  square  of  a  number  is  the  product  of  that  number,  multi- 
plied by  itself.  Thus,  4  is  the  square  of  2,  and  9  of  3. 

The  first  ten  numbers  are:  i,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10; 

their  squares  are  i,  4,  9,  16,  25,  36,  49,  64,  81,  100 ; 

and  3,  5,  7,  9,  1 1,  13,  15,  17,  19 

are  the  differences  between  each  square  and  that  which  precedes 
it ;  giving  us  the  sacred  numbers,  3,  5,  7,  and  9. 

Of  these  numbers,  the  square  of  3  and  4,  added  together,  gives 
the  square  of  5 ;  and  those  of  6  and  8,  the  square  of  10 ;  and  if  a 
right-angled  triangle  be  formed,  the  base  measuring  3  or  6  parts, 
and  the  perpendicular  4  or  8  parts,  the  hypothenuse  will  be  5  or  10 
parts ;  and  if  a  square  is  erected  on  each  side,  these  squares  being 
subdivided  into  squares  each  side  of  which  is  one  part  in  length, 
there  will  be  as  many  of  these  in  the  square  erected  on  the  hy- 
pothenuse as  in  the  other  two  squares  together. 

Now  the  Egyptians  arranged  their  deities  in  Triads  —  the 
FATHER  or  the  Spirit  or  Active  Principle  or  Generative  Power; 
the  MOTHER,  or  Matter,  or  the  Passive  Principle,  or  the  Concep- 
tive  Power ;  and  the  SON,  Issue  or  Product,  the  Universe,  proceed- 
ing from  the  two  principles.  These  were  OSIRIS,  Isis,  and  HORUS. 
In  the  same  way,  PLATO  gives  us  Thought  the  Father;  Primitive 
Matter  the  Mother;  and  Kosmos  the  World,  the  Son,  the  Universe 
animated  by  a  soul.  Triads  of  the  same  kind  are  found  in  the 

PLUTARCH  says,  in  his  book  De  Iside  et  Osiride,  "But  the 
better  and  diviner  nature  consists  of  three, — that  which  exists 
within  the  Intellect  only,  and  Matter,  and  that  \vhich  proceeds 
from  these,  which  the  Greeks  call  Kosmos;  of  which  three,  Plato 
is  wont  to  call  the  Intelligible,  the  'Idea,  Exemplar,  and  Father' ; 
Matter,  'the  Mother,  the  Nurse,  and  the  place  and  receptacle  of 
generation' ;  and  the  issue  of  these  two,  'the  Offspring  and  Gen- 
esis,' "  the  KOSMOS,  "a  word  signifying  equally  Beauty  and  Order, 
or  the  Universe  itself."  You  will  not  to  notice  that  Beauty  is 
symbolized  by  the  Junior  Warden  in  the  South.  Plutarch  con- 
tinues to  say  that  the  Egyptians  compared  the  universal  nature  to 
what  they  called  the  most  beautiful  and  perfect  triangle,  as  Plato 
does,  in  that  nuptial  diagram,  as  it  is  termed,  which  he  has  intro- 
duced into  his  Commonwealth.  Then  he  adds  that  this  triangle 
is  right-angled,  and  its  sides  respectively  as  3,  4.  and  5  ;  and  he 
says,  "We  must  suppose  that  the  perpendicular  is  designed  by  them 



to  represent  the  masculine  nature,  the  base  the  feminine,  and  that 
the  hypothenuse  is  to  be  looked  upon  as  the  offspring  of  both ; 
and  accordingly  the  first  of  them  will  aptly  enough  represent 
OSIRIS,  or  the  prime  cause;  the  second,  Isis,  or  the  receptive  ca- 
pacity ;  the  last,  HORUS,  or  the  common  effect  of  the  other  two. 
For  3  is  the  first  number  which  is  composed  of  even  and  odd ;  and 
4  is  a  square  whose  side  is  equal  to  the  even  number  2;  but  5, 
being  generated,  as  it  were,  out  of  the  preceding  numbers,  2  and 
3,  may  be  said  to  have  an  equal  relation  to  both  of  them,  as  to  its 

common  parents." 


The  clasped  liands  is  another  symbol  which  was  used  by  PYTHAG- 
ORAS. It  represented  the  number  10,  the  sacred  number  in  which 
all  the  preceding  numbers  were  contained ;  the  number  expressed 
by  the  mysterious  TETRACTYS,  a  figure  borrowed  by  him  and  the 
Hebrew  priests  alike  from  the  Egyptian  sacred  science,  and  which 
ought  to  be  replaced  among  the  symbols  of  the  Master's  Degree, 
where  it  of  right  belongs.  The  Hebrews  formed  it  thus,  with  the 
letters  oi  the  Divine  name : 

The  Tctractys  thus  leads  you,  not  only  to  the  study  of  the 
Pythagorean  philosophy  as  to  numbers,  but  also  to  the  Kabalah, 
and  will  aid  you  in  discovering  the  True  Word,  and  understanding 
what  was  meant  by  "The  Music  of  the  Spheres."  Modern  science 
strikingly  confirms  the  ideas  of  Pythagoras  in  regard  to  the  prop- 
erties of  numbers,  and  that  they  govern  in  the  Universe.  Long 
before  Lis  time,  nature  had  extracted  her  cube-roots  and  her 


All  the  FORCES  at  man's  disposal  or  under  man's  control,  or 
subject  to  man's  influence,  are  his  working  tools'-  The  friendship 
and  sympathy  that  knit  heart  to  heart  are  a  force  like  the  attrac- 

THE   MASTER.  89 

tion  of  cohesion,  by  which  the  sandy  particles  became  the  solid 
rock.  If  this  law  of  attraction  or  cohesion  were  taken  away,  the 
material  worlds  and  suns  would  dissolve  in  an  instant  into  thin 
invisible  vapor.  If  the  ties  of  friendship,  affection,  and  love  were 
annulled,  mankind  would  become  a  raging  multitude  of  wild  and 
savage  beasts  of  prey.  The  sand  hardens  into  rock  under  the  im- 
mense superincumbent  pressure  of  the  ocean,  aided  sometimes  by 
the  irresistible  energy  of  fire :  and  when  the  pressure  of  calamity 
and  danger  is  upon  an  order  or  a  country,  the  members  or  the 
citizens  ought  to  be  the  more  closely  united  by  the  cohesion  of 
sympathy  and  inter-dependence. 

Morality  is  a  force.  It  is  the  magnetic  attraction  of  the  heart 
toward  Truth  and  Virtue.  The  needle,  imbued  with  this  mystic 
property,  and  pointing  unerringly  to  the  north,  carries  the  mari- 
ner safely  over  the  trackless  ocean,  through  storm  and  darkness, 
until  his  glad  eyes  behold  the  beneficent  beacons  that  welcome  him 
to  safe  and  hospitable  harbor.  Then  the  hearts  of  those  who  love 
him  are  gladdened,  and  his  home  made  happy ;  and  this  gladness 
and  happiness  are  due  to  the  silent,  unostentatious,  unerring  mon- 
itor that  was  the  sailor's  guide  over  the  weltering  waters.  But  if 
drifted  too  far  northward,  he  finds  the  needle  no  longer  true,  but 
pointing  elsewhere  than  to  the  north,  what  a  feeling  of  helpless- 
ness falls  upon  the  dismayed  mariner,  what  utter  loss  of  energy 
and  courage !  It  is  as  if  the  great  axioms  of  morality  were  to  fail 
and  be  no  longer  true,  leaving  the  human  soul  to  drift  helplessly, 
eyeless  like  Prometheus,  at  the  mercy  of  the  uncertain,  faithless 
currents  of  the  deep. 

Honor  and  Duty  are  the  pole-stars  of  a  Mason,  the  Dioscuri,  by 
never  losing  sight  of  which  he  may  avoid  disastrous  shipwreck. 
These  Palinurus  watched,  until,  overcome  by  sleep,  and  the  ves- 
sel no  longer  guided  truly,  he  fell  into  and  was  swallowed  up  by 
the  insatiable  sea.  So  the  Mason  who  loses  sight  of  these,  and  is 
no  longer  governed  by  their  beneficent  and  potential  force,  is 
lost,  and  sinking  out  of  sight,  will  disappear  unhonored  and 

The  force  of  electricity,  analogous  to  that  of  sympathy,  and  by 
means  of  which  great  thoughts  or  base  suggestions,  the  utterances 
of  noble  or  ignoble  natures,  flash  instantaneously  over  the  nerves 
of  nations ;  the  force  of  growth,  fit  type  of  immortality,  lying 
dorm?nt  three  thousand  years  in  the  wheat-grains  buried  with 


their  mummies  by  the  old  Egyptians ;  the  forces  of  expansion  and 
contraction,  developed  in  the  earthquake  and  the  tornado,  and 
giving  birth  to  the  wonderful  achievements  of  steam,  have  their 
parallelisms  in  the  moral  world,  in  individuals,  and  nations. 
Growth  is  a  necessity  for  nations  as  for  men.  Its  cessation  is  the 
beginning  of  decay.  In  the  nation  as  well  as  the  plant  it  is  mys- 
terious, and  it  is  irresistible.  The  earthquakes  that  rend  nations 
asunder,  overturn  thrones,  and  engulf  monarchies  and  republics, 
have  been  long  prepared  for,  like  the  volcanic  eruption.  Revolu- 
tions have  long  roots  in  the  past.  The  force  exerted  is  in  direct 
proportion  to  the  previous  restraint  and  compression.  The  true 
statesman  ought  to  see  in  progress  the  Causes  that  are  in  due  time 
to  produce  them ;  and  he  who  does  not  is  but  a  blind  leader  of  the 

The  great  changes  in  nations,  like  the  geological  changes  of  the 
earth,  are  slowly  and  continuously  wrought.  The  waters,  falling 
from  Heaven  as  rain  and  dews,  slowly  disintegrate  the  granite 
mountains  ;  abrade  the  plains,  leaving  hills  and  ridges  of  denuda- 
tion as  their  monuments ;  scoop  out  the  valleys,  fill  up  the  seas, 
narrow  the  rivers,  and  after  the  lapse  of  thousands  on  thousands 
of  silent  centuries,  prepare  the  great  alluvia  for  the  growth  of  that 
plant,  the  snowy  envelope  of  whose  seeds  is  to  employ  the  looms 
of  the  world,  and  the  abundance  or  penury  of  whose  crops  shall 
determine  whether  the  weavers  and  spinners  of  other  realms  shall 
have  work  to  do  or  starve. 

So  Public  Opinion  is  an  immense  force ;  and  its  currents  are  as 
inconstant  and  incomprehensible  as  those  of  the  atmosphere 
Nevertheless,  in  free  governments,  it  is  omnipotent ;  and  the  busi- 
ness of  the  statesman  is  to  find  the  means  to  shape,  control,  and 
direct  it.  According  as  that  is  done,  it  is  beneficial  and  conserva- 
tive, or  destructive  and  ruinous.  The  Public  Opinion  of  the  civil- 
ized world  is  International  Law ;  and  it  is  so  great  a  force,  though 
with  no  certain  and  fixed  boundaries,  that  it  can  even  constrain 
the  victorious  despot  to  be  generous,  and  aid  an  oppressed  people 
in  its  struggle  for  independence. 

Habit  is  a  great  force ;  it  is  second  nature,  even  in  trees.  It  is 
as  strong  in  nations  as  in  men.  So  also  are  Prejudices,  which  are 
given  to  men  and  nations  as  the  passions  are, — as  forces,  valuable, 
if  properly  and  skillfully  availed  of;  destructive,  if  unskillfully 


Above  all,  the  Love  of  Country,  State  Pride,  the  Love  of  Home, 
are  forces  of  immense  power.  Encourage  them  all.  Insist  upon  them 
in  your  public  men.  Permanency  of  home  is  necessary  to  patriot- 
ism. A  migratory  race  will  have  little  love  of  country.  State 
pride  is  a  mere  theory  and  chimera,  where  men  remove  from  State 
to  State  with  indifference,  like  the  Arabs,  who  camp  here  to-day 
and  there  to-morrow. 

If  you  have  Eloquence,  it  is  a  mighty  force.  S^e  that  you  use 
it  for  good  purposes — to  teach,  exhort,  ennoble  the  people,  and  not 
to  mislead  and  corrupt  them.  Corrupt  and  venal  orators  are  the 
assassins  of  the  public  liberties  and  of  public  morals. 

The  Will  is  a  force;  its  limits  as  yet  unknown.  It  is  in  the 
power  of  the  will  that  we  chiefly  see  the  spiritual  and  divine  in 
man.  There  is  a  seeming  identity  between  his  will  that  moves 
other  men,  and  the  Creative  Will  whose  action  seems  so  incompre- 
hensible. It  is  the  men  of  will  and  action,  not  the  men  of  pure 
intellect,  that  govern  the  world. 

Finally,  the  three  greatest  moral  forces  are  FAITH,  whic-h  is  the 
or>y  true  WISDOM,  and  the  very  foundation  of  all  government; 
HOPE,  which  is  STRENGTH,  and  insures  success ;  and  CHARITY, 
which  is  BEAUTY,  and  alone  makes  animated,  united  effort  possi- 
ble. These  forces  are  within  the  reach  of  all  men ;  and  an  associa- 
tion of  men,  actuated  by  them,  ought  to  exercise  an  immense 
power  in  the  world.  If  Masonry  does  not,  it  is  because  she  has 
ceased  to  possess  them. 

Wisdom  in  the  man  or  statesman,  in  king  or  priest,  largely 
consists  in  the  due  appreciation  of  these  forces ;  and  upon  the 
general  non-appreciation  of  some  of  them  the  fate  of  nations  often 
depends.  What  hecatombs  of  lives  often  hang  upon  the  not 
weighing  or  not  sufficiently  weighing  the  force  of  an  idea,  such  as, 
for  example,  the  reverence  for  a  flag,  or  the  blind  attachment  to  a 
form  or  constitution  of  government ! 

What  errors  in  political  economy  and  statesmanship  are  com- 
mitted in  consequence  of  the  over-estimation  or  under-estimation 
of  particular  values,  or  the  non-estimation  of  some  among  them ! 
Everything,  it  is  asserted,  is  the  product  of  human  labor ;  but  the 
gold  or  the  diamond  which  one  accidentally  finds  without  labor 
is  not  so.  What  is  the  value  of  the  labor  bestowed  by  the  husband- 
man upon  his  crops,  compared  with  the  value  of  the  sunshine 
and  rain,  without  which  his  labor  avails  nothing?  Commerce 


carried  on  by  the  labor  of  man,  adds  to  the  value  of  the  products 
of  the  field,  the  mine,  or  the  workshop,  by  their  transportation  to 
different  markets ;  but  how  much  of  this  increase  is  due  to  the 
rivers  down  which  these  products  float,  to  the  winds  that  urge  the 
keels  of  commerce  over  the  ocean ! 

Who  can  estimate  the  value  of  morality  and  manliness  in  a 
State,  of  moral  worth  and  intellectual  knowledge  ?  These  are  the 
sunshine  and  rajn  of  the  State.  The  winds,  with  their  changeable, 
fickle,  fluctuating  currents,  are  apt  emblems  of  the  fickle  humors 
of  the  populace,  its  passions,  its  heroic  impulses,  its  enthusiasms. 
Woe  to  the  statesman  who  does  not  estimate  these  as  values ! 

Even  music  and  song  are  sometimes  found  to  have  an  incalcula- 
ble value.  Every  nation  has  some  song  of  a  proven  value,  more 
easily  counted  in  lives  than  dollars.  The  Marseillaise  was  worth  to 
revolutionary  France,  who  shall  say  how  many  thousand  men? 

Peace  also  is  a  great  element  of  prosperity  and  wealth ;  a  value 
not  to  be  calculated.  Social  intercourse  and  association  of  men  in 
beneficent  Orders  have  a  value  not  to  be  estimated  in  coin.  The 
illustrious  examples  of  the  Past  of  a  nation,  the  memories  and  im- 
mortal thoughts  of  her  great  and  wise  thinkers,  statesmen,  and 
heroes,  are  the  invaluable  legacy  of  that  Past  to  the  Present  and 
future.  And  all  these  have  not  only  the  values  of  the  loftier  and 
more  excellent  and  priceless  kind,  but  also  an  actual  money-value, 
since  it  is  only  when  co-operating  with  or  aided  or  enabled  by 
these,  that  human  labor  creates  wealth.  They  are  of  the  chief 
elements  of  material  wealth,  as  they  are  of  national  manliness, 

heroism,  glory,  prosperity,  and  immortal  renown. 


Providence  has  appointed  the  three  great  disciplines  of  War,  the 
Monarchy  and  the  Priesthood,  all  that  the  CAMP,  the  PALACE,  and 
the  TEMPLE  may  symbolize,  to  train  the  multitudes  forward  to  in- 
telligent and  premeditated  combinations  for  all  the  great  purposes 
of  society.  The  result  will  at  length  be  free  governments  among 
men,  when  virtue  and  intelligence  become  qualities  of  the  multi- 
tudes ;  but  for  ignorance  such  governments  are  impossible.  Man 
advances  only  by  degrees.  The  removal  of  one  pressing  calamity 
gives  eourrge  to  attempt  the  removal  of  the  remaining  evils,  rend- 
ering men  more  sensitive  to  them,  or  perhaps  sensitive  for  the  first 
time.  Serfs  that  writhe  under  the  whip  are  not  disquieted  about 
their  political  rights ;  manumitted  from  personal  slavery,  they  be- 



come  sensitive  to  political  oppression.  Liberated  from  arbitrary 
power,  and  governed  by  the  law  alone,  they  beg-in  to  scrutinize  the 
law  itself,  and  desire  to  be  governed,  not  only  by  law,  but  by  what 
fliey  deem  the  best  law.  And  when  the  civil  or  temporal  despot- 
ism has  been  set  aside,  and  the  municipal  law  has  been  moulded 
on  the  principles  of  an  enlightened  jurisprudence,  they  may  wake 
to  the  discovery  that  they  are  living  under  some  priestly  or  ecclesi- 
astical despotism,  and  become  desirous  of  working  a  reformation 
there  also. 

It  is  quite  true  that  the  advance  of  humanity  is  slow,  and  that 
it  often  pauses  and  retrogrades.  In  the  kingdoms  of  the  earth  we 
do  not  see  despotisms  retiring  and  yielding  the  ground  to  self-gov- 
erning communities.  We  do  not  see  the  churches  and  priesthoods 
of  Christendom  relinquishing  their  old  task  of  governing  men  by 
imaginary  terrors.  Nowhere  do  we  see  a  populace  that  could  be 
s-afely  manumitted  from  such  a  government.  We  do  not  see  the 
great  religious  teachers  aiming  to  discover  truth  for  themselves 
and  for  others ;  but  still  ruling  the  world,  and  contented  and  com- 
pelled to  rule  the  world,  by  whatever  dogma  is  already  accredited ; 
themselves  as  much  bound  down  by  this  necessity  to  govern,  as 
the  populace  by  their  need  of  government.  Poverty  in  all  its 
most  hideous  forms  still  exists  in  the  great  cities ;  and  the  cancer 
of  pauperism  has  its  roots  in  the  hearts  of  kingdoms.  Men  there 
take  no  measure  of  their  wants  and  their  own  power  to  supply 
them,  but  live  and  multiply  like  the  beasts  of  the  field, — Providence 
having  apparently  ceased  to  care  for  them.  Intelligence  never 
visits  these,  or  it  makes  its  appearance  as  some  new  development 
of  villainy.  War  has  not  ceased ;  still  there  are  battles  and 
sieges.  Homes  are  still  unhappy,  and  tears  and  anger  and  spite 
make  hells  where  there  should  be  heavens.  So  much  the  more 
necessity  for  Masonry !  So  much  wider  the  field  of  its  labors !  So 
much  the  more  need  for  it  to  begin  to  be  true  to  itself,  to  revive 
from  its  asphyxia,  to  repent  of  its  apostacy  to  its  true  creed ! 

Undoubtedly,  labor  and  death  and  the  sexual  passion  are  essen- 
tial and  permanent  conditions  of  human  existence,  and  render 
perfection  and  a  millenium  on  earth  impossible.  Always, — it  is  the 
decree  of  Fate ! — the  vast  majority  of  men  must  toil  to  live,  and 
cannot  find  time  to  cultivate  the  intelligence.  Man,  knowing  he 
is  to  die,  will  not  sacrifice  the  present  enjoyment  for  a  greater  one 
in  the  future.  The  love  of  woman  cannot  die  out,  and  it  has  a 


terrible  and  uncontrollable  fate,  increased  by  the  refinements  of 
civilization.  Woman  is  the  veritable  syren  or  goddess  of  the 
young.  But  society  can  be  improved ;  and  free  government  is 
possible  for  States ;  and  freedom  of  thought  and  conscience  is  no 
longer  wholly  Utopian.  Already  we  see  that  Emperors  prefer  to  be 
elected  by  universal  suffrage ;  that  States  are  conveyed  to  Empires 
by  vote ;  and  that  Empires  are  administered  with  something  of  the 
spirit  of  a  Republic,  being  little  else  than  democracies  with  a  single 
head,  ruling  through  one  man,  one  representative,  instead  of  an 
assembly  of  representatives.  And  if  Priesthoods  still  govern,  they 
now  come  before  the  laity  to  prove,  by  stress  of  argument,  that  they 
ought  to  govern.  They  are  obliged  to  evoke  the  very  reason  which 
they  are  bent  on  supplanting. 

Accordingly,  men  become  daily  more  free,  because  the  freedom 
of  the  man  lies  in  his  reason.  He  can  reflect  upon  his  own  future 
conduct,  and  summon  up  its  consequences ;  he  can  take  wide  views 
of  human  life,  and  lay  down  rules  for  constant  guidance.  Thus 
he  is  relieved  of  the  tyranny  of  sense  and  passion,  and  enabled  at 
any  time  to  live  according  to  the  whole  light  of  the  knowledge 
that  is  within  him,  instead  of  being  driven,  like  a  dry  leaf  on  the 
wings  of  the  wind,  by  every  present  impulse.  Herein  lies  the  free- 
dom of  the  man  as  regarded  in  connection  with  the  necessity  im- 
posed by  the  omnipotence  and  fore-knowledge  of  God.  So  much 
light,  so  much  liberty.  When  emperor  and  church  appeal  to  rea- 
son there  is  naturally  universal  suffrage. 

Therefore  no  one  need  lose  courage,  nor  believe  that  labor  in  the 
cause  of  Progress  will  be  labor  wasted.  There  is  no  waste  in  na- 
ture, either  of  Matter,  Force,  Act,  or  Thought.  A  Thought  is  as 
much  the  end  of  life  as  an  Action ;  and  a  single  Thought  sometimes 
works  greater  results  than  a  Revolution,  even  Revolutions  them- 
selves. Still  there  should  not  be  divorce  between  Thought  and 
Action.  The  true  Thought  is  that  in  which  life  culminates.  But 
all  wise  and  true  Thought  produces  Action.  It  is  generative,  like 
the  light ;  and  light  and  the  deep  shadow  of  the  passing  cloud  are 
the  gifts  of  the  prophets  of  the  race.  Knowledge,  laboriously 
acquired,  and  inducing  habits  of  sound  Thought, — the  reflective 
character, — must  necessarily  be  rare.  The  multitude  of  laborers 
cannot  acquire  it.  Most  men  attain  to  a  very  low  standard  of  it. 
It  is  incompatible  with  the  ordinary  and  indispensable  avocations 
of  life.  A  whole  world  of  error  as  well  as  of  labor,  go  to  make 

THE   MASTER.  95 

one  reflective  man.  In  the  most  advanced  nation  of  Europe  there 
are  more  ignorant  than  wise,  more  poor  than  rich,  more  automatic 
laborers,  the  mere  creatures  of  habit,  than  reasoning  and  reflective 
men.  The  proportion  is  at  least  a  thousand  to  one.  Unanimity 
of  opinion  is  so  obtained.  It  only  exists  among  the  multitude 
who  do  not  think,  and  the  political  or  spiritual  priesthood  who 
think  for  that  multitude,  who  think  how  to  guide  and  govern 
them.  When  men  begin  to  reflect,  they  begin  to  differ.  The 
great  problem  is  to  find  guides  who  will  not  seek  to  be  tyrants. 
This  is  needed  even  more  in  respect  to  the  heart  than  the  head. 
Now,  every  man  earns  his  special  share  of  the  produce  of  human 
labor,  by  an  incessant  scramble,  by  trickery  and  deceit.  Useful 
knowledge,  honorably  acquired,  is  too  often  used  after  a  fashion 
not  honest  or  reasonable,  so  that  the  studies  of  youth  are  far  more 
noble  than  the  practices  of  manhood.  The  labor  of  the  farmer  in 
his  fields,  the  generous  returns  of  the  earth,  the  benignant  and 
favoring  skies,  tend  to  make  him  earnest,  provident,  and  grateful ; 
the  education  of  the  market-place  makes  him  querulous,  crafty, 
envious,  and  an  intolerable  niggard. 

Masonry  seeks  to  be  this  beneficent,  unambitious,  disinterested 
guide ;  and  it  is  the  very  condition  of  all  great  structures  that  the 
sound  of  the  hammer  and  the  clink  of  the  trowel  should  be  always 
heard  in  some  part  of  the  building.  With  faith  in  man,  hope  for 
the  future  of  humanity,  loving-kindness  for  our  fellows,  Masonry 
and  the  Mason  must  always  work  and  teach.  Let  each  do  that  for 
which  he  is  best  fitted.  The  teacher  also  is  a  workman.  Praise- 
worthy as  the  active  navigator  is,  who  comes  and  goes  and  makes 
one  clime  partake  of  the  treasures  of  the  other,  and  one  to  share 
the  treasures  of  all,  he  who  keeps  the  beacon-light  upon  the  hill  is 
also  at  his  post. 

Masonry  has  already  helped  cast  down  some  idols  from  their 
pedestals,  and  grind  to  impalpable  dust  some  of  the  links  of  the 
chains  that  held  men's  souls  in  bondage.  That  there  has  been 
progress  needs  no  other  demonstration  than  that  you  may  now 
reason  with  men,  and  urge  upon  them,  without  danger  of  the 
rack  or  stake,  that  no  doctrines  can  be  apprehended  as  truths 
if  they  contradict  each  other,  or  contradict  other  truths  given  us 
by  God.  Long  before  the  Reformation,  a  monk,  who  had  found 
his  way  to  heresy  without  the  help  of  Martin  Luther,  not  ventur- 
ing to  breathe  aloud  into  any  living  ear  his  anti-papal  and  trea- 


sonable  doctrines,  wrote  them  on  parchment,  and  sealing  up  the 
perilous  record,  hid  it  in  the  massive  walls  of  his  monastery. 
There  was  no  friend  or  brother  to  whom  he  could  intrust  his 
secret  or  pour  forth  his  soul.  It  was  some  consolation  to  imagine 
that  in  a  future  age  some  one  might  find  the  parchment,  and  the 
seed  be  found  not  to  have  been  sown  in  vain.  What  if  the  truth 
should  have  to  lie  dormant  as  long  before  germinating  as  the  wheat 
in  the  Egyptian  mummy  ?  Speak  it,  nevertheless,  again  and  again, 
and  let  it  take  its  chance ! 

The  rose  of  Jericho  grows  in  the  sandy  deserts  of  Arabia  and 
on  the  Syrian  housetops.  Scarcely  six  inches  high,  it  loses  ks 
leaves  after  the  flowering  season,  and  dries  up  into  the  form  of  a 
ball.  Then  it  is  uprooted  by  the  winds,  and  carried,  blown,  or 
tossed  across  the  desert,  into  the  sea.  There,  feeling  the  contact 
of  the  water,  it  unfolds  itself,  expands  its  branches,  and  expels  its 
seeds  from  their  seed-vessels.  These,  when  saturated  with  water, 
are  carried  by  the  tide  and  laid  on  the  sea-shore.  Many  are  lost, 
as  many  individual  lives  of  men  are  useless.  But  many  are  thrown 
back  again  from  the  sea-shore  into  the  desert,  where,  by  the 
virtue  of  the  sea-water  that  they  have  imbibed,  the  roots  and 
leaves  sprout  and  they  grow  into  fruitful  plants,  which  will,  in 
their  turns,  like  their  ancestors,  be  whirled  into  the  sea.  God  will 
not  be  less  careful  to  provide  for  the  germination  of  the  truths 
you  may  boldly  utter  forth.  "Cast,"  He  has  said,  "thy  bread  upon 
the  waters,  and  after  many  days  it  shall  return  to  thee  again." 

Initiation  does  not  change :  we  find  it  again  and  again,  and 
always  the  same,  through  all  the  ages.  The  last  disciples  of  Pas- 
calis  Martinez  are  still  the  children  of  Orpheus;  but  they  adore 
the  realizer  of  the  antique  philosophy,  the  Incarnate  Word  of  the 

Pythagoras,  the  great  divulger  of  the  philosophy  of  numbers, 
visited  all  the  sanctuaries  of  the  world.  He  went  into  Judaea, 
where  he  procured  himself  to  be  circumcised,  that  he  might  be 
admitted  to  the  secrets  of  the  Kabalah,  which  the  prophets  Ezekiel 
and  Daniel,  not  without  some  reservations,  communicated  to  him. 
Then,  not  without  some  difficulty,  he  succeeded  in  being  admitted 
to  the  Egyptian  initiation,  upon  the  recommendation  of  King 
Amasis.  The  power  of  his  genius  supplied  the  deficiencies  of  the 
imperfect  communications  of  the  Hierophants,  and  he  himself 
became  a  Master  and  a  Revealer. 


Pythagoras  defined  God :  a  Living  and  Absolute  Verity  clothed 
with  Light. 

He  said  that  the  Word  was  Number  manifested  by  Form. 

He  made  all  descend  from  the  Tetractys,  that  is  to  say,  from  the 

God,  he  said  again,  is  the  Supreme  Music,  the  nature  of  which 
is  Harmony. 

Pythagoras  gave  the  magistrates  of  Crotona  this  great  religious, 
political,  and  social  precept : 

"There  is  no  evil  that  is  not  preferable  to  Anarchy." 

Pythagoras  said,  "Even  as  there  are  three  divine  notions  and 
three  intelligible  regions,  so  there  is  a  triple  word,  for  the  Hierar- 
chical Order  always  manifests  itself  by  threes.  There  are  the 
word  simple,  the  word  hieroglyphical,  and  the  word  symbolic :  in 
other  terms,  there  are  the  word  that  expresses,  the  word  that  con- 
ceals, and  the  word  that  signifies ;  the  whole  hieratic  intelligence 
is  in  the  perfect  knowledge  of  these  three  degrees." 

Pythagoras  enveloped  doctrine  with  symbols,  but  carefully 
eschewed  personifications  and  images,  which,  he  thought,  sooner 
or  later  produced  idolatry. 

The  Holy  Kabalah,  or  tradition  of  the  children  of  Seth,  was  car- 
ried from  Chaldaea  by  Abraham,  taught  to  the  Egyptian  priesthood 
by  Joseph,  recovered  and  purified  by  Moses,  concealed  under  sym- 
bols in  the  Bible,  revealed  by  the  Saviour  to  Saint  John,  and  con- 
tained, entire,  under  hieratic  figures  analogous  to  those  of  all 
antiquity,  in  the  Apocalypse  of  that  Apostle. 

The  Kabalists  consider  God  as  the  Intelligent,  Animating,  Living 
Infinite.  He  is  not,  for  them,  either  the  aggregate  of  existences, 
or  existence  in  the  abstract,  or  a  being  philosophically  definable. 
He  is  in  all,  distinct  from  all,  and  greater  than  all.  His  name 
even  is  ineffable ;  and  yet  this  name  only  expresses  the  human 
ideal  of  His  divinity.  What  God  is  in  Himself,  it  is  not  given  to 
man  to  comprehend. 

God  is  the  absolute  of  Faith;  but  the  absolute  of  Reason  is 
BEING,  miT.  "/  am  that  I  am"  is  a  wretched  translation. 

Being,  Existence,  is  by  itself,  and  because  it  Is.  The  reason 
of  Being,  is  Being  itself.  We  may  inquire,  "Why  does  some- 
thing exist?"  that  is,  "Why  does  such  or  such  a  thing  exist?" 
But  we  cannot,  without  being  absurd,  ask,  "Why  Is  Being?" 
That  would  be  to  suppose  Being  before  Being.  If  Being  had  a 


CFvUse,  that  cause  would  necessarily  Be;  that  is,  the  cause  and 
effect  would  be  identical. 

Reason  and  science  demonstrate  to  us  that  the  modes  of  Exist- 
ence and  Being  balance  each  other  in  equilibrium  according  to 
harmonious  and  hierarchic  laws.  But  a  hierarchy  is  synthetized, 
in  ascending,  and  becomes  ever  more  and  more  monarchical.  Yet 
the  reason  cannot  pause  at  a  single  chief,  without  being  alarmed 
at  the  abysses  which  it  seems  to  leave  above  this  Supreme  Mon- 
arch. Therefore  it  is  silent,  and  gives  place  to  the  Faith  it  adores. 

What  is  certain,  even  for  science  and  the  reason,  is,  that  the 
idea  of  God  is  the  grandest,  the  most  holy,  and  the  most  useful  of 
all  the  aspirations  of  man ;  that  upon  this  belief  morality  reposes, 
with  its  eternal  sanction.  This  belief,  then,  is  in  humanity,  the 
most  real  of  the  phenomena  of  being ;  and  if  it  were  false,  nature 
would  affirm  the  absurd ;  nothingness  would  give  form  to  life,  and 
God  would  at  the  same  time  be  and  not  be. 

It  is  to  this  philosophic  and  incontestable  reality,  which  is 
termed  The  Idea  of  God,  that  the  Kabalists  give  a  name.  In 
this  name  all  others  are  contained.  Its  cyphers  contain  all  the 
numbers ;  and  the  hieroglyphics  of  its  letters  express  all  the  laws 
and  all  the  things  of  nature. 

BEING  is  BEING:  the  reason  of  Being  is  in  Being:  in  the  Be- 
ginning is  the  Word,  and  the  Word  in  logic  formulated  Speech, 
the  spoken  Reason  ;  the  Word  is  in  God,  and  is  God  Himself,  mani- 
fested to  the  Intelligence.  Here  is  what  is  above  all  the  philoso- 
phies. This  we  must  believe,  under  the  penalty  of  never  truly 
knowing  anything,  and  relapsing  into  the  absurd  skepticism  of 
Pyrrho.  The  Priesthood,  custodian  of  Faith,  wholly  rests  upon 
this  basis  of  knowledge,  and  it  is  in  its  teaching  we  must  recog- 
nize the  Divine  Principle  of  the  Eternal  Word. 

Light  is  not  Spirit,  as  the  Indian  Hierophants  believed  it  to  be ; 
but  only  the  instrument  of  the  Spirit.  It  is  not  the  body  of  the 
Protoplastes,  as  the  Theurgists  of  the  school  of  Alexandria  taught, 
but  the  first  physical  manifestation  of  the  Divine  afflatus.  God 
eternally  creates  it,  and  man,  in  the  image  of  God,  modifies  and 
seems  to  multiply  it. 

The  high  magic  is  styled  "The  Sacerdotal  Art,"  and  "The 
Royal  Art."  In  Egypt,  Greece,  and  Rome,  it 'could  not  but  share 
the  greatnesses  and  decadences  of  the  Priesthood  and  of  Royalty. 
Every  philosophy  hostile  to  the  national  worship  and  to  its  myste- 

THE   MASTER.  99 

ries,  was  of  necessity  hostile  to  the  great  political  powers,  which 
lose  their  grandeur,  if  they  cease,  in  the  eyes  of  the  multitudes,  to 
be  the  images  of  the  Divine  Power.  Every  Crown  is  shattered, 
when  it  clashes  against  the  Tiara. 

Plato,  writing  to  Dionysius  the  Younger,  in  regard  to  the  nature 
of  the  First  Principle,  says :  "I  must  write  to  you  in  enigmas,  so 
that  if  my  letter  be  intercepted  by  land  or  sea,  he  who  shall  read 
it  may  in  no  degree  comprehend  it."  And  then  he  says,  "All 
things  surround  their  King ;  they  are,  on  account  of  Him,  and  He 
alone  is  the  cause  of  good  things,  Second  for  the  Seconds  and 
Third  for  the  Thirds." 

There  is  in  these  few  words  a  complete  summary  of  the  The- 
ology of  the  Sephiroth.  "The  King"  is  AINSOPH,  Being  Supreme 
and  Absolute.  From  this  centre,  which  is  everywhere,  all  things 
ray  forth ;  but  we  especially  conceive  of  it  in  three  manners  and 
in  three  different  spheres.  In  the  Divine  world  (AZILUTH),  which 
is  that  of  the  First  Cause,  and  wherein  the  whole  Eternity  of 
Things  in  the  beginning  existed  as  Unity,  to  be  afterward,  during 
Eternity  uttered  forth,  clothed  with  form,  and  the  attributes  that 
constitute  them  matter,  the  First  Principle  is  Single  and  First, 
and  yet  not  the  VERY  Illimitable  Deity,  incomprehensible,  undefin- 
able ;  but  Himself  in  so  far  as  manifested  by  the  Creative  Thought. 
To  compare  littleness  with  infinity, — Arkwright,  as  inventor  of  the 
spinning- jenny,  and  not  the  man  Arkwright  otherwise  and  beyond 
that.  All  we  can  know  of  the  Very  God  is,  compared  to  His 
Wholeness,  only  as  an  infinitesimal  fraction  of  a  unit,  compared 
with  an  infinity  of  Units. 

In  the  World  of  Creation,  which  is  that  of  Second  Causes  [the 
Kabalistic  World  BRIAH],  the  Autocracy  of  the  First  Principle  is 
complete,  but  we  conceive  of  it  only  as  the  Cause  of  the  Second 
Causes.  Here  it  is  manifested  by  the  Binary,  and  is  the  Creative 
Principle  passive.  Finally :  in  the  third  world,  YEZIRAH,  or  of 
Formation,  it  is  revealed  in  the  perfect  Form,  the  Form  of  Forms, 
the  World,  the  Supreme  Beauty  and  Excellence,  the  Created  Per- 
fection. Thus  the  Principle  is  at  once  the  First,  the  Second,  and 
the  Third,  since  it  is  All  in  All,  the  Centre  and  Cause  of  all.  It 
is  not  the  genius  of  Plato  that  wre  here  admire.  We  recognize  only 
the  exact  knowledge  of  the  Initiate. 

The  great  Apostle  Saint  John  did  not  borrow  from  the  philoso- 
phy of  Plato  the  opening  of  his  Gospel.  Plato,  on  the  contrary, 


drank  at  the  same  springs  with  Saint  John  and  Philo;  and  John 
in  the  opening  verses  of  his  paraphrase,  states  the  first  principles 
of  a  dogma  common  to  many  schools,  but  in  language  especially 
belonging  to  Philo,  whom  it  is  evident  he  had  read.  The  philoso- 
phy of  Plato,  the  greatest  of  human  Revealers,  could  yearn  toward 
the  Word  made  man  ;  the  Gospel  alone  could  give  him  to  the  world. 

Doubt,  in  presence  of  Being  and  its  harmonies;  skepticism,  in 
the  face  of  the  eternal  mathematics  and  the  immutable  laws  of 
Life  which  make  the  Divinity  present  and  visible  everywhere,  as 
the  Human  is  known  and  visible  by  its  utterances  of  word  and 
act, — is  this  not  the  most  foolish  of  superstitions,  and  the  most 
inexcusable  as  well  as  the  most  dangerous  of  all  credulities? 
Thought,  we  know,  is.  not  a  result  or  consequence  of  the  organiza- 
tion of  matter,  of  the  chemical  or  other  action  or  reaction  of  its 
particles,  like  effervescence  and  gaseous  explosions.  On  the  con- 
trary, the  fact  that  Thought  is  manifested  and  realized  in  act 
human  or  act  divine,  proves  the  existence  of  an  Entity,  or  Unity, 
that  thinks.  And  the  Universe  is  the  Infinite  Utterance  of  one  of 
;.:i  infinite  number  of  Infinite  Thoughts,  which  cannot  but  ema- 
nate from  an  Infinite  and  Thinking  Source.  The  cause  is  always 
equal,  at  least,  to  the  effect;  and  matter  cannot  think,  nor  could  it 
cause  itself,  or  exist  without  cause,  nor  could  nothing  produce 
either  forces  or  things ;  for  in  void  nothingness  no  Forces  can 
inhere.  Admit  a  self-existent  Force,  and  its  Intelligence,  or  am 
Intelligent  cause  of  it  is  admitted,  and  at  once  GOD  Is. 

The  Hebrew  allegory  of  the  Fall  of  Man,  which  is  but  a  special 
variation  of  a  universal  legend,  symbolizes  one  of  the  grandest 
and  most  universal  allegories  of  science. 

Moral  Evil  is  Falsehood  in  actions;  as  Falsehood  is  Crime  in 

Injustice  is  the  essence  of  Falsehood;  and  every  false  word  is 
an  injustice. 

Injustice  is  the  death  of  the  Moral  Being,  as  Falsehood  is  the 
poison  of  the  Intelligence. 

The  perception  of  the  Light  is  the  dawn  of  the  Eternal  Life,  in 
Being.  The  Word  of  God,  which  creates  the  Light,  seems  to  be 
uttered  by  every  Intelligence  that  can  take  cognizance  of  Forms 
and  will  look.  "Let  the  Light  BE !  The  Light,  in  fact,  exists,  in 
its  condition  of  splendor,  for  those  eyes  alone  that  gaze  at  it ;  and 
the  Soul,  amorous  of  the  spectacle  of  the  beauties  of  the  Universe, 


and  applying  its  attention  to  that  luminous  writing  of  the  Infinite 
Book,  which  is  called  "The  Visible,"  seems  to  utter,  as  God  did  on 
the  dawn  of  the  first  day,  that  sublime  and  creative  word,  "BE! 

It  is  not  beyond  the  tomb,  but  in  life  itself,  that  we  are  to  seek 
for  the  mysteries  of  death.  Salvation  or  reprobation  begins  here 
below,  and  the  terrestrial  world  too  has  its  Heaven  and  its  Hell. 
Always,  even  here  below,  virtue  is  rewarded  ;  always,  even  here  be- 
low, vice  is  punished ;  and  that  which  makes  us  sometimes,  believe 
in  the  impunity  of  evil-doers  is  that  riches,  those  instruments  of 
good  and  of  evil,  seem  sometimes  to  be  given  them  at  hazard.  But 
woe  to  unjust  men,  when  they  possess  the  key  of  gold !  It  opens, 
for  them,  only  the  gate  of  the  tomb  and  of  Hell. 

All  the  true  Initiates  have  recognized  the  usefulness  of  toil  and 
sorrow.  "Sorrow,"  says  a  German  poet,  "is  the  dog  of  that  un- 
known shepherd  who  guides  the  flock  of  men."  To  learn  to  suffer, 
to  learn  to  die,  is  the  discipline  of  Eternity,  the  immortal  Novi- 

The  allegorical  picture  of  Cebes,  in  which  the  Divine  Comedy 
of  Dante  was  sketched  in  Plato's  time,  the  description  whereof  has 
been  preserved  for  us,  and  which  many  painters  of  the  middle  age 
have  reproduced  by  this  description,  is  a  monument  at  once  philo- 
sophical and  magical.  It  is  a  most  complete  moral  synthesis,  and 
at  the  same  time  the  most  audacious  demonstration  ever  given  of 
the  Grand  Arcanum,  of  that  secret  whose  revelation  would  overturn 
Earth  and  Heaven.  Let  no  one  expect  us  to  give  them  its  expla- 
nation !  He  who  passes  behind  the  veil  that  hides  this  mystery, 
understands  that  it  is  in  its  very  nature  inexplicable,  and  that  it 
is  death  to  those  who  win  it  by  surprise,  as  well  as  to  him  who 
reveals  it. 

This  secret  is  the  Royalty  of  the  Sages,  the  Crown  of  the  Initi- 
ate whom  we  see  redescend  victorious  from  the  summit  of  Trials, 
in  the  fine  allegory  of  Cebes.  The  Grand  Arcanum  makes  him 
master  of  gold  and  the  light,  which  are  at  bottom  the  same  thing, 
he  has  solved  the  problem  of  the  quadrature  of  the  circle,  he  di- 
rects the  perpetual  movement,  and  he  possesses  the  philosophical 
stone.  Here  the  Adepts  will  understand  us.  There  is  neither  in- 
terruption in  the  toil  of  nature,  nor  gap  in  her  work.  The  Har- 
monies of  Heaven  correspond  to  those  of  Earth,  and  the  Eternal 
Life  accomplishes  its  evolutions  in  accordance  with  the  same  laws 


as  the  life  of  a  dog.  "God  has  arranged  all  things  by  weight,  num- 
ber, and  measure,"  says  the  Bible  ;  and  tbcs  luminous  doctrine  was 
also  that  of  Plato. 

Humanity  has  never  really  had  but  one  religion  and  one  wor- 
ship. This  universal  light  has  had  its  uncertain  mirages,  its  de- 
ceitful reflections,  and  its  shadows ;  but  always,  after  the  nights  of 
Error,  we  see  it  reappear,  one  and  pure  like  the  Sun. 

The  magnificences  of  worship  are  the  life  of  religion,  and  if 
Christ  wishes  poor  ministers,  His  Sovereign  Divinity  does  not  wisji 
paltry  altars.  Some  Protestants  have  not  comprehended  that  wor- 
ship is  a  teaching,  and  that  we  must  not  create  in  the  imagination 
of  the  multitude  a  mean  or  miserable  God.  Those  oratories  that 
resemble  poorly-furnished  offices  or  inns,  and  those  worthy  minis- 
ters clad  like  notaries  or  lawyer's  clerks,  do  they  not  necessarily 
cause  religion  to  be  regarded  as  a  mere  puritanic  formality,  and 
God  as  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  ? 

We  scoff  at  the  Augurs.  It  is  so  easy  to  scoff,  and  so  difficult 
well  to  comprehend.  Did  the  Deity  leave  the  whole  world  with- 
out Light  for  two  score  centuries,  to  illuminate  only  a  little  corner 
of  Palestine  and  a  brutal,  ignorant,  and  ungrateful  people?  Why 
always  calumniate  God  and  the  Sanctuary?  Were  there  never  any 
others  than  rogues  among  the  priests?  Could  no  honest  and  sin- 
cere men  be  found  among  the  Hierophants  of  Ceres  or  Diana,  of 
Dionusos  or  Apollo,  of  Hermes  or  Mithras?  Were  these,  then,  all 
deceived,  like  the  rest?  Who,  then,  constantly  deceived  them, 
without  betraying  themselves,  during  a  series  of  centuries? — for 
the  cheats  are  not  immortal !  Arago  said,  that  outside  of  the  pure 
mathematics,  he  who  utters  the  word  "impossible,"  is  wanting  in 
prudence  and  good  sense. 

The  true  name  of  Satan,  the  Kabalists  say,  is  that  of  Yahveh 
reversed ;  for  Satan  is  not  a  black  god,  but  the  negation  of  God. 
The  Devil  is  the  personification  of  Atheism  or  Idolatry. 

For  the  Initiates,  this  is  not  a  Person,  but  a  Force,  created  for 
good,  but  which  may  serve  for  evil.  It  is  the  instrument  of  Liberty 
or  Free  Will.  They  represent  this  Force,  which  presides  over  the 
physical  generation,  under  the  mythologic  and  horned  form  of  the 
God  PAN  ;  thence  came  the  he-goat  of  the  Sabbat,  brother  of  the 
Ancient  Serpent,  and  the  Light-bearer  or  Phosphor,  of  which  the 
poets  have  made  the  false  Lucifer  of  the  legend. " 

Gold,  to  the  eyes  of  the  Initiates,  is  Light  condensed.     They 


style  the  sacred  numbers  of  the  Kabalah  "golden  numbers,"  and 
the  moral  teachings  of  Pythagoras  his  "golden  verses."  For  the 
same  reason,  a  mysterious  book  of  Apuleius,in  which  an  ass  figures 
largely,  was  called  "The  Golden  Ass." 

The  Pagans  accused  the  Christians  of  worshipping  an  ass,  and 
they  did  not  invent  this  reproach,  but  it  came  from  the  Samaritan 
Jews,  who,  figuring  the  data  of  the  Kabalah  in  regard  to  the  Di- 
vinity by  Egyptian  symbols,  also  represented  the  Intelligence  by 
the  figure  of  the  Magical  Star  adored  under  the  name  of  Rem- 
phan,  Science  under  the  emblem  of  Anubis,  whose  name  they 
changed  to  Nibbas,  and  the  vulgar  faith  or  credulity  under  the 
figure  of  Thartac,  a  god  represented  with  a  boolo,  a  cloak,  and  the 
head  of  an  ass.  According  to  the  Samaritan  Doctors,  Christianity 
was  the  reign  of  Thartac,  blind  Faith  and  vulgar  credulity  erected 
into  a  universal  oracle,  and  preferred  to  Intelligence  and  Science. 

Synesius,  Bishop  of  Ptolemais,  a  great  Kabalist,  but  of  doubt- 
ful orthodoxy,  wrote : 

"The  people  will  always  mock  at  things  easy  to  be  understood ; 
it  must  needs  have  impostures." 

"A  Spirit,"  he  said,  "that  loves  wisdom  and  contemplates  the 
Truth  close  at  hand,  is  forced  to  disguise  it,  to  induce  the  multi- 
tudes to  accept  it Fictions  are  necessary  to  the  people,  and 

the  Truth  becomes  deadly  to  those  who  are  not  strong  enough  to 
contemplate  it  in  all  its  brilliance.  If  the  sacerdotal  laws  allowed 
the  reservation  of  judgments  and  the  allegory  of  words,  I  would 
accept  the  proposed  dignity  on  condition  that  I  might  be  a  philoso- 
pher at  home,  and  abroad  a  narrator  of  apologues  and  parables.  .  .  . 
In  fact,  what  can  there  be  in  common  between  the  vile  multitude 
and  sublime  wisdom?  The  truth  must  be  kept  secret,  and  the 
masses  need  a  teaching  proportioned  to  their  imperfect  reason." 

Moral  disorders  produce  physical  ugliness,  and  in  some  sort 
realize  those  frightful  faces  which  tradition  assigns  to  the  demons. 

The  first  Druids  were  the  true  children  of  the  Magi,  and  their 
initiation  came  from  Egypt  and  Chaldsea,  that  is  to  say,  from  the 
pure  sources  of  the  primitive  Kabalah.  They  adored  the  Trinity 
under  the  names  of  I  sis  or  Hesiis,  the  Supreme  Harmony ;  of 
Belen  or  Bel,  which  in  Assyrian  means  Lord,  a  name  correspond- 
ing to  that  of  ADONAI  ;  and  of  Camul  or  Camacl,  a  name  that  in 
the  Kabalah  personifies  the  Divine  Justice.  Below  this  triangle  ©f 
Light  they  supposed  a  divine  reflection,  also  composed  of  three  per- 


sonified  rays :  first,  Teutates  or  Teuth,  the  same  as  the  Thoth  of 
the  Egyptians,  the  Word,  or  the  Intelligence  formulated;  then 
Force  and  Beauty,  whose  names  varied  like  their  emblems. 
Finally,  they  completed  the  sacred  Septenary  by  a  mysterious 
image  that  represented  the  progress  of  the  dogma  and  its  future 
realizations.  This  was  a  young  girl  veiled,  holding  a  child  in  her 
arms ;  and  they  dedicated  this  image  to  "The  Virgin  who  will 
become  a  mother ; — Virgini  pariturce." 

Hertha  or  Wertha,  the  young  Isis  of  Gaul,  Queen  of  Heaven,  the 
Virgin  who  was  to  bear  a  child,  held  the  spindle  of  the  Fates,  filled 
with  wool  half  white  and  half  black ;  because  she  presides  over 
all  forms  and  all«symbols,  and  weaves  the  garment  of  the  Ideas. 

One  of  the  most  mysterious  pantacles  of  the  Kabalah,  contained 
in  the  Enchiridion  of  Leo  III.,  represents  an  equilateral  triangle 
reversed,  inscribed  in  a  double  circle.  On  the  triangle  are  writ- 
ten, in  such  manner  as  to  form  the  prophetic  Tau,  the  two  Hebrew 
words  so  often  found  appended  to  the  Ineffable  Name,  En^K  and 
JTN3S,  ALOIIAYIM,  or  the  Powers,  and  TSABAOTH,  or  the  Starry 
Armies  and  their  guiding  spirits ;  words  also  which  symbolize  the 
Equilibrium  of  the  Forces  of  Nature  and  the  Harmony  of  Num- 
bers. To  the  three  sides  of  the  triangle  belong  the  three  great 
Names  mrP,  'JIM,  and  K^3K,  IAHAVEH,  ADONAI,  and  AGLA. 
Above  the  first  is  written  in  Latin,  Formatio,  above  the  second 
Rcformatio,  and  above  the  third,  Trans formatio.  So  Creation  is 
ascribed  to  the  FATHER,  Redemption  or  Reformation  to  the  SONV 
and  Sanctification  or  Transformation  to  the  HOLY  SPIRIT,  answer- 
ing unto  the  mathematical  laws  of  Action,  Reaction,  and  Equilib- 
rium. IAHAVEH  is  also,  in  effect,  the  Genesis  or  Formation  of 
dogma,  by  the  elementary  signification  of  the  four  letters  of  the 
Sacred  Tetragram ;  ADONAI  is  the  realization  of  this  dogma  in  the 
Human  Form,  in  the  Visible  LORD,  who  is  the  Son  of  God  or  the 
perfect  Man ;  and  AGLA  ( formed  of  the  initials  of  the  four  words 
Ath  Gcbur  Lauldim  Adonai)  expresses  the  synthesis  of  the  whole 
dogma  and  the  totality  of  the  Kabalistic  science,  clearly  indicat- 
ing by  the  hieroglyphics  of  which  this  admirable  name  is  formed 
the  Triple  Secret  of  the  Great  Work. 

Masonry,  like  all  the  Religions,  all  the  Mysteries,  Hermeticism 
and  Alchemy,  conceals  its  secrets  from  all  except  the  Adepts  and 
Sages,  or  the  Elect,  and  uses  false  explanations  and  misinterpreta- 
tions of  its  symbols  to  mislead  those  who  deserve  only  to  be  mis- 


led ;  to  conceal  the  Truth,  which  it  calls  Light,  from  them,  and  to 
draw  them  away  from  it.  Truth  is  not  for  those  who  are  unworthy 
or  unable  to  receive  it,  or  would  pervert  it.  So  God  Himself  inca- 
pacitates many  men,  by  color-blindness,  to  distinguish  colors,  and 
leads  the  masses  away  from  the  highest  Truth,  giving  them  the 
power  to  attain  only  so  much  of  it  as  it  is  profitable  to  them  to 
know.  Every  age  has  had  a  reli'gion  suited  to  its  capacity. 

The  Teachers,  even  of  Christianity,  are,  in  general,  the  most 
ignorant  of  the  true  meaning  of  that  which  they  teach.  There  is 
no  book  of  which  so  little  is  known  as  the  Bible.  To  most  who 
read  it,  it  is  as  incomprehensible  as  the  Sohar. 

So  Masonry  jealously  conceals  its  secrets,  and  intentionally  leads 
conceited  interpreters  astray.  There  is  no  sight  under  the  sun 
more  pitiful  and  ludicrous  at  once,  than  the  spectacle  of  the  Pres- 
tons  and  the  Webbs,  not  to  mention  the  later  incarnations  of  Dull- 
ness and  Commonplace,  undertaking  to  "explain"  the  old  symbols 
of  Masonry,  and  adding  to  and  "improving"  them,  or  inventing 
new  ones. 

To  the  Circle  inclosing  the  central  point,  and  itself  traced  be- 
tween two  parallel  lines,  a  figure  purely  Kabalistic,  these  persons 
have  added  the  superimposed  Bible,  and  even  reared  on  that  the 
ladder  with  three  or  nine  rounds,  and  then  given  a  vapid  inter- 
pretation of  the  whole,  so  profoundly  absurd  as  actually  to  excite 



MASONRY  is  a  succession  of  allegories,  the  mere  vehicles  of  great 
lessons  in  morality  and  philosophy.  You  will  more  fully  appreciate 
its  spirit,  its  object,  its  purposes,  as  you  advance  in  the  different 
Degrees,  which  you  will  find  to  constitute  a  great,  complete,  and 
harmonious  system. 

If  you  have  been  disappointed  in  the  first  three  Degrees,  ay  you 
have  received  them, and  if  it  has  seemed  to  you  that  the  performance 
has  not  come  up  to  the  promise,  that  the  lessons  of  morality  are 
not  new,  and  the  scientific  instruction  is  but  rudimentary,  and  the 
symbols  are  imperfectly  explained,  remember  that  the  ceremonies 
and  lessons  of  those  Degrees  have  been  for  ages  more  and  more 
accommodating  themselves,  by  curtailment  and  sinking  into  com- 
monplace, to  the  often  limited  memory  and  capacity  of  the  Master 
and  Instructor,  and  to  the  intellect  and  needs  of  the  Pupil  and 
Initiate ;  that  they  have  come  to  us  from  an  age  when  symbols 
were  used,  not  to  reveal  but  to  conceal;  when  the  commonest  learn- 
ing was  confined  to  a  select  few,  and  the  simplest  principles  of 
morality  seemed  newly  discovered  truths ;  and  that  these  antique 
and  simple  Degrees  now  stand  like  the  broken  columns  of  a  roof- 
less Druidic  temple,  in  their  rude  and  mutilated  greatness ;  in 
many  parts,  also,  corrupted  by  time,  and  disfigured  by  modern  ad- 
ditions and  absurd  interpretations.  They  are  but  the  entrance  to 
the  great  Masonic  Temple,  the  triple  columns  of  the  portico. 

You  have  taken  the  first  step  over  its  threshold,  the  first  step 
toward  the  inner  sanctuary  and  heart  of  the  temple.  You  are  in 
the  path  that  leads  up  the  slope  of  the  mountain  of  Truth;  and 


it  depends  upon  your  secrecy,  obedience,  and  fidelity,  whether  you 
will  advance  or  remain  stationary. 

Imagine  not  that  you  will  become  indeed  a  Mason  by  learning 
what  is  commonly  called  the  "work,"  or  even  by  becoming  familiar 
with  ©ur  traditions.  Masonry  has  a  history,  a  literature,  a  philoso- 
phy. Its  allegories  and  traditions  will  teach  you  much ;  but  much 
is  to  be  sought  elsewhere.  The  streams  of  learning  that  now  flow 
full  and  broad  must  be  followed  to  their  heads  in  the  springs  that 
well  up  in  the  remote  past,  and  you  will  there  find  the  origin  and 
meaning  of  Masonry. 

A  few  rudimentary  lessons  in  architecture,  a  few  universally 
admitted  maxims  of  morality,  a  few  unimportant  traditions,  whose 
real  meaning  is  unknown  or  misunderstood,  will  no  longer  satisfy 
the  earnest  inquirer  after  Masonic  truth.  Let  whoso  is  content 
with  these,  seek  to  climb  no  higher.  He  who  desires  to  understand 
the  harmonious  and  beautiful  proportions  of  Freemasonry  must 
read,  study,  reflect,  digest,  and  discriminate.  The  true  Mason  is  an 
ardent  seeker  after  knowledge ;  and  he  knows  that  both  books  and 
the  antique  symbols  of  Masonry  are  vessels  which  come  down  to 
us  full-freighted  with  the  intellectual  riches  of  the  Past ;  and  that 
in  the  lading  of  these  argosies  is  much  that  sheds  light  on  the 
history  of  Masonry,  and  proves  its  claim  to  be  acknowledged  the 
benefactor  of  mankind,  born  in  the  very  cradle  of  the  race. 

Knowledge  is  the  most  genuine  and  real  of  human  treasures; 
for  it  is  Light,  as  Ignorance  is  Darkness.  It  is  the  development  of 
the  human  soul,  and  its  acquisition  the  gro^vt\}  of  the  soul,  which 
at  the  birth  of  man  knows  nothing,  and  therefore,  in  one  sense, 
may  be  said  to  be  nothing.  It  is  the  seed,  which  has  in  it  the 
power  to  grow,  to  acquire,  and  by  acquiring  to  be  developed,  as  the 
seed  is  developed  into  the  shoot,  the  plant,  the  tree.  "We  need  not 
pause  at  the  common  argument  that  by  learning  man  excelleth 
man,  in  that  wherein  man  excelleth  beasts;  that  by  learning  man 
ascendeth  to  the  heavens  and  their  motions,  where  in  body  he  can- 
not come,  and  the  like.  Let  us  rather  regard  the  dignity  and 
excellency  of  knowledge  and  learning  in  that  whereunto  man's 
nature  doth  most  aspire,  which  is  immortality  or  continuance. 
For  to  this  tendeth  generation,  and  raising  of  Houses  and  Fami- 
lies ;  to  this  buildings,  foundations,  and  monuments ;  to  this  tend- 
eth the  desire  of  memory,  fame,  and  celebration,  and  in  effect  the 
strength  of  all  other  human  desires."  That  our  influences  shall 


survive  us,  and  be  living  forces  when  we  are  in  our  graves ;  and  not 
merely  that  our  names  shall  be  remembered ;  but  rather  that  our 
works  shall  be  read,  our  acts  spoken  of,  our  names  recollected  and 
mentioned  when  we  are  dead,  as  evidences  that  those  influences  live 
and  rule,  sway  and  control  some  portion  of  mankind  and  of  the 
world, — this  is  the  aspiration  of  the  human  soul.  "We  see  then  how 
far  the  monuments  of  genius  and  learning  are  more  durable  than 
monuments  of  power  or  of  the  hands.  For  have  not  the  verses  of 
Homer  continued  twenty-five  hundred  years  or  more,  without  the 
loss  of  a  syllable  or  letter,  during  which  time  infinite  palaces,  tem- 
ples, castles,  cities,  have  decayed  and  been  demolished?  It  is  not 
possible  to  have  the  true  pictures  or  statues  of  Cyrus,  Alexander, 
Caesar,  no,  nor  of  the  Kings  or  great  personages  of  much  later 
years ;  for  the  originals  cannot  last,  and  the  copies  cannot  but  lose 
of  the  life  and  truth.  But  the  images  of  men's  genius  and  knowl- 
edge remain  in  books,  exempted  from  the  wrong  of  time,  and 
capable  of  perpetual  renovation.  Neither  are  they  fitly  to  be  called 
images,  because  they  generate  still,  and  cast  their  seeds  in  the 
minds  of  others,  provoking  and  causing  infinite  actions  and  opin- 
ions in  succeeding  ages ;  so  that  if  the  invention  of  the  ship  was 
thought  so  noble,  which  carrieth  riches  and  commodities  from  place 
to  place,  and  consociateth  the  most  remote  regions  in  participation 
of  their  fruits,  how  much  more  are  letters  to  be  magnified,  which, 
as  ships,  pass  through  the  vast  seas  of  time,  and  make  ages  so  dis- 
tant to  participate  of  the  wisdom,  illumination,  and  inventions, 
the  one  of  the  other." 

To  learn,  to  attain  knowledge,  to  be  wise,  is  a  necessity  for  every 
truly  noble  soul ;  to  teach,  to  communicate  that  knowledge,  to 
share  that  wisdom  with  others,  and  not  churlishly  to  lock  up  his 
exchequer,  and  place  a  sentinel  at  the  door  to  drive  away  the 
needy,  is  equally  an  impulse  of  a  noble  nature,  and  the  worthiest 
work  of  man. 

"There  was  a  little  city,"  says  the  Preacher,  the  son  of  David, 
"and  few  men  within  it;  and  there  came  a  great  King  against  it 
and  besieged  it,  and  built  great  bulwarks  against  it.  Now  there 
was  found  in  it  a  poor  wise  man,  and  he  by  his  wisdom  delivered 
the  city ;  yet  no  man  remembered  that  same  poor  man.  Then, 
said  I,  wisdom  is  better  than  strength :  nevertheless,  the  poor  man's 
wisdom  is  despised,  and  his  words  are  not  heard."  If  it  should 
chance  to  you,  my  brother,  to  do  mankind  good  service,  and  be 


rewarded  with  indifference  and  forgetfulness  only,  still  be  not  dis- 
couraged, but  remember  the  further  advice  of  the  wise  King. 
"In  the  morning  sow  the  seed,  and  in  the  evening  withhold  not  thy 
hand ;  for  thou  knowest  not  which  shall  prosper,  this  or  that,  or 
whether  both  shall  be  alike  good."  Sow  you  the  seed,  whoever 
reaps.  Learn,  that  you  may  be  enabled  to  do  good ;  and  do  so  be- 
cause it  is  right,  finding  in  the  act  itself  ample  reward  and  recom- 

To  attain  the  truth,  and  to  serve  our  fellows,  our  country,  and 
mankind — this  is  the  noblest  destiny  of  man.  Hereafter  and  all 
your  life  it  is  to  be  your  object.  If  you  desire  to  ascend  to  that 
destiny,  advance!  If  you  have  other  and  less  noble  objects,  and 
are  contented  with  a  lower  flight,  halt  here!  let  others  scale 
the  heights,  and  Masonry  fulfill  her  mission. 

If  you  will  advance,  gird  up  your  loins  for  the  struggle !  for  the 
way  is  long  and  toilsome.  Pleasure,  all  smiles,  will  beckon  you 
on  the  one  hand,  and  Indolence  will  invite  you  to  sleep  among  the 
flowers,  upon  the  other.  Prepare,  by  secrecy,  obedience,  and  fidelity, 
to  resist  the  allurements  of  both ! 

Secrecy  is  indispensable  in  a  Mason  of  whatever  Degree.  It  is 
the  first  and  almost  the  only  lesson  taught  to  the  Entered  Ap- 
prentice. The  obligations  which  we  have  each  assumed  toward 
every  Mason  that  lives,  requiring  of  us  the  performance  of  the 
most  serious  and  onerous  duties  toward  those  personally  unknown 
to  us  until  they  demand  our  aid, — duties  that  must  be  performed, 
even  at  the  risk  of  life,  or  our  solemn  oaths  be  broken  and  violated, 
and  we  be  branded  as  false  Masons  and  faithless  men,  teach  us 
how  profound  a  folly  it  would  be  to  betray  our  secrets  to  those 
who,  bound  to  us  by  no  tie  of  common  obligation,  might,  by  ob- 
taining them,  call  on  us  in  their  extremity,  when  the  urgency  of 
the  occasion  should  allow  us  no  time  for  inquiry,  and  the  peremp- 
tory mandate  of  our  obligation  compel  us  to  do  a  brother's  duty 
to  a  base  impostor. 

The  secrets  of  our  brother,  when  communicated  to  us,  must  be 
sacred,  if  they  be  such  as  the  law  of  our  country  warrants  us  to 
keep.  We  are  required  to  keep  none  other,  when  the  law  that  we 
are  called  on  to  obey  is  indeed  a  law,  by  having  emanated  from 
the  only  source  of  power,  the  People.  Edicts  which  emanate  from 
the  mere  arbitrary  will  of  a  despotic  power,  contrary  to  the  law  of 
God  or  the  Great  Law  of  Nature,  destructive  of  the  inherent  rights 


of  man,  violative  of  the  right  of  free  thought,  free  speech,  free 
conscience,  it  is  lawful  to  rebel  against  and  strive  to  abrogate. 

For  obedience  to  the  Law  does  not  mean  submission  to  tyranny ; 
nor  that,  by  a  profligate  sacrifice  of  every  noble  feeling,  we  shotricl 
offer  to  despotism  the  homage  of  adulation.  As  every  new  victim 
falls,  we  may  lift  our  voice  in  still  louder  flattery.  We  may  fall  at 
the  proud  feet,  we  may  beg,  as  a  boon,  the  honor  of  kissing  that 
bloody  hand  which  has  been  lifted  against  the  helpless.  We  may 
do  more :  we  may  bring  the  altar  and  the  sacrifice,  and  implore 
the  God  not  to  ascend  too  soon  to  Heaven.  This  we  may  do,  for 
this  we  have  the  sad  remembrance  that  beings  of  a  human  form 
and  soul  have  done.  But  this  is  all  we  can  do.  We  can  constrain 
our  tongues  to  be  false,  our  features  to  bend  themselves  to  the 
semblance  of  that  passionate  adoration  which  we  wish  to  express, 
our  knees  to  fall  prostrate ;  but  our  heart  we  cannot  constrain. 
There  virtue  must  still  have  a  voice  which  is  not  to  be  drowned 
by  hymns  and  acclamations ;  there  the  crimes  which  we  laud  as 
virtues,  are  crimes  still,  and  he  whom  we  have  made  a  God  is  the 
most  contemptible  of  mankind ;  if,  indeed,  we  do  not  feel,  per- 
haps, that  we  are  ourselves  still  more  contemptible. 

But  that  law  which  is  the  fair  expression  of  the  will  and  judg- 
ment of  the  people,  is  the  enactment  of  the  whole  and  of  every 
individual.  Consistent  with  the  law  of  God  and  the  great  law  of 
nature,  consistent  with  pure  and  abstract  right  as  tempered  by 
necessity  and  the  general  interest,  as  contra-distinguished  from 
the  private  interest  of  individuals,  it  is  obligatory  upon  all,  because 
it  is  the  work  of  all,  the  will  of  all,  the  solemn  judgment  of  all, 
from  which  there  is  no  appeal. 

In  this  Degree,  my  brother,  you  are  especially  to  learn  the  duty 
of  obedience  to  that  law.  There  is  one  true  and  original  law, 
conformable  to  reason  and  to  nature,  diffused  over  all,  invariable, 
eternal,  which  calls  to  the  fulfillment  of  duty,  and  to  abstinence 
from  injustice,  and  calls  with  that  irresistible  voice  which  is  felt 
in  all  its  authority  wherever  it  is  heard.  This  law  cannot  be 
abrogated  or  diminished,  or  its  sanctions  affected,  by  any  law  of 
man.  A  whole  senate,  a  whole  people,  cannot  dispense  from  its 
paramount  obligation.  It  requires  no  commentator  to  render  it 
distinctly  intelligible:  nor  is  it  one  thing  at  Rome,  another  at 
Athens,  one  thing  now,  and  another  in  the  ages  to  come;  but  in 
all  times  and  in  all  nations,  it  is,  and  has  been,  and  will  be,  one 


and  everlasting; — one  as  that  God,  its  great  Author  and  Promul- 
gator,  who  is  the  Common  Sovereign  of  all  mankind,  is  Himself 
One.  No  man  can  disobey  it  without  flying,  as  it  were,  from  his 
own  bosom,  and  repudiating  his  nature ;  and  in  this  very  act  he 
will  inflict  on  himself  the  severest  of  retributions,  even  though  he 
escape  what  is  regarded  as  punishment. 

It  is  our  duty  to  obey  the  laws  of  our  country,  and  to  be  careful 
that  prejudice  or  passion,  fancy  or  affection,  error  and  illusion,  be 
not  mistaken  for  conscience.  Nothing  is  more  usual  than  to  pre- 
tend conscience  in  all  the  actions  of  man  which  are  public  and 
cannot  be  concealed.  The  disobedient  refuse  to  submit  to  the 
laws,  and  they  also  in  many  cases  pretend  conscience ;  and  so  dis- 
obedience and  rebellion  become  conscience,  in  which  there  is 
neither  knowledge  nor  revelation,  nor  truth  nor  charity,  nor 
reason  nor  religion.  Conscience  is  tied  to  laws.  Right  or  sure 
conscience  is  right  reason  reduced  to  practice,  and  conducting 
moral  actions,  while  perverse  conscience  is  seated  in  the  fancy  or 
affections — a  heap  of  irregular  principles  and  irregular  defects — 
and  is  the  same  in  conscience  as  deformity  is  in  the  body,  or 
peevishness  in  the  affections.  It  is  not  enough  that  the  conscience 
be  taught  by  nature ;  but  it  must  be  taught  by  God,  conducted 
by  reason,  made  operative  by  discourse,  assisted  by  choice,  in- 
structed by  laws  and  sober  principles ;  and  then  it  is  right,  and  it 
may  be  sure.  All  the  general  measures  of  justice,  are  the  laws  of 
God,  and  therefore  they  constitute  the  general  rules  of  government 
for  the  conscience ;  but  necessity  also  hath  a  large  voice  in  the 
arrangement  of  human  affairs,  and  the  disposal  of  human  rela- 
tions, and  the  dispositions  of  human  laws ;  and  these  general 
measures,  like  a  great  river  into  little  streams,  are  deduced  into 
little  rivulets  and  particularities,  by  the  laws  and  customs,  by  the 
sentences  and  agreements  of  men,  and  by  the  absolute  despotism 
of  necessity,  that  will  not  allow  perfect  and  abstract  justice  and 
equity  to  be  the  sole  rule  of  civil  government  in  an  imperfect 
world ;  and  that  must  needs  be  law  which  is  for  the  greatest  good 
of  the  greatest  number. 

When  thou  vowest  a  vow  unto  God,  defer  not  to  pay  it.  It  is 
better  thou  shouldest  not  vow  than  thou  shouldest  vow  and 
not  pay.  Be  not  rash  with  thy  mouth,  and  let  not  thine  heart  be 
hasty  to  utter  anything  before  God :  for  God  is  in  Heaven,  and 
thou  art  upon  earth ;  therefore  let  thy  words  be  few.  Weigh  well 


what  it  is  you  promise;  but  once  the  promise  and  pledge  are'given 
remember  that  he  who  is  false  to  his  obligation  will  be  false  to  his 
family,  his  friend,  his  country,  and  his  God. 

Fides  servanda  est:  Faith  plighted  is  ever  to  be  kept,  was  a 
maxim  and  an  axiom  even  among  pagans.  The  virtuous  Roman 
said,  either  let  not  that  which  seems  expedient  be  base,  or  if  it  be 
base,  let  it  not  seem  expedient.  What  is  there  which  that  so-called 
expediency  can  bring,  so  valuable  as  that  which  it  takes  away,  if 
it  deprives  you  of  the  name  of  a  good  man  and  robs  you  of  your  in- 
tegrity and  honor  ?  In  all  ages,  he  who  violates  his  plighted  word 
has  been  held  unspeakably  base.  The  word  of  a  Mason,  like  the 
word  of  a  knight  in  the  times  of  chivalry,  once  given  must  be  sa- 
cred ;  and  the  judgment  of  his  brothers,  upon  him  who  violates  his 
pledge,  should  be  stern  as  the  judgments  of  the  Roman  Censors 
against  him  who  violated  his  oath.  Good  faith  is  revered  among 
Masons  as  it  was  among  the  Romans,  who  placed  its  statue  in  the 
capitol,  next  to  that  of  Jupiter  Maximus  Optimus;  and  we,  like 
them,  hold  that  calamity  should  always  be  chosen  rather  than  base- 
ness ;  and  with  the  knights  of  old,  that  one  should  always  die 
rather  than  be  dishonored. 

Be  faithful,  therefore,  to  the  promises  you  make,  to  the  pledges 
you  give,  and  to  the  vows  that  you  assume,  since  to  break  either 
is  base  and  dishonorable. 

Be  faithful  to  your  family,  and  perform  all  the  duties  of  a  good 
father,  a  good  son,  a  good  husband,  and  a  good  brother. 

Be  faithful  to  your  friends ;  for  true  friendship  is  of  a  nature 
not  only  to  survive  through  all  the  vicissitudes  of  life,  but  to  con- 
tinue through  an  endless  duration ;  not  only  to  stand  the  shock  of 
conflicting  opinions,  and  the  roar  of  a  revolution  that  shakes  the 
world,  but  to  last  when  the  heavens  are  no  more,  and  to  spring 
fresh  from  the  ruins  of  the  universe. 

Be  faithful  to  your  country,  and  prefer  its  dignity  and  honor 
to  any  degree  of  popularity  and  honor  for  yourself ;  consulting  its 
interest  rather  than  your  own,  and  rather  than  the  pleasure  and 
gratification  of  the  people,  which  are  often  at  variance  with  their 

Be  faithful  to  Masonry,  which  is  to  be  faithful  to  the  best  inter- 
ests of  mankind.  Labor,  by  precept  and  example,  to  elevate  the 
standard  of  Masonic  character,  to  enlarge  its  sphefe  of  influence, 
to  popularize  its  teachings,  and  to  make  all  men  know  it  for  the 


Great  Apostle  of  Peace,  Harmony,  and  Good-will  on  earth  among 
men :  of  Liberty,  Equality,  and  Fraternity. 

Masonry  is  useful  to  all  men :  to  the  learned,  because  it  affords 
them  the  opportunity  of  exercising  their  talents  upon  subjects  em- 
inently worthy  of  their  attention ;  to  the  illiterate,  because  it  offers 
them  important  instruction ;  to  the  young,  because  it  presents 
them  with  salutary  precepts  and  good  examples,  and  accustoms 
them  to  reflect  on  the  proper  mode  of  living;  to  the  man  of  the 
world,  whom  it  furnishes  with  noble  and  useful  recreation ;  to  the 
traveller,  whom  it  enables  to  find  friends  and  brothers  in  countries 
where  else  he  would  be  isolated  and  solitary ;  to  the  worthy  man 
in  misfortune,  to  \vhom  it  gives  assistance ;  to  the  afflicted,  on 
whom  it  lavishes  consolation ;  to  the  charitable  man,  whom  it  en- 
ables to  do  more  good,  by  uniting  with  those  who  are  charitable 
like  himself ;  and  to  all  who  have  souls  capable  of  appreciating  its 
importance,  and  of  enjoying  the  charms  of  a  friendship  founded 
on  the  same  principles  of  religion,  morality,  and  philanthropy. 

A  Freemason,  therefore,  should  be  a  man  of  honor  and  of  con- 
science, preferring  his  duty  to  everything  beside,  even  to  his  life ; 
independent  in  his  opinions,  and  of  good  morals ;  submissive  to 
the  laws,  devoted  to  humanity,  to  his  country,  to  his  family ;  kind 
and  indulgent  to  his  brethren,  friend  of  all  virtuous  men,  and 
ready  to  assist  his  fellows  by  all  means  in  his  power. 

Thus  will  you  be  faithful  to  yourself,  to  your  fellows,  and  to 
God,  and  thus  will  you  do  honor  to  the  name  and  rank  of  SECRET 
MASTER  ;  which,  like  other  Masonic  honors,  degrades  if  it  is  not 


THE  Master  Khurum  was  an  industrious  and  an  honest  man. 
What  lie  was  employed  to  do  he  did  diligently,  and  he  did  it  well 
and  faithfully.  He  received  no  zvages  that  were  not  his  due.  In- 
dustry and  honesty  are  the  virtues  peculiarly  inculcated  in  this 
Degree.  They  are  common  and  homely  virtues ;  but  not  for  that 
beneath  our  notice.  As  the  bees  do  not  love  or  respect  the  drones, 
so  Masonry  neither  loves  nor  respects  the  idle  and  those  who  live 
by  their  wits ;  and  least  of  all  those  parasitic  acari  that  live  upon 
themselves.  For  those  who  are  indolent  are  likely  to  become  dis- 
sipated and  vicious ;  and  perfect  honesty,  which  ought  to  be  the 
common  qualification  of  all,  is  more  rare  than  diamonds.  To  do 
earnestly  and  steadily,  and  to  do  faithfully  and  honestly  that  which 
we  have  to  do — perhaps  this  wants  but  little,  when  looked  at  from 
every  point  of  view,  of  including  the  whole  body  of  the  moral 
law ;  and  even  in  their  commonest  and  homeliest  application,  these 
virtues  belong  to  the  character  of  a  Perfect  Master. 

Idleness  is  the  burial  of  a  living  man.  For  an  idle  person  is  so 
useless  to  any  purposes  of  God  and  man,  that  he  is  like  one  who 
is  dead,  unconcerned  in  the  changes  and  necessities  of  the  world ; 
and  he  only  lives  to  spend  his  time,  and  eat  the  fruits  of  the  earth. 
Like  a  vermin  or  a  wolf,  when  his  time  comes,  he  dies  and  per- 
ishes, and  in  the  mean  time  is  nought.  He  neither  ploughs  nor 
carries  burdens :  all  that  he  does  is  either  unprofitable  or  mis- 

It  is  a  vast  work  that  any  man  may  do,  if  he  never  be  idle :  and 
it  is  a  huge  way  that  a  man  may  go  in  virtue,  if^he  never  go  out 
of  his  way  by  a  vicious  habit  or  a  great  crime :  and  he  who  per- 


fetually  reads  good  books,  if  his  parts  be  answerable,  will  have  a 
huge  stock  of  knowledge. 

St.  Ambrose,  and  from  his  example,  St.  Augustine,  divided  every 
day  into  these  tcrtias  of  employment:  eight  hours  they  spent  in 
the  necessities  of  nature  and  recreation :  eight  hours  in  charity, 
in  doing  assistance  to  others,  dispatching  their  business,  reconcil- 
ing their  enmities,  reproving  their  vices,  correcting  their  errors, 
instructing  their  ignorance,  and  in  transacting  the  affairs  of  their 
dioceses ;  and  the  other  eight  hours  they  spent  in  study  and 

We  think,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  that  life  is  much  too  long  for 
that  which  we  have  to  learn  and  do ;  and  that  there  is  an  almost 
fabulous  distance  between  our  age  and  that  of  our  grandfather. 
But  when,  at  the  age  of  sixty,  if  we  are  fortunate  enough  to  reach 
it,  or  unfortunate  enough,  as  the  case  may  be,  and  according  as  we 
have  profitably  invested  or  wasted  our  time,  we  halt,  and  look  back 
along  the  way  we  have  come,  and  cast  up  and  endeavor  to  balance 
our  accounts  with  time  and  opportunity,  we  find  that  we  have 
made  life  much  too  short,  and  thrown  away  a  huge  portion  of  our 
time.  Then  we,  in  our  mind,  deduct  from  the  sum  total  of  our 
years  the  hours  that  we  have  needlessly  passed  in  sleep ;  the  work- 
ing-hours each  day,  during  which  the  surface  of  the  mind's  slug- 
gish pool  has  not  been  stirred  or  ruffled  by  a  single  thought;  the 
days  that  we  have  gladly  got  rid  of,  to  attain  some  real  or  fancied 
object  that  lay  beyond,  in  the  way  between  us  and  which  stood 
irksomely  the  intervening  days ;  the  hours  worse  than  wasted  in 
follies  and  dissipation,  or  misspent  in  useless  and  unprofitable 
studies ;  and  we  acknowledge,  with  a  sigh,  that  we  could  have 
learned  and  done,  in  half  a  score  of  years  well  spent,  more  than 
we  have  done  in  all  our  forty  years  of  manhood. 

To  learn  and  to  do ! — this  is  the  soul's  work  here  below.  The 
soul  grows  as  truly  as  an  oak  grows.  As  the  tree  takes  the  carbon 
of  the  air,  the  dew,  the  rain,  and  the  light,  and  the  food  that  the 
earth  supplies  to  its  roots,  and  by  its  mysterious  chemistry  trans- 
mutes them  into  sap  and  fibre,  into  wood  and  leaf,  and  flower  and 
fruit,  and  color  and  perfume,  so  the  soul  imbibes  knowledge,  and 
by  a  divine  alchemy  changes  what  it  learns  into  its  own  substance, 
and  grows  from  within  outwardly  with  an  inherent  force  and 
power  like  those  that  lie  hidden  in  the  grain  of  wheat. 

The  soul  hath  its  senses,  like  the  body,  that  may  be  cultivated, 


enlarged,  refined,  as  itself  grows  in  stature  and  proportion ;  and 
he  who  cannot  appreciate  a  fine  painting  or  s-tatue,  a  noble  poem, 
a  sweet  harmony,  a  heroic  thought,  or  a  disinterested  action,  or  to 
whom  the  wisdom  of  philosophy  is  but  foolishness  and  babble,  and 
the  loftiest  truths  of  less  importance  than  the  price  of  stocks  or 
cotton,  or  the  elevation  of  baseness  to  office,  merely  lives  on  the 
level  of  commonplace,  and  fitly  prides  himself  upon  that  inferiority 
of  the  soul's  senses,  which  is  the  inferiority  and  imperfect  develop- 
ment of  the  soul  itself. 

To  sleep  little,  and  to  study  much;  to  say  little,  and  to  hear 
and  think  much ;  to  learn,  that  we  may  be  able  to  do,  and  then  to 
do,  earnestly  and  vigorously,  whatever  may  be  required  of  us  by 
duty,  and  by  the  good  of  our  fellows,  our  country,  and  mankind, — 
these  are  the  duties  of  every  Mason  who  desires  to  imitate  the 
Master  Khurum. 

The  duty  of  a  Mason  as  an  honest  man  is  plain  and  easy.  It 
requires  of  us  honesty  in  contracts,  sincerity  in  affirming,  sim- 
plicity in  bargaining,  and  faithfulness  in  performing.  Lie  not  at 
all,  neither  in  a  little  thing  nor  in  a  great,  neither  in  the  substance 
nor  in  the  circumstance,  neither  in  word  nor  deed :  that  is,  pre- 
tend not  what  is  false ;  cover  not  what  is  true ;  and  let  the  measure 
of  your  affirmation  or  denial  be  the  understanding  of  your  con- 
tractor ;  for  he  who  deceives  the  buyer  or  the  seller  by  speaking 
what  is  true,  in  a  sense  not  intended  or  understood  by  the  other, 
is  a  liar  and  a  thief.  A  Perfect  Master  must  avoid  that  which 
deceives,  equally  with  that  which  is  false. 

Let  your  prices  be  according  to  that  measure  of  good  and  evil 
which  is  established  in  the  fame  and  common  accounts  of  the 
wisest  and  most  merciful  men,  skilled  in  that  manufacture  or 
commodity ;  and  the  gain  such,  which,  without  scandal,  is  allowed 
to  persons  in  all  the  same  circumstances. 

In  intercourse  with  others,  do  not  do  all  which  thou  mayest 
lawfully  do ;  but  keep  something  within  thy  power ;  and,  because 
there  is  a  latitude  of  gain  in  buying  and  selling,  take  not  thou  the 
utmost  penny  that  is  lawful,  or  which  thou  thinkest  so ;  for 
although  it  be  lawful,  yet  it  is  not  safe ;  and  he  who  gains  all  that 
he  can  gain  lawfully,  this  year,  will  possibly  be  tempted,  next 
year,  to  gain  something  unlawfully. 

Let  no  man,  for  his  own  poverty,  become  more  oppressing  and 
cruel  in  his  bargain ;  but  quietly,  modestly,  diligently,  and  patiently 


recommend  his  estate  to  God,  and  follow  its  interest,  and  leave  the 
success  to  Him. 

Detain  not  the  wages  of  the  hireling ;  for  every  degree  of  deten- 
tion of  it  beyond  the  time,  is  injustice  and  uncharitableness,  and 
grinds  his  face  till  tears  and  blood  come  out ;  but  pay  him  exactly 
according  to  covenant,  or  according  to  his  needs. 

Religiously  keep  all  promises  and  covenants,  though  made  to 
your  disadvantage,  though  afterward  you  perceive  you  might  have 
done  better;  and  let  not  any  precedent  act  of  yours  be  altered  by 
any  after-accident.  Let  nothing  make  you  break  your  promise, 
unless  it  be  unlawful  or  impossible ;  that  is,  either  out  of  your 
nature  or  out  of  your  civil  power,  yourself  being  under  the  power 
of  another ;  or  that  it  be  intolerably  inconvenient  to  yourself,  and 
of  no  advantage  to  another;  or  that  you  have  leave  expressed  or 
reasonably  presumed. 

Let  no  man  take  wages  or  fees  for  a  work  that  he  cannot  do, 
or  cannot  with  probability  undertake ;  or  in  some  sense  profitably, 
arid  with  ease,  or  with  advantage  manage.  Let  no  man  appropriate 
to  his  own  use,  what  God,  by  a  special  mercy,  or  the  Republic, 
hath  made  common ;  for  that  is  against  both  Justice  and  Charity. 

That  any  man  should  be  the  worse  for  us,  and  for  our  direct 
act,  and  by  our  intention,  is  against  the  rule  of  equity,  of  justice, 
and  of  charity.  We  then  do  not  that  to  others,  which  we  would 
have  done  to  ourselves ;  for  we  grow  richer  upon  the  ruins  of  their 

It  is  not  honest  to  receive  anything  from  another  without  re- 
turning him  an  equivalent  therefor.  The  gamester  who  wins  the 
money  of  another  is  dishonest.  There  should  be  no  such  thing  as 
bets  and  gaming  among  Masons :  for  no  honest  man  should  desire 
that  for  nothing  which  belongs  to  another.  The  merchant  who 
sells  an  inferior  article  for  a  sound  price,  the  speculator  who 
makes  the  distresses  and  needs  of  others  fill  his  exchequer  are 
neither  fair  nor  honest,  but  base,  ignoble,  unfit  for  immortality. 

It  should  be  the  earnest  desire  of  every  Perfect  Master  so  to  live 
and  deal  and  act,  that  when  it  comes  to  him  to  die,  he  may  be 
able  to  say,  and  his  conscience  to  adjudge,  that  no  man  on  earth 
is  poorer,  because  he  is  richer :  that  what  he  hath  he  has  honestly 
earned,  and  no  man  can  go  before  God,  and  claim  that  by  the 
rules  of  equity  administered  in  His  great  chancery,  this  house  in 
which  we  die,  this  land  we  devise  to  our  heirs,  this  money  that 


enriches  those  who  survive  to  bear  our  name,  is  his  and  not  ours, 
and  we  in  that  forum  are  only  his  trustee.  For  it  is  most  certain 
that  God  is  just,  and  will  sternly  enforce  every  such  trust;  and 
that  to  all  whom  we  despoil,  to  all  whom  we  defraud,  to  all  from 
whom  we  take  or  win  anything  whatever,  without  fair  considera- 
tion and  equivalent,  He  will  decree  a  full  and  adequate  compensa- 

Be  careful,  then,  that  thou  receive  no  wages,  here  or  elsewhere, 
that  are  not  thy  due !  For  if  thou  dost,  thou  wrongest  some  one, 
by  taking  that  which  in  God's  chancery  belongs  to  him ;  and 
whether  that  which  thou  takest  thus  be  wealth,  or  rank,  or 
influence,  or  reputation  or  affection,  thou  wilt  surely  be  held  to 
make  full  satisfaction. 



[Confidential  Secretary.] 

You  are  especially  taught  in  this  Degree  to  be  zealous  and  faith- 
ful ;  to  be  disinterested  and  benevolent ;  and  to  act  the  peace- 
maker, in  case  of  dissensions,  disputes,  and  quarrels  among  the 

Duty  is  the  moral  magnetism  which  controls  and  guides  the 
true  Mason's  course  over  the  tumultuous  seas  of  life.  Whether  the 
stars  of  honor,  reputation,  and  reward  do  or  do  not  shine,  in  the 
light  of  day  or  in  the  darkness  of  the  night  of  trouble  and  adver- 
sity, in  calm  or  storm,  that  unerring  magnet  still  shows  him  the 
true  course  to  steer,  and  indicates  with  certainty  where-away  lies 
the  port  which  not  to  reach  involves  shipwreck  and  dishonor.  He 
follows  its  silent  bidding,  as  the  mariner,  when  land  is  for  many 
days  not  in  sight,  and  the  ocean  without  path  or  landmark  spreads 
out  all  around  him,  follows  the  bidding  of  the  needle,  never 
doubting  that  it  points  truly  to  the  north.  To  perform  that 
duty,  whether  the  performance  be  rewarded  or  unrewarded,  is  his 
sole  care.  And  it  doth  not  matter,  though  of  this  performance 
there  may  be  no  witnesses,  and  though  what  he  does  will  be  for- 
ever unknown  to  all  mankind. 

A  little  consideration  will  teach  us  that  Fame  has  other  limits 
than  mountains  and  oceans ;  and  that  he  who  places  happiness  in 
the  frequent  repetition  of  his  name,  may  spend  his  life  in  propa- 
gating it,  without  any  danger  of  weeping  for  new  worlds,  or  neces- 
sity of  passing  the  Atlantic  sea. 

If,  therefore,  he  who  imagines  the  world  to  be  filled  with  his  ac- 



tions  and  praises,  shall  subduct  from  the  number  of  his  encomiasts 
all  those  who  are  placed  below  the  flight  of  fame,  and  who  hear  in 
the  valley  of  life  no  voice  but  that  of  necessity ;  all  those  who  im- 
agine themselves  too  important  to  regard  him,  and  consider  the 
mention  of  his  name  as  a  usurpation  of  their  time ;  all  who  are  too 
much  or  too  little  pleased  with  themselves  to  attend  to  anything 
external ;  all  who  are  attracted  by  pleasure,  or  chained  down  by 
pain  to  unvaried  ideas;  all  who  are  withheld  from  attending  his 
triumph  by  different  pursuits ;  and  all  who  slumber  in  universal 
negligence;  he  will  find  his  renown  straitened  by  nearer  bounds 
than  the  rocks  of  Caucasus ;  and  perceive  that  no  man  can  be  ven- 
erable or  formidable,  but  to  a  small  part  of  his  fellow-creatures. 
And  therefore,  that  we  may  not  languish  in  our  endeavors  after 
excellence,  it  is  necessary  that,  as  Africanus  counsels  his  decend- 
ants,  we  raise  our  eyes  to  higher  prospects,  and  contemplate  our 
future  and  eternal  state,  without  giving  up  our  hearts  to  the  praise 
of  crowds,  or  fixing  our  hopes  on  such  rewards  as  human  powe-r 
can  bestow. 

We  are  not  born  for  ourselves  alone ;  and  our  country  claims  her 
share,  and  our  friends  their  share  of  us.  As  all  that  the  earth  pro- 
duces is  created  for  the  use  of  man,  so  men  are  created  for  the 
sake  of  men,  that  they  may  mutually  do  good  to  one  another.  In 
this  we  ought  to  take  nature  for  our  guide,  and  throw  into  the  pub- 
lic stock  the  offices  of  general  utility,  by  a  reciprocation  of  duties ; 
sometimes  by  receiving,  sometimes  by  giving,  and  sometimes  to 
cement  human  society  by  arts,  by  industry,  and  by  our  resources. 

Suffer  others  to  be  praised  in  thy  presence,  and  entertain  their 
good  and  glory  with  delight;  but  at  no  hand  disparage  them,  or 
lessen  the  report,  or  make  an  objection;  and  think  not  the  ad- 
vancement of  thy  brother  is  a  lessening  of  thy  worth.  Upbraid 
no  man's  weakness  to  him  to  discomfit  him,  neither  report  it  to 
disparage  him,  neither  delight  to  remember  it  to  lessen  him,  or  to 
set  thyself  above  him  ;  nor  ever  praise  thyself  or  dispraise  any  man 
else,  unless  some  sufficient  worthy  end  do  hallow  it. 

Remember  that  we  usually  disparage  others  upon  slight  grounds 
and  little  instances ;  and  if  a  man  be  highly  commended,  we  think 
him  sufficiently  lessened,  if  we  can  but  charge'  one  sin  of  folly  or 
inferiority  in  his  account.  We  should  either  be  more  severe  to  our- 
selves, or  less  so  to  others,  and  consider  that  whatsoever  good  any 
one  can  think  or  say  of  us,  we  can  tell  him  of  many  unworthy  and 


foolish  and  perhaps  worse  actions  of  ours,  any  one  ol  which,  done 
by  another,  would  be  enough,  with  us,  to  destroy  his  reputa- 

If  we  think  the  people  wise  and  sagacious,  and  just  and  appre- 
ciative, when  they  praise  and  make  idols  of  us,  let  us  not  call 
them  unlearned  and  ignorant,  and  ill  and  stupid  judges,  when 
our  neighbor  is  cried  up  by  public  fame  and  popular  noises. 

Every  man  hath  in  his  own  life  sins  enough,  in  his  own  mind 
trouble  enough,  in  his  own  fortunes  evil  enough,  and  in  perform- 
ance of  his  offices  failings  more  than  enough,  to  entertain  his 
own  inquiry ;  so  that  curiosity  after  the  affairs  of  others  cannot  be 
without  envy  and  an  ill  mind.  The  generous  man  will  be  solicit- 
ous and  inquisitive  into  the  beauty  and  order  of  a  well-governed 
family,  and  after  the  virtues  of  an  excellent  person ;  but  anything 
for  which  men  keep  locks  and  bars,  or  that  blushes  to  see  the  light, 
or  that  is  either  shameful  in  manner  or  private  in  nature,  this 
thing  will  not  be  his  care  and  business. 

It  should  be  objection  sufficient  to  exclude  any  man  from  the 
society  of  Masons,  that  he  is  not  disinterested  and  generous,  both 
in  his  acts,  and  in  his  opinions  of  men,  and  his  constructions  of 
their  conduct.  He  who  is  selfish  and  grasping,  or  censorious 
and  ungenerous,  will  not  long  remain  within  the  strict  limits 
of  honesty  and  truth,  but  will  shortly  commit  injustice.  He  who 
loves  himself  too  much  must  needs  love  others  too  little ;  and  he 
who  habitually  gives  harsh  judgment  will  not  long  delay  to  give 
unjust  judgment. 

The  generous  man  is  not  careful  to  return  no  more  than  he  re- 
ceives ;  but  prefers  that  the  balances  upon  the  ledgers  of  benefits 
shall  be  in  his  favor.  He  who  hath  received  pay  in  full  for  all 
the  benefits  and  favors  that  he  has  conferred,  is  like  a  spendthrift 
who  has  consumed  his  whole  estate,  and  laments  over  an  empty 
exchequer.  He  who  requites  my  favors  with  ingratitude  adds 
to,  instead  of  diminishing,  my  wealth ;  and  he  who  cannot  return 
a  favor  is  equally  poor,  whether  his  inability  arises  from  poverty 
of  spirit,  sordidness  of  soul,  or  pecuniary  indigence. 

If  he  is  wealthy  who  hath  large  sums  invested,  and  the  mass  of 
whose  fortune  consists  in  obligations  that  bind  other  men  to  pay 
him  money,  he  is  still  more  so  to  whom  many  owe  large  returns  of 
kindnesses  and  favors.  Beyond  a  moderate  sum  each  year,  the 
wealthy  man  merely  invests  his  means :  and  that  which  he  never 


uses  is  still  like  favors  unreturned  and  kindnesses  unreciprocated, 
an  actual  and  real  portion  of  his  fortune. 

Generosity  and  a  liberal  spirit  make  men  to  be  humane  and  ge- 
nial, open-hearted,  frank,  and  sincere,  earnest  to  do  good,  easy  and 
contented,  and  well-wishers  of  manidnd.  They  protect  the  feeble 
against  the  strong,  and  the  defenceless  against  rapacity  and  craft. 
They  succor  and  comfort  the  poor,  and  are  the  guardians,  under 
God,  of  his  innocent  and  helpless  wards.  They  value  friends  more 
than  riches  or  fame,  and  gratitude  more  than  money  or  power. 
They  are  noble  by  God's  patent,  and  their  escutcheons  and  quar- 
terings  are  to  be  found  in  heaven's  great  book  of  heraldry.  Nor  can 
any  man  any  more  be  a  Mason  than  he  can  be  a  gentleman,  unless 
he  is  generous,  liberal,  and  disinterested.  To  be  liberal,  but  only 
of  that  which  is  our  own ;  to  be  generous,  but  only  when  we  have 
first  been  just;  to  give,  when  to  give  deprives  us  of  a  luxury  or  a 
comfort,  this  is  Masonry  indeed. 

He  who  is  worldly,  covetous,  or  sensual  must  change  before  he 
can  be  a  good  Mason.  If  we  are  governed  by  inclination  and  not 
by  duty ;  if  we  are  unkind,  severe,  censorious,  or  injurious,  in  the 
relations  or  intercourse  of  life ;  if  we  are  unfaithful  parents  or  un- 
dutiful  children ;  if  we  are  harsh  masters  or  faithless  servants ;  if 
we  are  treacherous  friends  or  bad  neighbors  or  bitter  competitors 
or  corrupt  unprincipled  politicians  or  overreaching  dealers, in  bus- 
iness, we  are  wandering  at  a  great  distance  from  the  true  Masonic 

Masons  must  be  kind  and  affectionate  one  to  another.  Fre- 
quenting the  same  temples,  kneeling  at  the  same  altars,  they  should 
feel  that  respect  and  that  kindness  for  each  other,  which  their  com- 
mon relation  and  common  approach  to  one  God  should  inspire. 
There  needs  to  be  much  more  of  the  spirit  of  the  ancient  fellowship 
among  us ;  more  tenderness  for  each  other's  faults,  more  forgive- 
ness, more  solicitude  for  each  other's  improvement  and  good  for- 
tune ;  somewhat  of  brotherly  feeling,  that  it  be  not  shame  to  use 
the  word  "brother." 

Nothing  should  be  allowed  to  interfere  with  that  kindness  and 
affection :  neither  the  spirit  of  business,  absorbing,  eager,  and 
overreaching,  ungenerous  and  hard  in  its  dealings,  keen  and  bitter 
in  its  competitions,  low  and  sordid  in  its  purposes ;  nor  that  of 
ambition,  selfish,  mercenary,  restless,  circumventing,  living  only 
in  the  opinion  of  others,  envious  of  the  good  fortune  of  others, 


miserably  vain  of  its  own  success,  unjust,  unscrupulous,  and 

He  that  does  me  a  favor,  hath  bound  me  to  make  him  a  return 
of  thankfulness.  The  obligation  comes  not  by  covenant,  nor  by 
his  own  express  intention ;  but  by  the  nature  of  the  thing ;  and 
is  a  duty  springing  up  within  the  spirit  of  the  obliged  person,  to 
whom  it  is  more  natural  to  love  his  friend,  and  to  do  good  for 
good,  than  to  return  evil  for  evil ;  because  a  man  may  forgive  an 
injury,  but  he  must  never  forget  a  good  turn.  He  that  refuses  to 
do  good  to  them  whom  he  is  bound  to  love,  or  to  love  that  which 
did  him  good,  is  unnatural  and  monstrous  in  his  affections,  and 
thinks  all  the  world  born  to  minister  to  him ;  with  a  greediness 
worse  than  that  of  the  sea,  which,  although  it  receives  all  rivers 
into  itself,  yet  it  furnishes  the  clouds  and  springs  with  a  return  of 
all  they  need.  Our  duty  to  those  who  are  our  benefactors  is,  to 
esteem  and  love  their  persons,  to  make  them  proportionable  re- 
turns of  service,  or  duty,  or  profit,  according  as  we  can,  or  as  they 
need,  or  as  opportunity  presents  itself ;  and  according  to  the  great- 
ness of  their  kindnesses. 

The  generous  man  cannot  but  regret  to  see  dissensions  and  dis- 
putes among  his  brethren.  Only  the  base  and  ungenerous  delight 
in  discord.  It  is  the  poorest  occupation  of  humanity  to  labor  to 
make  men  think  worse  of  each  other,  as  the  press,  and  too  com- 
monly the  pulpit, changing  places  with  the  hustingsand  the  tribune, 
do.  The  duty  of  the  Mason  is  to  endeavor  to  make  man  think 
better  of  his  neighbor ;  to  quiet,  instead  of  aggravating  difficul- 
ties, to  bring  together  those  who  are  severed  or  estranged ;  to  keep 
friends  from  becoming  foes,  and  to  persuade  foes  to  become 
friends.  To  do  this,  he  must  needs  control  his  own  passions,  and 
bt  not  rash  and  hasty,  nor  swift  to  take  offence,  nor  easy  to  be  an- 

For  anger  is  a  professed  enemy  to  counsel.  It  is  a  direct  storm, 
in  which  no  man  can  be  heard  to  speak  or  call  from  without ;  for 
if  you  counsel  gently,  you  are  disregarded ;  if  you  urge  it  and  be 
vehement,  you  provoke  it  more.  It  is  neither  manly  nor  ingenu- 
ous. It  makes  marriage  to  be  a  necessary  .and  unavoidable  trouble  ; 
friendships  and  societies  and  familiarities,  to  be  intolerable.  It 
multiplies  the  evils  of  drunkenness,  and  makes  the  levities  of  wine 
to  run  into  madness.  It  makes  innocent  jesting  to  be  the  begin- 
ning of  tragedies.  It  turns  friendship  into  hatred ;  it  makes  a 


man  lose  himself,  and  his  reason  and  his  argument,  in  disputation. 
It  turns  the  desires  of  knowledge  into  an  itch  of  wrangling.  It 
adds  insolency  to  power.  It  turns  justice  into  cruelty,  and  judg- 
ment into  oppression.  It  changes  discipline  into  tediousness  and 
hatred  of  liberal  institution.  It  makes  a  prosperous  man  to  be  en- 
vied, and  the  unfortunate  to  be  unpitied. 

See,  therefore,  that  first  controlling  your  own  temper,  and  gov- 
erning your  own  passions,  you  fit  yourself  to  keep  peace  and  har- 
mony among  other  men,  and  especially  the  brethren.  Above  all 
remember  that  Masonry  is  the  realm  of  peace,  and  that  "among 
Masons  there  must  be  no  dissension,  but  only  that  noble  emulation, 
which  can  best  ivork  and  best  agree."  Wherever  there  is  strife  and 
hatred  among  the  brethren,  there  is  no  Masonry ;  for  Masonry  is 
Peace,  and  Brotherly  Love,  and  Concord. 

Masonry  is  the  great  Peace  Society  of  the  world.  Wherever  it 
exists,  it  struggles  to  prevent  international  difficulties  and  dis- 
putes ;  and  to  bind  Republics,  Kingdoms,  and  Empires  together 
in  one  great  band  of  peace  and  amity.  It  would  not  so  often 
struggle  in  vain,  if  Masons  knew  their  power  and  valued  their 

Who  can  sum  up  the  horrors  and  woes  accumulated  in  a  single 
war?  Masonry  is  not  dazzled  with  all  its  pomp  and  circumstance, 
all  its  glitter  and  glory.  War  comes  with  its  bloody  hand  into  our 
very  dwellings.  It  takes  from  ten  thousand  homes  those  who  lived 
there  in  peace  and  comfort,  held  by  the  tender  ties  of  family  and 
kindred.  It  drags  them  away,  to  die  untended,  of  fever  or  expo- 
sure, in  infectious  climes;  or  to  be  hacked,  torn,  and  mangled  in 
the  fierce  fight ;  to  fall  on  the  gory  field,  to  rise  no  more,  or  to  be 
borne  away,  in  awful  agony,  to  noisome  and  horrid  hospitals.  The 
groans  of  the  battle-field  are  echoed  in  sighs  of  bereavement  from 
thousands  of  desolated  hearths.  There  is  a  skeleton  in  every 
house,  a  vacant  chair  at  every  table.  Returning,  the  soldier  brings 
worse  sorrow  to  his  home,  by  the  infection  which  he  has  caught,  of 
camp-vices.  The  country  is  demoralized.  The  national  mind  is 
brought  down,  from  the  noble  interchange  of  kind  offices  with 
another  people,  to  wrath  and  revenge,  and  base  pride,  and  the  habit 
of  measuring  brute  strength  against  brute  strength,  in  battle. 
Treasures  are  expended,  that  would  suffice  to  build  ten  thousand 
churches,  hospitals,  and  universities,  or  rib  and  tie  together  a  con- 
tinent with  rails  of  iron.  If  that  treasure  were  sunk  in  the  sea,  it 


would  be  calamity  enough ;  but  it  is  put  to  worse  use ;  for  it  is  ex- 
pended in  cutting  into  the  veins  and  arteries  of  human  life,  until 
the  earth  is  deluged  with  a  sea  of  blood. 

Such  are  the  lessons  of  this  Degree.  You  have  vowed  to  make 
them  the  rule,  the  law,  and  the  guide  of  your  life  and  conduct. 
If  you  do  so,  you  will  be  entitled,  because  fitted,  to  advance  in 
Masonry.  If  you  do  not,  you  have  already  gone  too  far. 

ffi     it 



THE  lesson  which  this  Degree  inculcates  is  JUSTICE,  in  decision 
and  judgment,  and  in  our  intercourse  and  dealing  with  other  men. 

In  a  country  where  trial  by  jury  is  known,  every  intelligent  man 
is  liable  to  be  called  on  to  act  as  a  judge,  either  of  fact  alone,  or  of 
fact  and  law  mingled ;  and  to  assume  the  heavy  responsibilities 
which  belong  to  that  character. 

Those  who  are  invested  with  the  power  of  judgment  should 
judge  the  causes  of  all  persons  uprightly  and  impartially,  without 
any  personal  consideration  of  the  power  of  the  mighty,  or  the 
bribe  of  the  rich,  or  the  needs  of  the  poor.  That  is  the  cardinal 
rule,  which  no  one  will  dispute ;  though  many  fail  to  observe  it. 
But  they  must  do  more.  They  must  divest  themselves  of  preju- 
dice and  preconception.  They  must  hear  patiently,  remember 
accurately,  and  weigh  carefully  the  facts  and  the  arguments  offered 
before  them.  They  must  not  leap  hastily  to  conclusions,  nor  form 
opinions  before  they  have  heard  all.  They  must  not  presume 
crime  or  fraud.  They  must  neither  be  ruled  by  stubborn  pride  of 
opinion,  nor  be  too  facile  and  yielding  to  the  views  and  arguments 
of  others.  In  deducing  the  motive  from  the  proven  act,  they 
must  not  assign  to  the  act  either  the  best  or  the  worst  motives,  but 
those  wfcich  they  would  think  it  just  and  fair  for  the  world  to  as- 
sign to  it,  if  they  themselves  had  done  it ;  nor  must  they  endeavor 
to  make  many  little  circumstances,  that  weigh  nothing  separately, 
weigh  much  together,  to  prove  their  own  acuteness  and  sagacity. 
These  are  sound  rules  for  every  juror,  also,  to  observe. 


In  our  intercourse  with  others,  there  are  two  kinds  of  injustice: 
the  first,  of  those  who  offer  an  injury;  the  second,  of  those  who 
have  it  in  their  power  to  avert  an  injury  from  those  to  whom  it  is 
offered,  and  yet  do  it  not.  So  active  injustice  may  be  done  in  two 
ways — by  force  and  by  fraud, — of  which  force  is  lion-like,  and 
fraud  fox-like, — both  utterly  repugnant  to  social  duty,  but  fraud 
the  more  detestable. 

Every  wrong  done  by  one  man  to  another,  whether  it  affect  his 
person,  his  property,  his  happiness,  or  his  reputation,  is  an  offence 
against  the  law  of  justice.  The  field  of  this  Degree  is  therefore  a 
wide  and  vast  one;  and  Masonry  seeks  for  the  most  impressive 
mode  of  enforcing  the  law  of  justice,  and  the  most  effectual  means 
of  preventing  wrong  and  injustice. 

To  this  end  it  teaches  this  great  and  momentous  truth:  that 
wrong  and  injustice  once  done  cannot  be  undone;  but  are  eternal 
in  their  consequences ;  once  committed,  are  numbered  with  the 
irrevocable  Past;  that  the  wrong  that  is  done  contains  its  own 
retributive  penalty  as  surely  and  as  naturally  as  the  acorn  con- 
tains the  oak.  Its  consequences  are  its  punishment ;  it  needs  no 
other,  and  can  have  no  heavier ;  they  are  involved  in  its  commis- 
sion, and  cannot  be  separated  from  it.  A  wrong  done  to  another 
is  an  injury  done  to  our  own  Nature,  an  offence  against  our  own 
souls,  a  disfiguring  of  the  image  of  the  Beautiful  and  Good.  Pun- 
ishment is  not  the  execution  of  a  sentence,  but  the  occurrence  of 
an  effect.  It  is  ordained  to  follow  guilt,  not  by  the  decree  of  God 
as  a  judge,  but  by  a  law  enacted  by  Him  as  the  Creator  and  Legis- 
lator of  the  Universe.  It  is  not  an  arbitrary  and  artificial  annex- 
ation, but  an  ordinary  and  logical  consequence ;  and  therefore 
must  be  borne  by  the  wrong-doer,  and  through  him  may  flow  on 
to  others.  It  is  the  decision  of  the  infinite  justice  of  God,  in  the 
form  of  law. 

There  can  be  no  interference  with,  or  remittance  of,  or  protec- 
tion from,  the  natural  effects  of  our  wrongful  acts.  God  will  not  in- 
terpose between  the  cause  and  its  consequence ;  and  in  that  sense 
there  can  be  no  forgiveness  of  sins.  The  act  which  has  debased 
our  soul  may  be  repented  of,  may  be  turned  from ;  but  the  injury 
is  done.  The  debasement  may  be  redeemed  by  after-efforts,  the 
stain  obliterated  by  bitterer  struggles  and  severer  sufferings ;  but 
the  efforts  and  the  endurance  which  might  have  raised  the  soul  to 
the  loftiest  heights  are  now  exhausted  in  merely  regaining  what 


it  has  lost.  There  must  always  be  a  wide  difference  between 
him  who  only  ceases  to  do  evil,  and  him  who  has  always  done 

He  will  certainly  be  a  far  more  scrupulous  watcher  over  his  con- 
duct, and  far  more  careful  of  his  deeds,  who  believes  that  those 
deeds  will  inevitably  bear  their  natural  consequences,  exempt  from 
after  intervention,  than  he  who  believes  that  penitence  and  par- 
don will  at  any  time  unlink  the  chain  of  sequences.  Surely  we 
shall  do  less  wrong  and  injustice,  if  the  conviction  is  fixed  and 
embedded  in  our  souls  that  everything-  done  is  done  irrevocably, 
that  even  the  Omnipotence  of  God  cannot  uncommit  a  deed,  can- 
not make  that  undone  which  has  been  done;  that  every  act  of 
ours  must  bear  its  allotted  fruit,  according  to  the  everlasting  laws, 
— must  remain  forever  ineffaceably  inscribed  on  the  tablets  of 
Universal  Nature. 

If  you  have  wronged  another,  you  may  grieve,  repent,  and  reso- 
lutely determine  against  any  such  weakness  in  future.  You  may, 
so  far  as  it  is  possible,  make  reparation.  It  is  well.  The  injured 
party  may  forgive  you,  according  to  the  meaning  of  human  lan- 
guage;  but  the  deed  is  done;  and  all  the  powers  of  Nature,  were 
they  to  conspire  in  your  behalf,  could  not  make  it  undone;  the 
consequences  to  the  body,  the  consequences  to  the  soul,  though  no 
man  may  perceive  them,  are  there,  are  written  in  the  annals  of  the 
Past,  and  must  reverberate  throughout  all  time. 

Repentance  for  a  wrong  done,  bears,  like  every  other  act,  its  own 
fruit,  the  fruit  of  purifying  the  heart  and  amending  the  Future, 
but  not  of  effacing  the  Past.  The  commission  of  the  wrong  is  an 
irrevocable  act ;  but  it  does  not  incapacitate  the  soul  to  do  right 
for  the  future.  Its  consequences  cannot  be  expunged ;  but  its 
course  need  not  be  pursued.  Wrong  and  evil  perpetrated,  though 
ineffaceable,  call  for  no  despair,  but  for  efforts  more  energetic  than 
before.  Repentance  is  still  as  valid  as  ever ;  but  it  is  valid  to  se- 
cure the  Future,  not  to  obliterate  the  Past. 

Even  the  pulsations  of  the  air,  once  set  in  motion  by  the  human 
voice,  cease  not  to  exist  with  the  sounds  to  which  they  gave  rise. 
Their  quickly-attenuated  force  soon  becomes  inaudible  to  human 
ears.  But  the  waves  of  air  thus  raised  perambulate  the  surface  of 
earth  and  ocean,  and  in  less  than  twenty  hours,*-every  atom  of  the 
atmosphere  takes  up  the  altered  movement  due  to  that  infinitesi- 
mal portion  of  primitive  motion  which  has  been  conveyed  to  it 


through  countless  channels,  and  which  must  continue  to  influence 
its  path  throughout  its  future  existence.  The  air  is  one  vast 
library,  on  whose  pages  is  forever  written  all  that  man  has  ever 
said  or  even  whispered.  There,  in  their  mutable,  but  unerring 
characters,  mixed  with  the  earliest,  as  well  as  the  latest  signs  of 
mortality,  stand  forever  recorded,  vows  unredeemed,  promises  un- 
fulfilled ;  perpetuating,  in  the  movements  of  each  particle,  all  in 
unison,  the  testimony  of  man's  changeful  will.  God  reads  that 
book,  though  we  cannot. 

So  earth,  air,  and  ocean  are  the  eternal  witnesses  of  the  acts 
that  we  have  done.  No  motion  impressed  by  natural  causes  or  by 
human  agency  is  ever  obliterated.  The  track  of  every  keel  which 
has  ever  disturbed  the  surface  of  the  ocean  remains  forever  regis- 
tered in  the  future  movements  of  all  succeeding  particles  which 
may  occupy  its  place.  Every  criminal  is  by  the  laws  of  the  Al- 
mighty irrevocably  chained  to  the  testimony  of  his  crime ;  for 
every  atom  of  his  mortal  frame,  through  whatever  changes  its 
particles  may  migrate,  will  still  retain,  adhering  to  it  through 
every  combination,  some  movement  derived  from  that  very  mus- 
cular effort  by  which  the  crime  itself  was  perpetrated. 

What  if  our  faculties  should  be  so  enhanced  in  a  future  life  as 
to  enable  us  to  perceive  and  trace  the  ineffaceable  consequences  of 
our  idle  words  and  evil  deeds,  and  render  our  remorse  and  grief 
as  eternal  as  those  consequences  themselves?  No  more  fearful 
punishment  to  a  superior  intelligence  can  be  conceived,  than  to 
see  still  in  action,  with  the  consciousness  that  it  must  continue 
in  action  forever,  a  cause  of  wrong  put  in  motion  by  itself  ages 
before.  v 

Masonry,  by  its  teachings,  endeavors  to  restrain  men  from  the 
commission  of  injustice  and  acts  of  wrong  and  outrage.  Though 
it  does  not  endeavor  to  usurp  the  place  of  religion,  still  its  code 
of  morals  proceeds  upon  other  principles  than  the  municipal  law ; 
and  it  condemns  and  punishes  offences  which  neither  that  law 
punishes  nor  public  opinion  condemns.  In  the  Masonic  law,  to 
cheat  and  overreach  in  trade,  at  the  bar,  in  politics,  are  deemed  no 
more  venial  than  theft;  nor  a  deliberate  lie  than  perjury;  nor 
slander  than  robbery ;  nor  seduction  than  murder. 

Especially  it  condemns  those  wrongs  of  which  the  doer  induces 
another  to  partake.  He  may  repent ;  he  may,  after  agonizing 
struggles,  regain  the  path  of  virtue;  his  spirit  may  reachieve  its 


purity  through  much  anguish,  after  many  strifes ;  but  the  weaker 
fellow-creature  whom  he  led  astray,  whom  he  made  a  sharer  in  his 
guilt,  but  whom  he  cannot  make  a  sharer  in  his  repentance  and 
amendment,  whose  downward  course  (the  first  step  of  which  he 
taught)  he  cannot  check,  but  is  compelled  to  witness, — what  for- 
giveness of  sins  can  avail  him  there?  There  is  his  perpetual,  his 
inevitable  punishment,  which  no  repentance  can  alleviate,  and  no 
mercy  can  remit. 

Let  us  be  just,  also,  in  judging  of  other  men's  motives.  We 
know  but  little  of  the  real  merits  or  demerits  of  any  fellow-crea- 
ture. We  can  rarely  say  with  certainty  that  this  man  is  more 
guilty  than  that,  or  even  that  this  man  is  very  good  or  very 
wicked.  Often  the  basest  men  leave  behind  them  excellent  repu- 
tations. There  is  scarcely  one  of  us  who  has  not,  at  some  time  in 
his  life,  been  on  the  edge  of  the  commission  of  a  crime.  Every 
one  of  us  can  look  back,  and  shuddering  see  the  time  when  our 
feet  stood  upon  the  slippery  crags  that  overhung  the  abyss  of 
guilt ;  and  when,  if  temptation  had  been  a  little  more  urgent,  or 
a  little  longer  continued,  if  penury  had  pressed  us  a  little  harder, 
or  a  little  more  wine  had  further  disturbed  our  intellect,  dethroned 
our  judgment,  and  aroused  our  passions,  our  feet  would  have  slip- 
ped, and  we  should  have  fallen,  never  to  rise  again. 

We  may  be  able  to  say — "This  man  has  lied,  has  pilfered,  has 
forged,  has  embezzled  moneys  intrusted  to  him ;  and  that  man  has 
gone  through  life  with  clean  hands."  But  we  cannot  say  that  the 
former  has  not  struggled  long,  though  unsuccessfully,  against 
temptations  under  which  the  second  would  have  succumbed  with- 
out an  effort.  We  can  say  which  has  the  cleanest  hands  before 
man;  but  not  which  has  the  cleanest  soul  before  God.  We  may 
be  able  to  say,  this  man  has  committed  adultery,  and  that  man 
has  been  ever  chaste ;  but  we  cannot  tell  but  that  the  innocence 
of  one  may  have  been  due  to  the  coldness  of  his  heart,  to  the  ab- 
sence of  a  motive,  to  the  presence  of  a  fear,  to  the  slight  degree 
of  the  temptation ;  nor  but  that  the  fall  of  the  other  may  have 
been  preceded  by  the  most  vehement  self-contest,  caused  by  the 
most  over-mastering  frenzy,  and  atoned  for  by.  the  most  hallowing 
repentance.  Generosity  as  well  as  niggardliness  may  be  a  mere 
yielding  to  native  temperament;  and  in  the  eye  of  Heaven,  a  long 
life  of  beneficence  in  one  man  may  have  cost  less  effort,  and  may 
indicate  less  virtue  and  less  sacrifice  of  interest,  than  a  few  rare 


hidden  acts  of  kindness  wrung  by  duty  out  of  the  reluctant  and 
unsympathizing  nature  of  the  other.  There  may  be  more  real 
merit,  more  self-sacrificing  effort,  more  of  the  noblest  elements 
of  moral  grandeur,  in  a  life  of  failure,  sin,  and  shame,  than  in  a 
career,  to  our  eyes,  of  stainless  integrity. 

When  we  condemn  or  pity  the  fallen,  how  do  we  know  that, 
tempted  like  him,  we  should  not  have  fallen  like  him,  as  soon,  and 
perhaps  with  less  resistance  ?  How  can  we  know  what  we  should 
do  if  we  were  out  of  employment,  famine  crouching,  gaunt,  and 
hungry,  on  our  fireless  hearth,  and  our  children  wailing  for  bread  ? 
We  fall  not  because  we  are  not  enough  tempted!  He  that  hath 
fallen  may  be  at  heart  as  honest  as  we.  How  do  we  know  that  our 
daughter,  sister,  wife,  could  resist  the  abandonment,  the  desola- 
tion, the  distress,  the  temptation,  that  sacrificed  the  virtue  of  their 
poor  abandoned  sister  of  shame?  Perhaps  they  also  have  not 
fallen,  because  they  have  not  been  sorely  tempted !  Wisely  are 
we  directed  to  pray  that  we  may  not  be  exposed  to  temptation. 

Human  justice  must  be  ever  uncertain.  How  many  judicial 
murders  have  been  committed  through  ignorance  of  the  phenom- 
ena of  insanity !  How  many  men  hung  for  murder  who  were  no 
more  murderers  at  heart  than  the  jury  that  tried  and  the  judge 
that  sentenced  them !  It  may  well  be  doubted  whether  the  ad- 
ministration of  human  laws,  in  every  country,  is  not  one  gigantic 
mass  of  injustice  and  wrong.  God  seeth  not  as  man  seeth;  and 
the  most  abandoned  criminal,  black  as  he  is  before  the  world,  may 
yet  have  continued  to  keep  some  little  light  burning  in  a  corner 
of  his  soul,  which  would  long  since  have  gone  out  in  that  of  those 
who  walk  proudly  in  the  sunshine  of  immaculate  fame,  if  they  had 
been  tried  and  tempted  like  the  poor  outcast. 

We  do  not  know  even  the  outside  life  of  men.  We  are  not  com- 
petent to  pronounce  even  on  their  deeds.  We  do  not  know  half 
the  acts  of  wickedness  or  virtue,  even  of  our  most  immediate  fel- 
lows. We  cannot  say,  with  certainty,  even  of  our  nearest  friend, 
that  he  has  not  committed  a  particular  sin,  arid  broken  a  particu- 
lar commandment.  Let  each  man  ask  his  own  heart!  Of  how 
many  of  our  best  and  of  our  worst  acts  and  qualities  are  our  most 
intimate  associates  utterly  unconscious!  How  many  virtues 'does 
not  the  world  give  us  credit  for,  that  we  do  not  possess ;  or  vices 
condemn  us  for,  of  which  we  are  not  the  slaves !  It  is  but  a  small 
portion  of  our  evil  deeds  and  thoughts  that  ever  comes  to  light ; 


and  of  our  few  redeeming'  goodnesses,  the  largest  portion  is  known 
to  God  alone. 

We  shall,  therefore,  be  just  in  judging  of  other  men,  only  when 
we  are  charitable;  and  we  should  assume  the  prerogative  of  judg- 
ing others  only  when  the  duty  is  forced  upon  us ;  since  we  are  so 
almost  certain  to  err,  and  the  consequences  of  error  are  so  serious. 
No  man  need  covet  the  office  of  judge ;  for  in  assuming  it  he  as- 
sumes the  gravest  and  most  oppressive  responsibility.  Yet  you 
have  assumed  it ;  we  all  assume  it ;  for  man  is  ever  ready  to  judge, 
and  ever  ready  to  condemn  his  neighbor,  while  upon  tha  same  state 
of  case  he  acquits  himself.  See,  therefore,  that  you  exercise  your 
office  cautiously  and  charitably,  lest,  in  passing  judgment  upon 
the  criminal,  you  commit  a  greater  wrong  than  that  for  which  you 
condemn  him,  and  the  consequences  of  which  must  be  eternal. 

The  faults  and  crimes  and  follies  of  other  men  are  not  unim- 
portant to  us ;  but  form  a  part  of  our  moral  discipline.  War  and 
bloodshed  at  a  distance,  and  frauds  .which  do  not  affect  our  pecu- 
niary interest,  yet  touch  us  in  our  feelings,  and  concern  our  moral 
welfare.  They  have  much  to  do  with  all  thoughtful  hearts.  The 
public  eye  may  look  unconcernedly  on  the  miserable  victim  of  vice, 
and  that  shattered  wreck  of  a  man  may  move  the  multitude  to 
laughter  or  to  scorn.  But  to  the  Mason,  it  is  the  form  of  sacred 
humanity  that  is  before  him ;  it  is  an  erring  fellow-being ;  a  deso- 
late, forlorn,  forsaken  ?oul ;  and  his  thoughts,  enfolding  the  poor 
wretch,  will  be  far  deeper  than  those  of  indifference,  ridicule,  or 
contempt.  All  human  offences,  the  whole  system  of  dishonesty, 
evasion,  circumventing,  forbidden  indulgence,  and  intriguing  am- 
bition, in  which  men  are  struggling  with  each  other,  will  be  looked 
upon  by  a  thoughtful  Mason,  not  merely  as  a  scene  of  mean  toils 
and  strifes,  but  as  the  solemn  conflicts  of  immortal  minds,  for  ends 
vast  and  momentous  as  their  own  being.  It  is  a  sad  and  unworthy 
strife,  and  may  well  be  viewed  with  indignation ;  but  that  indig- 
nation must  melt  into  pity.  For  the  stakes  for  which  these  game- 
sters play  are  not  those  which  they  imagine,  not  those  which  are 
in  sight.  For  example,  this  man  plays  for  a  petty  office,  and  gains 
it ;  but  the  real  stake  he  gains  is  sycophancy,,  uncharitableness, 
slander,  and  deceit. 

Good  men  are  too  proud  of  their  goodness.  They  are  respecta- 
ble ;  dishonor  comes  not  near  them ;  their  countenance  has  weight 
and  influence ;  their  robes  are  unstained ;  the  poisonous  breath  of 


calumny  has  never  been  breathed  upon  their  fair  name.  How  easy 
it  is  for  them  to  look  down  with  scorn  upon  the  poor  degraded 
offender ;  to  pass  him  by  with  a  lofty  step ;  to  draw  up  the  folds 
of  their  garment  around  them,  that  they  may  not  be  soiled  by  his 
touch !  Yet  the  Great  Master  of  Virtue  did  not  so ;  but  descended 
to  familiar  intercourse  with  publicans  and  sinners,  with  the  Samar- 
itan woman,  with  the  outcasts  and  the  Pariahs  of  the  Hebrew 

Many  men  think  themselves  better,  in  proportion  as  they  can 
detect  sins  in  others !  When  they  go  over  the  catalogue  of  their 
neighbor's  unhappy  derelictions  of  temper  or  conduct,  they  often, 
amidst  much  apparent  concern,  feel  a  secret  exultation,  that 
destroys  all  their  own  pretensions  to  wisdom  and  moderation,  and 
even  to  virtue.  Many  even  take  actual  pleasure  in  the  sins  of 
others ;  and  this  is  the  case  with  every  one  whose  thoughts  are 
often  employed  in  agreeable  comparisons  of  his  own  virtues  with 
his  neighbors'  faults. 

The  power  of  gentleness  is  too  little  seen  in  the  world ;  the  sub- 
duing influences  of  pity,  the  might  of  love,  the  control  of  mildness 
over  passion,  the  commanding  majesty  of  that  perfect  character 
which  mingles  grave  displeasure  with  grief  and  pity  for  the  offend- 
er. So  it  is  that  a  Mason  should  treat  his  brethren  who  go  astray. 
Not  with  bitterness ;  nor  yet  with  good-natured  easiness,  nor  with 
worldly  indifference,  nor  with  the  philosophic  coldness,  nor  with  a 
laxity  of  conscience,  that  accounts  everything  well,  that  passes 
under  the  seal  of  public  opinion;  but  with  charity,  with  pitying 

The  human  heart  will  not  bow  willingly  to  what  is  infirm  and 
wrong  in  human  nature.  If  it  yields  to  us,  it  must  yield  to  what 
is  divine  in  us.  The  wickedness  of  my  neighbor  cannot  submit  to 
my  wickedness ;  his  sensuality,  for  instance,  to  my  anger  against 
his  vices.  My  faults  are  not  the  instruments  that  are  to  arrest 
his  faults.  And  therefore  impatient  reformers,  and  denouncing 
preachers,  and  hasty  reprovers,  and  angry  parents,  and  irritable 
relatives  generally  fail,  in  their  several  departments,  to  reclaim  the 

A  moral  offence  is  sickness,  pain,  loss,  dishonor,  in  the  immor- 
tal part  of  man.  It  is  guilt,  and  misery  added  to  guilt.  It  is  itself 
calamity :  and  brings  upon  itself,  in  addition,  the  calamity  of  God's 
disapproval,  the  abhorrence  of  all  virtuous  men,  and  the  soul's  own 


abhorrence.  Deal  faithfully,  but  patiently  and  tenderly,  with  this 
evil !  It  is  no  matter  for  petty  provocation,  nor  for  personal  strife, 
nor  for  selfish  irritation. 

Speak  kindly  to  your  erring  brother !  God  pities  him :  Christ 
has  died  for  him :  Providence  waits  for  him :  Heaven's  mercy 
yearns  toward  him  ;  and  Heaven's  spirits  are  ready  to  welcome  him 
back  with  joy.  Let  your  voice  be  in  unison  with  all  those  powers 
that  God  is  using-  for  his  recovery ! 

If  one  defrauds  you,  and  exults  at  it,  he  is  the  most  to  be  pitied 
of  human  beings.  He  has  done  himself  a  far  deeper  injury  than  he 
has  done  you.  It  is  him,  and  not  you,  whom  God  regards  with 
mingled  displeasure  and  compassion ;  and  His  judgment  should 
DC  your  law.  Among  all  the  benedictions  of  the  Holy  Mount 
there  is  not  one  for  this  man ;  but  for  the  merciful,  the  peace- 
makers, and  the  persecuted  they  are  poured  out  freely. 

We  are  all  men  of  like  passions,  propensities,  and  exposures. 
There  are  elements  in  us  all,  which  might  have  been  perverted, 
through  the  successive  processes  of  moral  deterioration,  to  the 
worst  of  crimes.  The  wretch  whom  the  execration  of  the  throng- 
ing crowd  pursues  to  the  scaffold,  is  not  worse  than  any  one  of  that 
multitude  might  have  become  under  similar  circumstances.  He 
is  to  be  condemned  indeed,  but  also  deeply  to  be  pitied. 

It  does  not  become  the  frail  and  sinful  to  be  vindictive  toward 
even  the  worst  criminals.  We  owe  much  to  the  good  Providence 
of  God,  ordaining  for  us  a  lot  more  favorable  to  virtue.  We  all  had 
that  within  us,  that  might  have  been  pushed  to  the  same  excess. 
Perhaps  we  should  have  fallen  as  he  did,  with  less  temptation.  Per- 
haps we  have  done  acts,  that,  in  proportion  to  the  temptation  or 
provocation,  were  less  excusable  than  his  great  crime.  Silent  pity 
and  sorrow  for  the  victim  should  mingle  with  our  detestation  of 
the  guilt.  Even  the  pirate  who  murders  in  cold  blood  on  the  high 
seas,  is  such  a  man  as  you  or  I  might  have  been.  Orphanage  in 
childhood,  or  base  and  dissolute  and  abandoned  parents;  an  un- 
friended youth ;  evil  companions ;  ignorance  and  want  of  moral 
cultivation ;  the  temptations  of  sinful  pleasure  or  grinding  pov- 
erty ;  familiarity  with  vice ;  a  scorned  and  blighted  name ;  seared 
and  crushed  affections ;  desperate  fortunes ;  these  are  steps  that 
might  have  led  any  one  among  us  to  unfurl  upon  the  high  seas  the 
bloody  flag  of  universal  defiance ;  to  wage  war  with  our  kind ;  to 
live  the  life  and  die  the  death  of  the  reckless  and  remorseless  free- 


hooter.  Many  affecting  relationships  of  humanity  plead  with  us 
to  pity  him.  His  head  once  rested  on  a  mother's  bosom.  He  was 
once  the  object  of  sisterly  love  and  domestic  endearment.  Perhaps 
his  hand,  since  often  red  with  blood,  once  clasped  another  little 
loving  hand  at  the  altar.  Pity  him  then;  his  blighted  hopes  and 
his  crushed  heart !  It  is  proper  that  frail  and  erring  creatures 
like  us  should  do  so ;  should  feel  the  crime,  but  feel  it  as  weak, 
tempted,  and  rescued  creatures  should.  It  may  be  that  when  God 
weighs  men's  crimes,  He  will  take  into  consideration  the  tempta- 
tions and  the  adverse  circumstances  that  led  to  them,  and  the  op- 
portunities for  moral  culture  of  the  offender ;  and  it  may  be  that  our 
own  offences  will  weigh  heavier  than  we  think,  and  the  murderer's 
lighter  than  according  to  man's  judgment. 

On  all  accounts,  therefore,  let  the  true  Mason  never  forget  the 
solemn  injunction,  necessary  to  be  observed  at  almost  every  mo- 
ment of  a  busy  life:  "JUDGE  NOT,  LEST  YE  YOURSELVES  BE  JUDGED: 


lesson  taught  the  Provost  and  Judge. 


I     1 


IN  this  Degree  you  have  been  taught  the  important  lesson,  that 
none  are  entitled  to  advance  in  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish 
Rite,  who  have  not  by  study  and  application  made  themselves 
familiar  with  Masonic  learning  and  jurisprudence.  The  Degrees 
of  this  Rite  are  not  for  those  who  are  content  with  the  mere  work 
and  ceremonies,  and  do  not  seek  to  explore  the  mines  of  wisdom 
that  lie  buried  beneath  the  surface.  You  still  advance  toward  the 
Light,  toward  that  star,  blazing  in  the  distance,  which  is  an  em- 
blem of  the  Divine  Truth,  given  by  God  to  the  first  men,  and 
preserved  amid  all  the  vicissitudes  of  ages  in  the  traditions  and 
teachings  of  Masonry.  How  far  you  will  advance,  depends  upon 
yourse4f  alone.  Here,  as  everywhere  in  the  world,  Darkness 
struggles  with  Light,  and  clouds  and  shadows  intervene  between 
you  and  the  Truth. 

When  you  shall  have  become  imbued  with  the  morality  of  Ma- 
sonry, with  which  you  yet  are,  and  for  some  time  will  be  exclu- 
sively occupied. — when  you  shall  have  learned  to  practise  all  the 
virtues  which  it  inculcates ;  when  they  become  familiar  to  you  as 
your  Household  Gods;  then  will  you  be  prepared  to  receive  its 
lofty  philosophical  instruction,  and  to  scale  the  heights  upon 
whose  summit  Licrht  and  Truth  sit  enthroned.  Step  by  step  men 
must  advance  toward  Perfection :  and  each  Masonic  Degree  is 
meant  to  be  one  of  those  steps.  Each  is  a  development  of  a  par- 
ticular duty;  and  in  the  present  you  are  taught  charity  and  be- 


nevolence ;  to  be  to  your  brethren  an  example  of  virtue ;  to  correct ' 
your  own  faults ;  and  to  endeavor  to  correct  those  of  your  brethren. 

Here,  as  in  all  the  Degrees,  you  meet  with  the  emblems  and  the 
names  of  Deity,  the  true  knowledge  of  whose  character  and  attri- 
butes it  has  ever  been  a  chief  object  of  Masonry  to  perpetuate.  To 
appreciate  His  infinite  greatness  and  goodness,  to  rely  implicitly 
upon  His  Providence,  to  revere  and  venerate  Him  as  the  Supreme 
Architect,  Creator,  and  Legislator  of  the  universe,  is  the  first  of 
Masonic  duties. 

The  Battery  of  this  Degree,  and  the  five  circuits  which  you 
made  around  the  Lodge,  allude  to  the  five  points  of  fellowship, 
and  are  intended  to  recall  them  vividly  to  your  mind.  To  go  upon 
a  brother's  errand  or  to  his  relief,  even  barefoot  and  upon  flinty 
ground ;  to  remember  him  in  your  supplications  to  the  Deity ;  to 
clasp  him  to  your  heart,  and  protect  him  against  malice  and  evil- 
speaking  ;  to  uphold  him  when  about  to  stumble  and  fall ;  and  to 
give  him  prudent,  honest,  and  friendly  counsel,  are  duties  plainly 
written  upon  the  pages  of  God's  great  code  of  law,  and  first  among 
the  ordinances  of  Masonry. 

The  first  sign  of  the  Degree  is  expressive  of  the  diffidence  and 
humility  with  which  we  inquire  into  the  nature  and  attributes  of 
the  Deity;  the  second,  of  the  profound  awe  and  reverence  with 
which  we  contemplate  His  glories;  and  the  third,  of  the  sorrow 
with  which  we  reflect  upon  our  insufficient  observance  of  our  du- 
ties, and  our  imperfect  compliance  with  His  statutes. 

The  distinguishing  property  of  man  is  to  search  for  and  follow 
after  truth.  Therefore,  when  relaxed  from  our  necessary  cares 
and  concerns,  we  then  covet  to  see,  to  hear,  and  to  learn  some- 
what ;  and  we  esteem  knowledge  of  things,  either  obscure  or  won- 
derful, to  be  the  indispensable  means  of  living  happily.  Truth. 
Simplicity,  and  Candor  are  most  agreeable  to  the  nature  of  man- 
kind. Whatever  is  virtuous  consists  either  in  Sagacity,  and  the 
perception  of  Truth ;  or  in  the  preservation  of  Human  Society, 
by  giving  to  every  man  his  due,  and  observing  the  faith  of  con- 
tracts ;  or  in  the  greatness  and  firmness  of  an  elevated  and  unsub- 
dued mind ;  or  in  observing  order  and  regularity  in  all  our  words 
and  in  all  ouractions  ;  in  which  consist  Moderation  and  Temperance. 

Masonry  has  in  all  times  religiously  preserved  that  enlightened 
faith  from  which  flow  sublime  Devotedness,  the  sentiment  of  Fra- 
ternity fruitful  of  good  works,  the  spirit  of  indulgence  and  peace, 



of  sweet  hopes  and  effectual  consolations ;  and  inflexibility  in  the 
accomplishment  of  the  most  painful  and  arduous  duties.  It  has 
always  propagated  it  with  ardor  and  perseverance ;  and  therefore 
it  labors  at  the  present  day  more  zealously  than  ever.  Scarcely  a 
Masonic  discourse  is  pronounced,  that  does  not  demonstrate  the 
necessity  and  advantages  of  this  faith,  and  especially  recall  the  two 
constitutive  principles  of  religion,  that  make  all  religion, — love  of 
God,  and  love  of  our  neighbor.  Masons  carry  these  principles  into 
the  bosoms  of  their  families  and  of  society.  While  the  Sectarians 
of  former  times  enfeebled  the  religious  spirit,  Masonry,  forming 
one  great  People  over  the  whole  globe,  and  marching  under  the 
great  banner  of  Charity  and  Benevolence,  preserves  that  religious 
feeling,  strengthens  it,  extends  it  in  its  purity  and  simplicity,  as  it 
has  always  existed  in  the  depths  of  the  human  heart,  as  it  existed 
even  under  the  dominion  of  the  most  ancient  forms  of  worship, 
but  where  gross  and  debasing  superstitions  forbade  its  recognition. 

A  Masonic  Lodge  should  resemble  a  bee-hive,  in  which  all  the 
members  work  together  with  ardor  for  the  common  good.  Ma- 
sonry is  not  made  for  cold  souls  and  narrow  minds,  that  do  not 
comprehend  its  lofty  mission  and  sublime  apostolate.  Here  the 
anathema  against  lukewarm  souls  applies.  To  comfort  misfortune, 
to  popularize  knowledge,  to  teach  whatever  is  true  and  pure  in  re- 
ligion and  philosophy,  to  accustom  men  to  respect  order  and  the 
proprieties  of  life,  to  point  out  the  way  to  genuine  happiness,  to 
prepare  for  that  fortunate  period,  when  all  the  fractions  of  the 
Human  Family,  united  by  the  bonds  of  Toleration  and  Frater- 
nity, shall  be  but  one  household, — these  are  labors  that  may  well 
excite  zeal  and  even  enthusiasm. 

We  do  not  now  enlarge  upon  or  elaborate  these  ideas.  We  but 
utter  them  to  you  briefly,  as  hints,  upon  which  you  may  at  your 
leisure  reflect.  Hereafter,  if  you  continue  to  advance,  they  will  be 
unfolded,  explained,  and  developed. 

Masonry  utters  no  impracticable  and  extravagant  precepts,  cer- 
tain, because  they  are  so,  to  be  disregarded.  It  asks  of  its  initiates 
nothing  that  it  is  not  possible  and  even  easy  for  them  to  perform. 
Its  teachings  are  eminently  practical ;  and  its  statutes  can  be 
obeyed  by  every  just,  upright,  and  honest  mari;  no  matter  what  his 
faith  or  creed.  Its  object  is  to  attain  the  greatest  practical  good, 
without  seeking  to  make  men  perfect.  It  doe$  not  meddle  with 
the  domain  of  religion,  nor  inquire  into  the  mysteries  of  regen- 


eration.  It  teaches  those  truths  that  are  written  by  the  finger  of 
God  upon  the  heart  of  man,  those  views  of  duty  which  have  been 
wrought  out  by  the  meditations  of  the  studious,  confirmed  by  the 
allegiance  of  the  good  and  wise,  and  stamped  as  sterling  by  the 
response  they  find  in  every  uncorrupted  mind.  It  does  not  dog- 
matize, nor  vainly  imagine  dogmatic  certainty  to  be  attainable. 

Masonry  does  not  occupy  itself  with  crying  down  this  world, 
with  its  splendid  beauty,  its  thrilling  interests,  its  glorious  works, 
its  noble  and  holy  affections ;  nor  exhort  us  to  detach  our  hearts 
from  this  earthly  life,  as  empty,  fleeting,  and  unworthy,  and  fix 
them  upon  Heaven,  as  the  only  sphere  deserving  the  love  of  the 
loving  or  the  meditation  of  the  wise.  It  teaches  that  man  has 
high  duties  to  perform,  and  a  high  destiny  to  fulfill,  on  this  earth ; 
that  this  world  is  not  merely  the  portal  to  another ;  and  that  this 
life,  though  not  our  only  one,  is  an  integral  one,  and  the  particular 
one  with  which  we  are  here  meant  to  be  concerned ;  that  the  Pres- 
ent is  our  scene  of  action,  and  the  Future  for  speculation  and 
for  trust;  that  man  was  sent  upon  the  earth  to  live  in  it,  to  enjoy 
it,  to  study  it,  to  love  it,  to  embellish  it,  to  make  the  most  of  it. 
It  is  his  country,  on  which  he  should  lavish  his  affections  and  his 
efforts.  It  is  here  his  influences  are  to  operate.  It  is  his  house, 
and  not  a  tent;  his  home,  and  not  merely  a  school.  He  is  sent 
into  this  world,  not  to  be  constantly  hankering  after,  dreaming  of, 
preparing  for  another ;  but  to  do  his  duty  and  fulfill  his  destiny 
on  this  earth;  to  do  all  that  lies  in  his  power  to  improve  it,  to 
render  it  a  scene  of  elevated  happiness  to  himself,  to  those  around 
him,  to  those  who  are  to  come  after  him.  His  life  here  is  part  of 
his  immortality ;  and  this  world,  also,  is  among  the  stars. 

And  thus,  Masonry  teaches  us,  will  man  best  prepare  for  that 
Future  which  he  hopes  for.  The  Unseen  cannot  hold  a  higher 
place  in  our  affections  than  the  Seen  and  the  Familiar.  The  law 
of  our  being  is  Love  of  Life,  and  its  interests  and  adornments ; 
love  of  the  world  in  which  our  lot  is  cast,  engrossment  with  the 
interests  and  affections  of  earth.  Not  a  low  or  sensual  love ;  not 
love  of  wealth,  of  fame,  of  ease,  of  power,  of  splendor.  Not  low 
worldliness ;  but  the  love  of  Earth  as  the  garden  on  which  the 
Creator  has  lavished  such  miracles  of  beauty ;  as  the  habitation 
of  humanity,  the  arena  of  its  conflicts,  the  scene  of  its  illimitable 
progress,  the  dwelling-place  of  the  wise,  the  good,  the  active,  the 
loving,  and  the  dear ;  the  place  of  opportunity  for  the  development 


by  means  of  sin  and  suffering  and  sorrow,  of  the  noblest  passions, 
the  loftiest  virtues,  and  the  tenderest  sympathies. 

They  take  very  unprofitable  pains,  who  endeavor  to  persuade 
men  that  they  are  obliged  wholly  to  despise  this  world,  and  all  that 
is  in  it,  even  whilst  they  themselves  live  here.  God  hath  not  taken 
all  that  pains  in  forming  and  framing  and  furnishing  and  adorn- 
ing the  world,  that  they  who  were  made  by  Him  to  live  in  it 
should  despise  it.  It  will  be  enough,  if  they  do  not  love  it  too  im- 
moderately. It  is  useless  to  attempt  to  extinguish  all  those  affec- 
tions and  passions  which  are  and  always  will  be  inseparable  from 
human  nature.  As  long  as  the  world  lasts,  and  honor  and  virtue 
and  industry  have  reputation  in  the  world,  there  will  be  ambition 
and  emulation  and  appetite  in  the  best  and  most  accomplished  men 
in  it ;  and  if  there  were  not,  more  barbarity  and  vice  and  wicked- 
ness would  cover  every  nation  of  the  world,  than  it  now  suffers 

Those  only  who  feel  a  deep  interest  in,  and  affection  for,  this 
world,  will  work  resolutely  for  its  amelioration.  Those  who  under- 
value this  life,  naturally  become  querulous  and  discontented,  and 
lose  their  interest  in  the  welfare  of  their  fellows.  To  serve  them, 
and  so  to  do  our  duty  as  Masons,  we  must  feel  that  the  object  is 
worth  the  exertion ;  and  be  content  with  this  world  in  which  God 
has  placed  us,  until  He  permits  us  to  remove  to  a  better  one.  He 
is  here  with  us,  and  does  not  deem  this  an  unworthy  world. 

It  is  a  serious  thing  to  defame  and  belie  a  whole  world  ;  to  speak 
of  it  as  the  abode  of  a  poor,  toiling,  drudging,  ignorant,  contempt- 
ible race.  You  would  not  so  discredit  your  family,  your  friendly 
circle,  your  village,  your  city,  your  country.  The  world  is  not  a 
wretched  and  a  worthless  one ;  nor  is  it  a  misfortune,  but  a  thing 
to  be  thankful  for,  to  be  a  man.  If  life  is  worthless,  so  also  is  im- 

In  society  itself,  in  that  living  mechanism  of  human  relation- 
ships that  spreads  itself  over  the  world,  there  is  a  finer  essence 
within,  that  as  truly  moves  it,  as  any  power,  heavy  or  expansive, 
moves  the  sounding  manufactory  or  the  swift-flying  car.  The 
man-machine  hurries  to  and  fro  upon  the  earth,  stretches  out  its 
hands  on  every  side,  to  toil,  to  barter,  to  unnumbered  labors  and 
enterprises ;  and  almost  always  the  motive,  that  which  moves  it, 
is  something  that  takes  hold  of  the  comforts,  affections,  and  hopes 
of  social  existence.  True,  the  mechanism  often  works  with  diffi- 


culty,  drags  heavily,  grates  and  screams  with  harsh  collision.  True, 
the  essence  of  finer  motive,  becoming  intermixed  with  baser  and 
coarser  ingredients,  often  clogs,  obstructs,  jars,  and  deranges  the 
free  and  noble  action  of  social  life.  But  he  is  neither  grateful  nor 
wise,  who  looks  cynically  on  all  this,  and  loses  the  tine  sense  of 
social  good  in  its  perversions.  That  I  can  be  a  friend,  that  I  can 
have  a  friend,  though  it  were  but  one  in  the  world ;  that  fact,  that 
wondrous  good  fortune,  we  may  set  against  all  the  sufferings  of 
our  social  nature.  That  there  is  such  a  place  on  earth  as  a  home, 
that  resort  and  sanctuary  of  in- walled  and  shielded  joy,  we  may 
set  against  all  the  surrounding  desolations  of  life.  That  one  can 
be  a  true,  social  man,  can  speak  his  true  thoughts,  amidst  all  the 
janglings  of  controversy  and  the  warring  of  opinions ;  that  fact 
from  within,  outweighs  all  facts  from  without. 

In  the  visible  aspect  and  action  of  society,  often  repulsive  and 
annoying,  we  are  apt  to  lose  the  due  sense  of  its  invisible  bless- 
ings. As  in  Nature  it  is  not  the  coarse  and  palpable,  not  soils  and 
rains,  nor  even  fields  and  flowers,  that  are  so  beautiful,  as  the  in- 
visible spirit  of  wisdom  and  beauty  that  pervades  it ;  so  in  society, 
it  is  the  invisible,  and  therefore  unobserved,  that  is  most  beautiful. 

What  nerves  the  arm  of  toil?  If  man  minded  himself  alone, 
he  would  fling  down  the  spade  and  axe,  and  rush  to  the  desert ;  or 
roam  through  the  world  as  a  wilderness,  and  make  that  world  a 
desert.  His  home,  which  he  sees  not,  perhaps,  but  once  or  twice 
in  a  day,  is  the  invisible  bond  of  the  world.  It  is  the  good,  strong, 
and  noble  faith  that  men  have  in  each  other,  which  gives  the  lof- 
tiest character  to  business,  trade,  and  commerce.  Fraud  occurs  in 
the  rush  of  business;  but  it  is  the  exception.  Honesty  is  the 
rule ;  and  all  the  frauds  in  the  world  cannot  tear  the  great  bond  of 
human  confidence.  If  they  could,  commerce  would  furl  its  sails 
on  every  sea,  and  all  the  cities  of  the  world  would  crumble  into 
ruins.  The  bare  character  of  a  man  on  the  other  side  of  the 
world,  whom  you  never  saw,  whom  you  never  will  see,  you  hold 
good  for  a  bond  of  thousands.  The  most  striking  feature  of  the 
political  state  is  not  governments,  nor  constitutions,  nor  laws,  nor 
enactments,  nor  the  judicial  power,  nor  the  police  ;  but  the  univer- 
sal will  of  the  people  to  be  governed  by  the  common  weal.  Take 
off  that  restraint,  and  no  government  on  earth  could  stand  for  an 

Of  the  many  teachings  of  Masonry,  one  of  the  most  valuable  is, 


that  we  should  not  depreciate  this  life.  It  does  not  hold,  that 
when  we  reflect  on  the  destiny  that  awaits  man  on  earth,  we  ought 
to  bedew  his  cradle  with  our  tears ;  but,  like  the  Hebrews,  it  hails 
the  birth  of  a  child  with  joy,  and  holds  that  his  birthday  should 
be  a  festival. 

It  has  no  sympathy  with  those  who  profess  to  have  proved  this 
life,  and  found  it  little  worth;  who  have  deliberately  made  up 
their  minds  that  it  is  far  more  miserable  than  happy ;  because  its 
employments  are  tedious,  and  their  schemes  often  baffled,  their 
friendships  broken,  or  their  friends  dead,  its  pleasures  palled,  and 
its  honors  faded,  and  its  paths  beaten,  familiar,  and  dull. 

Masonry  deems  it  no  mark  of  great  piety  toward  God  to  dis- 
parage, if  not  despise,  the  state  that  He  has  ordained  for  us.  It 
does  not  absurdly  set  up  the  claims  of  another  world,  not  in  com- 
parison merely,  but  in  competition,  with  the  claims  of  this.  It 
looks  upon  both  as  parts  of  one  system.  It  holds  that  a  man  may 
make  the  best  of  this  world  and  of  another  at  the  same  time.  It 
does  not  teach  its  initiates  to  think  better  of  other  works  and  dis- 
pensations of  God,  by  thinking  meanly  of  these.  It  does  not  look 
upon  life  as  so  much  time  lost;  nor  regard  its  employments  as 
trifles  unworthy  of  immortal  beings ;  nor  tell  its  followers  to  fold 
their  arms,  as  if  in  disdain  of  their  state  and  species ;  but  it  looks 
soberly  and  cheerfully  upon  the  world,  as  a  theatre  of  worthy 
action,  of  exalted  usefulness,  and  of  rational  and  innocent  enjoy- 

It  holds  that,  with  all  its  evils,  life  is  a  blessing.  To  deny  that 
is  to  destroy  the  basis  of  all  religion,  natural  and  revealed.  The 
very  foundation  of  all  religion  is  laid  on  the  firm  belief  that  God 
is  good ;  and  if  this  life  is  an  evil  and  a  curse,  no  such  belief  can 
be  rationally  entertained.  To  le\rel  our  satire  at  humanity  and 
human  existence,  as  mean  and  contemptible ;  to  look  on  this  world 
as  the  habitation  of  a  miserable  race,  fit  only  for  mockery  and 
scorn ;  to  consider  this  earth  as  a  dungeon  or  a  prison,  which  has 
no  blessing  to  offer  but  escape  from  it,  is  to  extinguish  the  primal 
light  of  faith  and  hope  and  happiness,  to  destroy  the  basis  of  reli- 
gion, and  Truth's  foundation  in  the  goodness  of  God.  If  it  in- 
deed be  so,  then  it  matters  not  what  else  is  true  or  not  true ;  spec- 
ulation is  vain  and  faith  is  vain;  and  all  that  belongs  to  man's 
highest  being  is  buried  in  the  ruins  of  misanthropy,  melancholy, 
and  despair. 


Our  love  of  life ;  the  tenacity  with  which,  in  sorrow  and  suffer- 
ing, we  cling  to  it;  our  attachment  to  our  home,  to  the  spot  that 
gave  us  birth,  to  any  place,  however  rude,  unsightly,  or  barren,  on 
which  the  history  of  our  years  has  been  written,  all  show  how  dear 
are  the  ties  of  kindred  and  society.  Misery  makes  a  greater  im- 
pression upon  us  than  happiness ;  because  the  former  is  not  the 
habit  of  our  minds.  It  is  a  strange,  unusual  guest,  and  we  are 
more  conscious  of  its  presence.  Happiness  lives  with  us,  and  we 
forget  it.  It  does  not  excite  us,  nor  disturb  the  order  and  course 
of  our  thoughts.  A  great  agony  is  an  epoch  in  our  life.  We  re- 
member our  afflictions,  as  we  do  the  storm  and  earthquake, 
because  they  are  out  of  the  common  course  of  things.  They  are 
like  disastrous  events,  recorded  because  extraordinary ;  and  with 
whole  and  unnoticed  periods  of  prosperity  between.  We  mark 
and  signalize  the  times  of  calamity;  but  many  happy  days  and 
unnoted  periods  of  enjoyment  pass,  that  are  unrecorded  either  in 
the  book  of  memory,  or  in  the  scanty  annals  of  our  thanksgiving. 
We  are  little  disposed  and  less  able  to  call  up  from  the  dim  remem- 
brances of  our  past  years,  the  peaceful  moments,  the  easy  sensa- 
tions, the  bright  thoughts,  the  quiet  reveries,  the  throngs  of  kind 
affections  in  which  life  flowed  on,  bearing  us  almost  unconsciously 
upon  its  bosom,  because  it  bore  us  calmly  and  gently. 

Life  is  not  only  good ;  but  it  has  been  glorious  in  the  experience 
of  millions.  The  glory  of  all  human  virtue  clothes  it.  The  splen- 
dors of  devotedness,  beneficence,  and  heroism  are  upon  it;  the 
crown  of  a  thousand  martyrdoms  is  upon  its  brow.  The  bright- 
ness of  the  soul  shines  through  this  visible  and  sometimes  dark- 
ened life;  through  all  its  surrounding  cares  and  labors.  The 
humblest  life  may  feel  its  connection  with  its  Infinite  Source. 
There  is  something  mighty  in  the  frail  inner  man ;  something  of 
immortality  in  this  momentary  and  transient  being.  The  mind 
stretches  away,  on  every  side,  into  infinity.  Its  thoughts  flash 
abroad,  far  into  the  boundless,  the  immeasurable,  the  infinite ;  far 
into  the  great,  dark,  teeming  future ;  and  become  powers  and  in- 
fluences in  other  ages.  To  know  its  wonderful  Author,  to  bring 
down  wisdom  from  the  Eternal  Stars,  to  bear  upward  its  homage, 
gratitude,  and  love,  to  the  Ruler  of  all  worlds,  to  be  immortal  in 
our  influences  projected  far  into  the  slow-approaching  Future, 
makes  life  most  worthy  and  most  glorious. 

Life  is  the  wonderful  creation  of  God.    It  is  light,  sprung  from 


void  darkness ;  power,  waked  from  inertness  and  impotence ;  be- 
ing created  from  nothing;  and  the  contrast  may  well  enkindle 
wonder  and  delight.  It  is  a  rill  from  the  infinite,  overflowing 
goodness ;  and  from  the  moment  when  it  first  gushes  up  into  the 
light,  to  that  when  it  mingles  with  the  ocean  of  Eternity,  that 
Goodness  attends  it  and  ministers  to  it.  It  is  a  great  and  glorious 
gift.  There  is  gladness  in  its  infant  voices ;  joy  in  the  buoyant 
step  of  its  youth ;  deep  satisfaction  in  its  strong  maturity ;  and 
peace  in  its  quiet  age.  There  is  good  for  the  good ;  virtue  for  the 
faithful ;  and  victory  for  the  valiant.  There  is,  even  in  this  hum- 
ble life,  an  infinity  for  those  whose  desires  are  boundless.  There 
are  blessings  upon  its  birth ;  there  is  hope  in  its  death ;  and  eter- 
nity in  its  prospect.  Thus  earth,  which  binds  many  in  chains,  is 
to  the  Mason  both  the  starting-place  and  goal  of  immortality. 
Many  it  buries  in  the  rubbish  of  dull  cares  and  wearying  vanities ; 
but  to  the  Mason  it  is  the  lofty  mount  of  meditation,  where 
Heaven,  and  Infinity  and  Eternity  are  spread  before  him  and 
around  him.  To  the  lofty-minded,  the  pure,  and  the  virtuous,  this 
life  is  the  beginning  of  Heaven,  and  a  part  of  immortality. 

God  hath  appointed  one  remedy  for  all  the  evils  in  the  world ; 
and  that  is  a  contented  spirit.  We  may  be  reconciled  to  poverty 
and  a  low  fortune,  if  we  suffer  contentedness  and  equanimity  to 
make  the  proportions.  No  man  is  poor  who  doth  not  think  him- 
self so ;  but  if,  in  a  full  fortune,  with  impatience  he  desires  more, 
he  proclaims  his  wants  and  his  beggarly  condition.  This  virtue 
of  contentedness  was  the  sum  of  all  the  old  moral  philosophy,  and 
is  of  most  universal  use  in  the  whole  course  of  our  lives,  and  the 
only  instrument  t©  ease  the  burdens  of  the  world  and  the  enmities 
of  sad  chances.  It  is  the  great  reasonableness  of  complying  with 
the  Divine  Providence,  which  governs  all  the  world,  and  hath  so 
ordered  us  in  the  administration  of  His  great  family.  It  is  fit  that 
God  should  dispense  His  gifts  as  He  pleases ;  and  if  we  murmur 
here,  we  may,  at  the  next  melancholy,  be  troubled  that  He  did  not 
make  us  to  be  angels  or  stars. 

We  ourselves  make  our  fortunes  good  or  bad ;  and  when  God 
lets  loose  a  Tyrant  upon  us,  or  a  sickness,  or  scorn,  or  a  lessened 
fortune,  if  we  fear  to  die,  or  know  not  how  to  be  patient,  or  are 
proud,  or  covetous,  then  the  calamity  sits  heavy  on  us.  But  if  we 
know  how  to  manage  a  noble  principle,  and  fear  not  death  so  much 
as  a  dishonest  action,  and  think  impatience  a  worse  evil  than  a 


fever,  and  pride  to  be  the  greatest  disgrace  as  well  as  the  greatest 
folly,  and  poverty  far  preferable  to  the  torments  of  avarice,  we  may 
still  bear  an  even  mind  and  smile  at  the  reverses  of  fortune  and 
the  ill-nature  of  Fate. 

If  thou  hast  lost  thy  land,  do  not  also  lose  thy  constancy :  and 
if  thou  must  die  sooner  than  others,  or  than  thou  didst  expect,  yet 
do  not  die  impatiently.  For  no  chance  is  evil  to  him  who  is  con- 
tent, and  to  a  man  nothing  is  miserable  unless  it  be  unreasonable. 
No  man  can  make  another  man  to  be  his  slave,  unless  that  other 
hath  first  enslaved  himself  to  life  and  death,  to  pleasure  or  pain, 
to  hope  or  fear ;  command  these  passions,  and  you  are  freer  than 
the  Parthian  Kings. 

When  an  enemy  reproaches  us,  let  us  look  on  him  as  an  impar- 
tial relator  of  our  faults ;  for  he  will  tell  us  truer  than  our  fondest 
friend  will,  and  we  may  forgive  his  anger,  wrhile  we  make  use  of 
the  plainness  of  his  declamation.  The  ox,  when  he  is  weary, 
treads  truest;  and  if  there  be  nothing  else  in  abuse,  but  that  it 
makes  us  to  walk  warily,  and  tread  sure  for  fear  of  our  enemies, 
that  is  better  than  to  be  flattered  into  pride  and  carelessness. 

If  thou  fallest  from  thy  employment  in  public,  take  sanctuary 
in  an  honest  retirement,  being  indifferent  to  thy  gain  abroad,  or 
thy  safety  at  home.  When  the  north  wind  blows  hard,  and  it  rains 
sadly,  we  do  not  sit  down  in  it  and  cry ;  but  defend  ourselves 
against  it  with  a  warm  garment,  or  a  good  fire  and  a  dry  roof.  So 
when  the  storm  of  a  sad  mischance  beats  upon  our  spirits,  we  may 
turn  it  into  something  that  is  good,  if  we  resolve  to  make  it  so; 
and  with  equanimity  and  patience  may  shelter  ourselves  from  its 
inclement  pitiless  pelting.  If  it  develop  our  patience,  and  give 
occasion  for  heroic  endurance,  it  hath  done  us  good  enough  to  re- 
compense us  sufficiently  for  all  the  temporal  affliction ;  for  so  a 
wise  man  shall  overrule  his  stars ;  and  have  a  greater  influence 
upon  his  own  content,  than  all  the  constellations  and  planets  of 
the  firmament. 

Compare  not  thy  condition  with  the  few  above  thee,  but  to  se- 
cure thy  content,  look  upon  those  thousands  with  whom  thou 
wouldst  not,  for  any  interest,  change  thy  fortune  and  condition. 
A  soldier  must  not  think  himself  unprosperous,  if  he  be  not  suc- 
cessful as  Alexander  or  Wellington;  nor  any  man  deem  himself 
unfortunate  that  he  hath  not  the  wealth  of  Rothschild ;  but  rather 
let  the  former  rejoice  that  he  is  not  lessened  like  the  many  generals 


who  went  down  horse  and  man  before  Napoleon,  and  the  latter 
that  he  is  not  the  beggar  who,  bareheaded  in  the  bleak  winter 
v/ind  holds  out  his  tattered  hat  for  charity.  There  may  be  many 
who  are  richer  and  more  fortunate ;  but  many  thousands  who  are 
very  miserable,  compared  to  thee. 

After  the  worst  assaults  of  Fortune,  there  will  be  something 
left  to  us, — a  merry  countenance,  a  cheerful  spirit,  and  a  good  con- 
science, the  Providence  of  God,  our  hopes  of  Heaven,  our  charity 
for  those  who  have  injured  us;  perhaps  a  loving  wife,  and  many 
friends  to  pity,  and  some  to  relieve  us ;  and  light  and  air,  and  all 
the  beauties  of  Nature ;  we  can  read,  discourse,  and  meditate ;  and 
having  still  these  blessings,  we  should  be  much  in  love  with  sor- 
row and  peevishness  to  lose  them  all,  and  prefer  to  sit  down  on 
our  little  handful  of  thorns. 

Enjoy  the  blessings  of  this  day,  if  God  sends  them,  and  the  evils 
of  it  bear  patiently  and  calmly ;  for  this  day  only  is  ours :  we  are 
dead  to  yesterday,  and  we  are  not  yet  born  to  the  morrow.  When 
our  fortunes  are  violently  changed,  our  spirits  are  unchanged,  if 
they  always  stood  in  the  suburbs  and  expectation  of  sorrows  and 
reverses.  The  blessings  of  immunity,  safeguard,  liberty,  and  in- 
tegrity deserve  the  thanksgiving  of  a  whole  life.  We  are  quit  from 
a  thousand  calamities,  every  one  of  which,  if  it  were  upon  us, 
would  make  us  insensible  of  our  present  sorrow,  and  glad  to  re- 
ceive it  in  exchange  for  that  other  greater  affliction. 

Measure  your  desires  by  your  fortune  and  condition,  not  your 
fortunes  by  your  desires :  be  governed  by  your  needs,  not  by  your 
fancy ;  by  nature,  not  by  evil  customs  and  ambitious  principles. 
It  is  no  evil  to  be  poor,  but  to  be  vicious  and  impatient.  Is  that 
beast  better,  that  hath  two  or  three  mountains  to  graze  on,  than 
the  little  bee  that  feeds  on  dew  or  manna,  and  lives  upon  what  falls 
every  morning  from  the  store-houses  of  Heaven,  clouds  and 
Providence  ? 

There  are  some  instances  of  fortune  and  a  fair  condition  that 
cannot  stand  with  some  others;  but  if  you  desire  this,  you  must 
lose  that,  and  unless  you  be  content  with  one,  you  lose  the  com- 
fort of  both.  If  you  covet  learning,  you  must  have  leisure  and  a 
retired  life ;  if  honors  of  State  and  political  distinctions,  you  must 
be  ever  abroad  in  public,  and  get  experience,  and  do  all  men's 
business,  and  keep  all  company,  and  have  no  leisure  at  all.  If  you 
will  be  rich,  you  must  be  frugal ;  if  you  will  be  popular,  you  must 


be  bountiful ;  if  a  philosopher,  you  must  despise  riches.  If  you 
would  be  famous  as  Epaminondas,  accept  also  his  poverty,  for  it 
added  lustre  to  his  person,  and  envy  to  his  fortune,  and  his  virtue 
without  it  could  not  have  been  so  excellent.  If  you  would  have 
the  reputation  of  a  martyr,  you  must  needs  accept  his  persecution ; 
if  of  a  benefactor  of  the  world,  the  world's  injustice ;  if  truly  great, 
you  must  expect  to  see  the  mob  prefer  lesser  men  to  yourself. 

God  esteems  it  one  of  His  glories,  that  He  brings  good  out  of 
evil ;  and  therefore  it  were  but  reason  we  should  trust  Him  to 
govern  His  own  world  as  He  pleases ;  and  that  we  should  patiently 
wait  until  the  change  cometh,  or  the  reason  is  discovered. 

A  Mason's  contentedness  must  by  no  means  be  a  mere  contented 
selfishness,  like  his  who,  comfortable  himself,  is  indifferent  to  the 
discomfort  of  others.  There  will  always  be  in  this  world  wrongs 
to  forgive,  suffering  to  alleviate,  sorrow  asking  for  sympathy,  ne- 
cessities and  destitution  to  relieve,  and  ample  occasion  for  the 
exercise  of  active  charity  and  beneficence.  And  he  who  sits  un- 
concerned amidst  it  all,  perhaps  enjoying  his  own  comforts  and 
luxuries  the  more,  by  contrasting  them  with  the  hungry  and  rag- 
ged destitution  and  shivering  misery  of  his  fellows,  is  not  con- 
tented, but  selfish  and  unfeeling. 

It  is  the  saddest  of  all  sights  upon  this  earth,  that  of  a  man  lazy 
and  luxurious,  or  hard  and  penurious,  to  whom  want  appeals  in 
vain,  and  suffering  cries  in  an  unknown  tongue.  The  man  whose 
hasty  anger  hurries  him  into  violence  and  crime  is  not  half  so  un- 
worthy to  live.  He  is  the  faithless  steward,  that  embezzles  what 
God  has  given  him  in  trust  for  the  impoverished  and  suffering 
among  his  brethren.  The  true  Mason  must  be  and  must  have  a 
right  to  be  content  with  himself ;  and  he  can  be  so  only  when  he 
lives  not  for  himself  alone,  but  for  others  also,  who  need  his  assist- 
ance and  have  a  claim  upon  his  sympathy. 

"Charity  is  the  great  channel,"  it  has  been  well  said,  "through 
which  God  passes  all  His  mercy  upon  mankind.  For  we  receive 
absolution  of  our  sins  in  proportion  to  our  forgiving  our  brother. 
This  is  the  rule  of  our  hopes  and  the  measure  of  our  desire  in 
this  world ;  and  on  the  day  of  death  and  judgment,  the  great  sen- 
tence upon  mankind  shall  be  transacted  according  to  our  alms, 
which  is  the  other  part  of  charity.  God  himself  is  love;  and 
every  degree  of  charity  that  dwells  in  us  is  the  participation  of  the 
Divine  nature." 


These  principles  Masonry  reduces  to  practice.  By  them  it  ex- 
pects you  to  be  hereafter  guided  and  governed.  It  especially 
inculcates  them  upon  him  who  employs  the  labor  of  others,  for- 
bidding him  to  discharge  them,  when  to  want  employment  is  to 
starve ;  or  to  contract  for  the  labor  of  man  or  woman  at  so  low  a 
price  that  by  over-exertion  they  must  sell  him  their  blood  and  life 
at  the  same  time  with  the  labor  of  their  hands. 

These  Degrees  are  also  intended  to  teach  more  than  morals.  The 
symbols  and  ceremonies  of  Masonry  have  more  than  one  meaning. 
They  rather  conceal  than  disclose  the  Truth.  They  hint  it  only,  at 
least ;  and  their  varied  meanings  are  only  to  be  discovered  by  re- 
flection and  study.  Truth  is  not  only  symbolized  by  Light,  but 
as  the  ray  of  light  is  separable  into  rays  of  different  colors,  so  is 
truth  separable  into  kinds.  It  is  the  province  of  Masonry  to  teach 
all  truths — not  moral  truth  alone,  but  political  and  philosophical, 
and  even  religious  truth,  so  far  as  concerns  the  great  and  essential 
principles  of  each.  The  sphynx  was  a  symbol.  To  whom  has  it 
disclosed  its  inmost  meaning?  Who  knows  the  symbolic  meaning 
of  the  pyramids? 

You  will  hereafter  learn  who  are  the  chief  foes  of  human  liberty 
symbolized  by  the  assassins  of  the  Master  Khurum;  and  in  their 
fate  you  may  see  foreshadowed  that  which  we  earnestly  hope  will 
hereafter  overtake  those  enemies  of  humanity,  against  whom  Ma- 
sonry has  struggled  so  long. 



[Elu  of  the  Nine.] 

ORIGINALLY  created  to  reward  fidelity,  obedience,  and  devotion, 
this  Degree  was  consecrated  to  bravery,  devotedness,  and  patriot- 
ism ;  and  your  obligation  has  made  known  to  you  the  duties  which 
you  have  assumed.  They  are  summed  up  in  the  simple  mandate, 
"Protect  the  oppressed  against  the  oppressor ;  and  devote  yourself 
to  the  honor  and  interests  of  your  Country." 

Masonry  is  not  "speculative,"  nor  theoretical,  but  experimental ; 
not  sentimental,  but  practical.  It  requires  self-renunciation  and 
self-control.  It  wears  a  stern  face  toward  men's  vices,  and  inter- 
feres with  many  of  our  pursuits  and  our  fancied  pleasures.  It  pen- 
etrates beyond  the  region  of  vague  sentiment ;  beyond  the  regions 
where  moralizers  and  philosophers  have  woven  their  fine  theories 
and  elaborated  their  beautiful  maxims,  to  the  very  depths  of  the 
heart,  rebuking  our  littlenesses  and  meannesses,  arraigning  our 
prejudices  and  passions,  and  warring  against  the  armies  of  our 

It  wars  against  the  passions  that  spring  out  of  the  bosom  of  a 
world  of  fine  sentiments,  a  world  of  admirable  sayings  and  foul 
practices,  of  good  maxims  and  bad  deeds ;  whose  darker  passions 
are  not  only  restrained  by  custom  and  ceremony,  but  hidden  even 
from  itself  by  a  veil  of  beautiful  sentiments.  This  terrible  sole- 
cism has  existed  in  all  ages.  Romish  sentimentalism  has  often 
covered  infidelity  and  vice ;  Protestant  straightness  often  lauds 
spirituality  and  faith,  and  neglects  homely  truth,  candor,  and  gen- 
erosity ;  and  ultra-liberal  Rationalistic  refinement  sometimes  soars 



to  heaven  in  its  dreams,  and  wallows  in  the  mire  of  earth  in  its 

There  may  be  a  world  of  Masonic  sentiment;  and  yet  a  world 
of  little  or  no  Masonry.  In  many  minds  there  is  a  vague  and  gen- 
eral sentiment  of  Masonic  charity,  generosity,  and  disinterested- 
ness, but  no  practical,  active  virtue,  nor  habitual  kindness,  self- 
sacrifice,  or  liberality.  Masonry  plays  about  them  like  the  cold 
though  brilliant  lights  that  flush  and  eddy  over  Northern  skies. 
There  are  occasional  flashes  of  generous  and  manly  feeling,  tran- 
sitory splendors,  and  momentary  gleams  of  just  and  noble  thought, 
and  transient  coruscations,  that  light  the  Heaven  of  their  imagina- 
tion ;  but  there  is  no  vital  warmth  in  the  heart ;  and  it  remains  as 
cold  and  sterile  as  the  Arctic  or  Antarctic  regions.  They  do  nothing ; 
they  gain  no  victories  over  themselves ;  they  make  no  progress ; 
they'  are  still  in  the  Northeast  corner  of  the  Lodge,  as  when  they 
first  stood  there  as  Apprentices ;  and  they  do  not  cultivate  Ma- 
sonry, with  a  cultivation,  determined,  resolute,  and  regular,  like 
their  cultivation  of  their  estate,  profession,  or  knowledge.  Their 
Masonry  takes  its  chance  in  general  and  inefficient  sentiment, 
mournfully  barren  of  results ;  in  words  and  formulas  and  fine  pro- 

Most  men  have  sentiments,  but  not  principles.  The  former  are 
temporary  sensations,  the  latter  permanent  and  controlling  im- 
pressions of  goodness  and  virtue.  The  former  are  general  and 
involuntary,  and  do  not  rise  to  the  character  of  virtue.  Every  one 
feels  them.  They  flash  up  spontaneously  in  every  heart.  The 
latter  are  rules  of  action,  and  shape  and  control  our  conduct ;  and 
it  is  these  that  Masonry  insists  upon. 

We  approve  the  right;  but  pursue  the  wrong.  It  is  the  old 
story  of  human  deficiency.  No  one  abets  or  praises  injustice, 
fraud,  oppression,  covetousness,  revenge, envy,  or  slander;  and  yet 
how  many  who  condemn  these  things,  are  themselves  guilty  of 
them.  It  is  no  rare  thing  for  him  whose  indignation  is  kindled  at 
a  tale  of  wicked  injustice,  cruel  oppression,  base  slander,  or  misery 
inflicted  by  unbridled  indulgence;  whose  anger  flames  in  behalf 
of  the  injured  and  ruined  victims  of  wrong ;  to- be  in  some  relation 
unjust,  or  oppressive,  or  envious,  or  self-indulgent,  or  a  careless 
talker  of  others.  How  wonderfully  indignant  the  penurious  man 
often  is,  at  the  avarice  or  want  of  public  spirit  of  another ! 

A  great  Preacher  well  said,  "Therefore  thou  art  inexcusable.  O 


Man,  whosoever  thou  art,  that  judgest;  for  wherein  thou  judgest 
another,  thou  condemnest  thyself:  for  thou  that  judgest,  doest  the 
same  things."  It  is  amazing  to  see  how  men  can  talk  of  virtue  and 
honor,  whose  life  denies  both.  It  is  curious  to  see  with  what  a 
marvellous  facility  many  bad  men  quote  Scripture.  It  seems  to 
comfort  their  evil  consciences,  to  use  good  words ;  and  to  gloze 
over  bad  deeds  with  holy  texts,  wrested  to  their  purpose.  Often, 
the  more  a  man  talks  about  Charity  and  Toleration,  the  less  he  has 
of  either ;  the  more  he  talks  about  Virtue,  the  smaller  stock  he 
has  of  it.  The  mouth  speaks  out  of  the  abundance  of  the  heart ; 
but  often  the  very  reverse  of  what  the  man  practises.  And  the 
vicious  and  sensual  often  express,  and  in  a  sense  feel,  strong  dis- 
gust at  vice  and  sensuality.  Hypocrisy  is  not  so  common  as  is 

Here,  in  the  Lodge,  virtue  and  vice  are  matters  of  reflection  and 
feeling  only.  There  is  little  opportunity  here,  for  the  practice  of 
either ;  and  Masons  yield  to  the  argument  here,  with  facility  and 
readiness;  because  nothing  is  to  follow.  It  is  easy,  and  safe,  here, 
to  feel  upon  these  matters.  But  to-morrow,  when  they  breathe  the 
atmosphere  of  worldly  gains  and  competitions,  and  the  passions 
are  again  stirred  at  the  opportunities  of  unlawful  pleasure,  all 
their  fine  emotions  about  virtue,  all  their  generous  abhorrence  of 
selfishness  and  sensuality,  melt  away  like  a  morning  cloud. 

For  the  time,  their  emotions  and  sentiments  are  sincere  and 
real.  Men  may  be  really,  in  a  certain  way,  interested  in  Masonry, 
while  fatally  deficient  in  virtue.  It  is  not  always  hypocrisy.  Men 
pray  most  fervently  and  sincerely,  and  yet  are  constantly  guilty 
of  acts  so  bad  and  base,  so  ungenerous  and  unrighteous,  that  the 
crimes  that  crowd  the  dockets  of  our  courts  are  scarcely  worse. 

A  man  may  be  a  good  sort-  of  man  in  general,  and  yet  a  very 
bad  man  in  particular :  good  in  the  Lodge  and  bad  in  the  world ; 
good  in  public,  and  bad  in  his  family ;  good  at  home,  and  bad  on 
a  journey  or  in  a  strange  city.  Many  a  man  earnestly  desires  to 
be  a  good  Mason.  He  says  so,  and  is  sincere.  But  if  you  require 
him  to  resist  a  certain  passion,  to  sacrifice  a  certain  indulgence,  to 
control  his  appetite  at  a  particular  feast,  or  to  keep  his  temper  in 
a  dispute,  you  will  find  that  he  does  not  wish  to  be  a  good  Mason, 
in  that  particular  case;  or,  wishing,  is  not  able  to  resist  his  worse 

The  duties  of  life  are  more  than  life.   The  law  imposeth  it  upon 


every  citizen,  that  he  prefer  the  urgent  service  of  his  country  be- 
fore the  safety  of  his  life.  If  a  man  be  commanded,  saith  a  great 
writer,  to  bring  ordnance  or  munition  to  relieve  any  of  the  King's 
towns  that  are  distressed,  then  he  cannot  for  any  danger  of  tem- 
pest justify  the  throwing  of  them  overboard ;  for  there  it  holdeth 
which  was  spoken  by  the  Roman,  when  the  same  necessity  of 
weather  was  alleged  to  hold  him  from  embarking :  "Necesse  est  tit 
earn,  non  ut  vivam:"  it  needs  that  I  go :  it  is  not  necessary  I  should 
live.  . 

How  ungratefully  he  slinks  away,  who  dies,  and  does  nothing  to 
reflect  a  glory  to  Heaven  ?  How  barren  a  tree  he  is,  who  lives,  and 
spreads,  and  cumbers  the  ground,  yet  leaves  not  one  seed,  not  one 
good  work  to  generate  another  after  him !  All  cannot  leave  alike  ; 
yet  all  may  leave  something,  answering  their  proportions  and  their 
kinds.  Those  are  dead  and  withered  grains  of  corn,  out  of  which 
there  will  not  one  ear  spring.  He  will  hardly  find  the  way  to 
Heaven,  who  desires  to  go  thither  alone. 

Industry  is  never  wholly  unfruitful.  If  it  bring  not  joy  with 
the  incoming  profit,  it  will  yet  banish  mischief  from  thy  busied 
gates.  There  is  a  kind  of  good  angel  waiting  upon  Diligence  that 
ever  carries  a  laurel  in  his  hand  to  crown  her.  How  unworthy 
was  that  man  of  the  world  who  never  did  aught,  but  only  lived 
and  died !  That  we  have  liberty  to  do  anything,  we  should  ac- 
count it  a  gift  from  the  favoring  Heavens;  that  we  have  minds 
sometimes  inclining  us  to  use  that  liberty  well,  is  a  great  bounty 
of  the  Deity. 

Masonry  is  action,  and  not  inertness.  It  requires  its  Initiates  to 
WO?.K,  actively  and  earnestly,  for  the  benefit  of  their  brethren, 
their  country,  and  mankind.  It  is  the  patron  of  the  oppressed, 
as  it  is  the  comforter  and  consoler  of  the  unfortunate  and  wretched. 
It  &eems  to  it  a  worthier  honor  to  be  the  instrument  of  advance- 
ment and  reform,  than  to  enjoy  all  that  rank  and  office  and  lofty 
titles  can  bestow.  It  is  the  advocate  of  the  common  people  in 
those  things  which  concern  the  best  interests  of  mankind.  It 
hates  insolent  power  and  impudent  usurpation.  It  pities  the  poor, 
the  sorrowing,  the  disconsolate ;  it  endeavors  to  raise  and  improve 
the  ignorant,  the  sunken,  and  the  degraded. 

Its  fidelity  to  its  mission  will  be  accurately  evidenced,  by  the 
extent  of  the  efforts  it  employs,  and  the  means  it  sets  on  foot,  to 
improve  the  people  at  large  and  to  better  their  condition ;  chiefest 

ELECT    OF    THE    NINE.  153 

of  which,  within  its  reach,  is  to  aid  in  the  education  of  the  chil- 
dren of  the  poor.  An  intelligent  people,  informed  of  its  rights, 
will  soon  come  to  know  its  power,  and  cannot  long  be  oppressed ; 
but  if  there  be  not  a  sound  and  virtuous  populace,  the  elaborate 
ornaments  at  the  top  of  the  pyramid  of  society  will  be  a  wretched 
compensation  for  the  want  of  solidity  at  the  base.  It  is  never  safe 
for  a  nation  to  repose  on  the  lap  of  ignorance :  and  if  there  ever 
was  a  time  when  public  tranquillity  was  insured  by  the  absence  of 
knowledge,  that  season  is  past.  Unthinking  stupidity  cannot 
sleep,  without  being  appalled  by  phantoms  and  shaken  by  terrors. 
The  improvement  of  the  mass  of  the  people  is  the  grand  security 
for  popular  liberty ;  in  the  neglect  of  which,  the  politeness,  refine- 
ment, and  knowledge  accumulated  in  the  higher  orders  and 
wealthier  classes  will  some  day  perish  like  dry  grass  in  the  hot  fire 
of  popular  fury. 

It  is  not  the  mission  of  Masonry  to  engage  in  plots  and  conspir- 
acies against  the  civil  government.  It  is  not  the  fanatical  propa- 
gandist of  any  creed  or  theory ;  nor  does  it  proclaim  itself  the 
enemy  of  kings.  It  is  the  apostle  of  liberty,  equality,  and  frater- 
nity; but  it  is  no  more  the  high-priest  of  republicanism  than  of 
constitutional  monarchy.  It  contracts  no  entangling  alliances 
with  any  sect  of  theorists,  dreamers,  or  philosophers.  It  does  not 
know  those  as  its  Initiates  who  assail  the  civil  order  and  all  lawful 
authority,  at  the  same  time  that  they  propose  to  deprive  the  dying 
of  the  consolations  of  religion.  It  sits  apart  from  all  sects  and 
creeds,  in  its  own  calm  and  simple  dignity,  the  same  under  every 
government.  It  is  still  that  which  it  was  in  the  cradle  of  the  hu- 
man race,  when  no  human  foot  had  trodden  the  soil  of  Assyria 
and  Egypt,  and  no  colonies  had  crossed  the  Himalayas  into  South- 
ern India,  Media,  or  Etruria. 

It  gives  no  countenance  to  anarchy  and  licentiousness ;  and  no 
illusion  of  glory,  or  extravagant  emulation  of  the  ancients  in- 
flames it  with  an  unnatural  thirst  for  ideal  and  Utopian  liberty. 
It  teaches  that  in  rectitude  of  life  and  sobriety  of  habits  is  the 
only  sure  guarantee  for  the  continuance  of  political  freedom ;  and 
it  is  chiefly  the  soldier  of  the  sanctity  of  the  laws  and  the  rights 
of  conscience. 

It  recognizes  it  as  a  truth,  that  necessity,  as  well  as  abstract 
right  and  ideal  justice,  must  have  its  part  in  the  making  of  laws, 
the  administration  of  affairs,  and  the  regulation  of  relations  in 


society.  It  sees,  indeed,  that  necessity  rules  in  all  the  affairs  of 
man.  It  knows  that  where  any  man,  or  any  number  or  race  of 
men,  are  so  imbecile  of  intellect,  so  degraded,  so  incapable  of  self- 
control,  so  inferior  in  the  scale  of  humanity,  as  to  be  unfit  to  be 
intrusted  with  the  highest  prerogatives  of  citizenship,  the  great 
law  of  necessity,  for  the  peace  and  safety  of  the  community  and 
country,  requires  them  to  remain  under  the  control  of  those  of 
larger  intellect  and  superior  wisdom.  It  trusts  and  believes  that 
God  will,  in  his  own  good  time,  work  out  his  own  great  and  wise 
purposes ;  and  it  is  willing  to  wait,  where  it  does  not  see  its  own 
way  clear  to  some  certain  good. 

It  hopes  and  longs  for  the  day  when  all  the  races  of  men,  even 
the  lowest,  will  be  elevated,  and  become  fitted  for  political  freedom ; 
when,  like  all  other  evils  that  afflict  the  earth,  pauperism,  and 
bondage  or  abject  dependence,  shall  cease  and  disappear.  But  it 
does  not  preach  revolution  to  those  who  are  fond  of  kings,  nor  re- 
bellion that  can  end  only  in  disaster  and  defeat,  or  in  substituting 
one  tyrant  for  another,  or  a  multitude  of  despots  for  one. 

Wherever  a  people  is  fit  to  be  free  and  to  govern  itself,  and  gen- 
erously strives  to  be  so,  there  go  all  its  sympathies.  It  detests  the 
tyrant,  the  lawless  oppressor,  the  military  usurper,  and  him  who 
abuses  a  lawful  power.  It  frowns  upon  cruelty,  and  a  wanton  dis- 
regard of  the  rights  of  humanity.  It  abhors  the  selfish  employer, 
and  exerts  its  influence  to  lighten  the  burdens  which  want  and 
dependence  impose  upon  the  workman,  and  to  foster  that  human- 
ity and  kindness  which  man  owes  to  even  his  poorest  and  most 
unfortunate  brother. 

It  can  never  be  employed,  in  any  country  under  Heaven,  to  teach 
a  toleration  for  cruelty,  to  weaken  moral  hatred  for  guilt,  or  to 
deprave  and  brutalize  the  human  mind.  The  dread  of  punish- 
ment will  never  make  a  Mason  an  accomplice  in  so  corrupting  his 
countrymen,  and  a  teacher  of  depravity  and  barbarity.  If  any- 
where, as  has  heretofore  happened,  a  tyrant  should  send  a  satirist 
on  his  tyranny  to  be  convicted  and  punished  as  a  libeller,  in  a 
court  of  justice,  a  Mason,  if  a  juror  in  such  a  case,  though  in 
sight  of  the  scaffold  streaming  with  the  blood  of  the  innocent, 
and  within  hearing  of  the  clash  of  the  bayonets  meant  to  overawe 
the  court,  would  rescue  the  intrepid  satirist  from  the  tyrant's 
fangs,  and  send  his  officers  out  from  the  court  with  defeat  and 


Even  if  all  law  and  liberty  were  trampled  under  the  feet  of 
Jacobinical  demagogues  or  a  military  banditti,  and  great  crimes 
were  perpetrated  with  a  high  hand  against  all  who  were  deservedly 
the  objects  of  public  veneration ;  if  the  people,  overthrowing  law, 
roared  like  a  sea  around  the  courts  of  justice,  and  demanded  the 
blood  of  those  who,  during  the  temporary  fit  of  insanity  and 
drunken  delirium,  had  chanced  to  become  odious  to  it,  for  true 
words  manfully  spoken,  or  unpopular  acts  bravely  done,  the  Ma- 
sonic juror,  unawed  alike  by  the  single  or  the  many-headed  tyrant, 
would  consult  the  dictates  of  duty  alone,  and  stand  with  a  noble 
firmness  between  the  human  tigers  and  their  coveted  prey. 

The  Mason  would  much  rather  pass  his  life  hidden  in  the  re- 
cesses of  the  deepest  obscurity,  feeding  his  mind  even  with  the 
visions  and  imaginations  of  good  deeds  and  noble  actions,  than  to 
be  placed  on  the  most  splendid  throne  of  the  universe,  tantalized 
with  a  denial  of  the  practice  of  all  which  can  make  the  greatest 
situation  any  other  than  the  greatest  curse.  And  if  he  has  been 
enabled  to  lend  the  slightest  step  to  any  great  and  laudable  de- 
signs ;  if  he  has  had  any  share  in  any  measure  giving  quiet  to  pri- 
vate property  and  to  private  conscience,  making  lighter  the  yoke 
of  poverty  and  dependence,  or  relieving  deserving  men  from  op- 
pression ;  if  he  has  aided  in  securing  to  his  countrymen  that  best 
possession,  peace ;  if  he  has  joined  in  reconciling  the  different  sec- 
tions of  his  own  country  to  each  other,  and  the  people  to  the  gov- 
ernment of  their  own  creating;  and  in  teaching  the  citizen  to 
look  for  his  protection  to  the  laws  of  his  country,  and  for  his  com- 
fort to  the  good-will  of  his  countrymen ;  if  he  has  thus  taken 
his  part  with  the  best  of  men  in  the  best  of  their  actions, 
he  may  well  shut  the  book,  even  if  he  might  wish  to  read  a  page 
or  two  more.  It  is  enough  for  his  measure.  He  has  not  lived 
in  vain. 

Masonry  teaches  that  all  power  is  delegated  for  the  good,  and  not 
for  the  injury  of  the  People ;  and  that,  when  it  is  perverted  from 
the  original  purpose,  the  compact  is  broken,  and  the  right  ought 
to  be  resumed ;  that  resistance  to  power  usurped  is  not  merely  a 
duty  which  man  owes  to  himself  and  to  his  neighbor,  but  a  duty 
which  he  owes  to  his  God,  in  asserting  and  maintaining  the  rank 
which  He  gave  him  in  the  creation.  This  principle  neither  the 
rudeness  of  ignorance  can  stifle  nor  the  enervation  of  refinement 
extinguish.  It  makes  it  base  for  a  man  to  suffer  when  he  ought 


to  act ;  and,  tending  to  preserve  to  him  the  original  destinations 
of  Providence,  spurns  at  the  arrogant  assumptions  of  Tyrants  and 
vindicates  the  independent  quality  of  the  race  of  which  we  are  a 

The  wise  and  well-informed  Mason  will  not  fail  to  be  the  votary 
of  Liberty  and  Justice.  He  will  be  ready  to  exert  himself  in  their 
defence,  wherever  they  exist.  It  cannot  be  a  matter  of  indiffer- 
ence to  him  when  his  own  liberty  and  that  of  other  men,  with 
whose  merits  and  capacities  he  is  acquainted,  are  involved  in  the 
event  of  the  struggle  to  be  made ;  but  his  attachment  will  be  to 
the  cause,  as  the  cause  of  man;  and  not  merely  to  the  country. 
Wherever  there  is  a  people  that  understands  the  value  of  political 
justice,  and  is  prepared  to  assert  it,  that  is  his  country;  wherever 
he  can  most  contribute  to  the  diffusion  of  these  principles  and  the 
real  happiness  of  mankind,  that  is  his  country.  Nor  does  he  de- 
sire for  any  country  any  other  benefit  than  justice. 

The  true  Mason  identifies  the  honor  of  his  country  with  his 
own.  Nothing  more  conduces  to  the  beauty  and  glory  of  one's 
country  than  the  preservation  against  all  enemies  of  its  civil  and 
religious  liberty.  The  world  will  rcever  willingly  let  die  the  names 
of  those  patriots  who  in  her  different  ages  have  received  upon  their 
own  breasts  the  blows  aimed  by  insolent  enemies  at  the  bosom  of 
their  country. 

But  also  it  conduces,  and  in  no  small  measure,  to  the  beauty  and 
glory  of  one's  country,  that  justice  should  always  be  administered 
there  to  all  alike,  and  neither  denied,  sold,  nor  delayed  to  any  one ; 
that  the  interest  of  the  poor  should  be  looked  to,  and  none  starve 
or  be  houseless,  or  clamor  in  vain  for  work ;  that  the  child  and  the 
feeble  woman  should  not  be  overworked,  or  even  the  apprentice  or 
slave  be  stinted  of  food  or  overtasked  or  mercilessly  scourged  ;  and 
that  God's  great  laws  of  mercy,  humanity,  and  compassion  should 
be  everywhere  enforced,  not  only  by  the  statutes,  but  also  by  the 
power  of  public  opinion.  And  he  who  labors,  often  against  re- 
proach and  obloquy,  and  oftener  against  indifference  and  apathy, 
to  bring  about  that  fortunate  condition  of  things  when  that  great 
code  of  divine  law  shall  be  everywhere  and  punctually  obeyed,  is 
no  less  a  patriot  than  he  who  bares  his  bosom  to  the  hostile  steel 
in  the  ranks  of  his  country's  soldiery. 

For  fortitude  is  not  only  seen  resplendent  oh  the  field  of  battle 
and  amid  the  clash  of  arms,  but  he  displays  its  energy  under 

ELECT   OF   THE    NINE.  157 

every  difficulty  and  against  every  assailant.  He  who  wars  against 
cruelty,  oppression,  and  hoary  abuses,  fights  for  his  country's 
honor,  which  these  things  soil ;  and  her  honor  is  as  important  -as 
her  existence.  Often,  indeed,  the  warfare  against  those  abuses 
which  disgrace  one's  country  is  quite  as  hazardous  and  more  dis- 
couraging than  that  against  her  enemies  in  the  field;  and  merits 
equal,  if  not  greater  reward. 

For  those  Greeks  and  Romans  who  are  the  objects  of  our  admi- 
ration employed  hardly  any  other  virtue  in  the  extirpation  of 
tyrants,  than  that  love  of  liberty,  which  made  them  prompt  in 
seizing  the  sword,  and  gave  them  strength  to  use  it.  With  facility 
they  accomplish  the  undertaking,  amid  the  general  shout  of 
praise  and  joy ;  nor  did  they  engage  in  the  attempt  so  much  as  an 
enterprise  of  perilous  and  doubtful  issue,  as  a  contest  the  most 
glorious  in  which  virtue  could  be  signalized ;  which  infallibly  led 
to  present  recompense ;  which  bound  their  brows  with  wreaths  of 
laurel,  and  consigned  their  memories  to  immortal  fame. 

But  he  who  assails  hoary  abuses,  regarded  perhaps  with  a  super- 
stitious reverence,  and  around  which  old  laws  stand  as  ramparts 
and  bastions  to  defend  them ;  who  denounces  acts  of  cruelty  and 
outrage  on  humanity  which  make  even'  perpetrator  thereof  his 
personal  enemy,  and  perhaps  make  him  looked  upon  \vith  suspi- 
cion by  the  people  among  whom  he  lives,  as  the  assailant  of  an 
established  order  of  things  of  which  he  assails  only  the  abuses, 
and  of  laws  of  which  he  attacks  only  the  violations, — he  can 
scarcely  look  for  present  recompense,  nor  that  his  living  brows 
will  be  wreathed  with  laurel.  And  if,  contending  against  a  dark 
array  of  long-received  opinions,  superstitions,  obloquy,  and  fears, 
which  most  men  dread  more  than  they  do  an  army  terrible  with 
banners,  the  Mason  overcomes,  and  emerges  from  the  contest  vic- 
torious ;  or  if  he  does  not  conquer,  but  is  borne  down  and  swept 
away  by  the  mighty  current  of  prejudice,  passion,  and  interest ; 
in  either  case,  the  loftiness  of  spirit  which  he  displays  merits  for 
him  more  than  a  mediocrity  of  fame. 

He  has  already  lived  too  long  who  has  survived  the  ruin  of  his 
country ;  and  he  who  can  enjoy  life  after  such  an  event  deserves  not 
to  have  lived  at  all.  Xor  does  he  any  more  deserve  to  live  who  looks 
contentedly  upon  abuses  that  disgrace,  and  cruelties  that  dishonor, 
and  scenes  of  misery  and  destitution  and  brutalization  that  dis- 
figure his  country ;  or  sordid  meanness  and  ignoble  revenges  that 


make  her  a  by-word  and  a  scoff  among  all  generous  nations ;  and 
does  not  endeavor  to  remedy  or  prevent  either. 

Not  often  is  a  country  at  war ;  nor  can  every  one  be  allowed  the 
privilege  of  offering  his  heart  to  the  enemy's  bullets.  But  in  these 
patriotic  labors  of  peace,  in  preventing,  remedying,  and  reforming 
evils,  oppressions,  wrongs,  cruelties,  and  outrages,  every  Mason 
can  unite ;  and  every  one  can  effect  something,  and  share  the  honor 
and  glory  of  the  result. 

For  the  cardinal  names  in  the  history  of  the  human  mind  are 
few  and  easily  to  be  counted  up;  but  thousands  and  tens  of 
thousands  spend  their  days  in  the  preparations  which  are  to  speed 
the  predestined  change,  in  gathering  and  amassing  the  materials 
which  are  to  kindle  and  give  light  and  warmth,  when  the  fire  from 
Heaven  shall  have  descended  on  them.  Numberless  are  the  sutlers 
and  pioneers,  the  engineers  and  artisans,  who  attend  the  march  of 
intellect.  Many  move  forward  in  detachments,  and  level  the  way 
over  which  the  chariot  is  to  pass,  and  cut  down  the  obstacles  that 
would  impede  its  progress ;  and  these  too  have  their  reward.  If 
they  labor  diligently  and  faithfully  in  their  calling,  not  only  will 
they  enjoy  that  calm  contentment  which  diligence  in  the  lowliest 
task  never  fails  to  win ;  not  only  will  the  sweat  of  their  brows  be 
sweet,  and  the  sweetener  of  the  rest  that  follows ;  but,  when  the 
victory  is  at  last  achieved,  they  will  come  in  for  a  share  in  the 
glory ;  even  as  the  meanest  soldier  who  fought  at  Marathon  or  at 
King's  Mountain  became  a  sharer  in  the  glory  of  those  saving 
days ;  and  within  his  own  household  circle,  the  approbation  of 
which  approaches  the  nearest  to  that  of  an  approving  conscience, 
was  looked  upon  as  the  representative  of  all  his  brother-heroes ; 
and  could  tell  such  tales  as  made  the  tear  glisten  on  the  cheek  of 
his  wife,  and  lit  up  his  boy's  eyes  with  an  unwonted  sparkling 
eagerness.  Or,  if  he  fell  in  the  fight,  and  his  place  by  the  fireside 
and  at  the  table  at  home  was  thereafter  vacant,  that  place  was 
sacred ;  and  he  was  often  talked  of  there  in  the  long  winter  even- 
ings ;  and  his  family  was  deemed  fortunate  in  the  neighborhood, 
because  it  had  had  a  hero  in  it,  who  had  fallen  in  defence  of  his 

Remember  that  life's  length  is  not  measured  by  its  hours  and 
days,  but  by  that  which  we  have  done  therein  for  our  country  and 
kind.  A  useless  life  is  short,  if  it  last  a  century ;  but  that  of 
Alexander  was  long  as  the  life  of  the  oak,  though  he  died  at  thir- 


ty-five.  We  may  do  much  in  a  few  years,  and  we  may  do  nothing 
in  a  lifetime.  If  we  but  eat  and  drink  and  sleep,  and  let  every- 
thing go  on  around  us  as  it  pleases ;  or  if  we  live  but  to  amass 
wealth  or  gain  office  or  wear  titles,  we  might  as  well  not  have  lived 
at  all ;  nor  have  we  any  right  to  expect  immortality. 

Forget  not,  therefore,  to  what  you  have  devoted  yourself  in  this 
Degree :  defend  weakness  against  strength,  the  friendless  against 
the  great,  the  oppressed  against  the  oppressor!  Be  ever  vigilant 
and  watchful  of  the  interests  and  honor  of  your  country!  and 
may  the  Grand  Architect  of  the  Universe  give  you  that  strength 
and  wisdom  which  shall  enable  you  well  and  faithfully  to  perform 
these  high  duties ! 


[Elu  of  the  Fifteen.] 

THIS  Degree  is  devoted  to  the  same  objects  as  those  of  the  Elu 
of  Nine  ;  and  also  to  the  causv*  of  Toleration  and  Liberality  against 
Fanaticism  and  Persecution,  political  and  religious ;  and  to  that  of 
Education,  Instruction,  and  Enlightenment  against  Error,  Barbar- 
ism, and  Ignorance.  To  these  objects  you  have  irrevocably  and 
forever  devoted  your  hand,  your  heart,  and  your  intellect ;  and 
whenever  in  your  presence  a  Chapter  of  this  Degree  is  opened,  you 
will  be  most  solemnly  reminded  of  your  vows  here  taken  at  the 

Toleration,  holding  that  every  other  man  has  the  same  right  to 
his  opinion  and  faith  that  we  have  to  ours;  and  liberality,  holding 
that  as  no  human  being  can  with  certainty  say,  in  the  clash  and 
conflict  of  hostile  faiths  and  creeds,  what  is  truth,  or  that  he  is 
snrcl\  in  possession  of  it,  so  every  one  should  feel  that  it  is  quite 
possible  that  another  equally  honest  and  sincere  with  himself,  and 
yet  holding  the  contrary  opinion,  may  himself  be  in  possession  of 
the  truth,  and  that  whatever  one  firmly  and  conscientiously  be- 
lieves, is  truth,  to  him — these  are  the  mortal  enemies  of  that  fanat- 
icism which  persecutes  for  opinion's  sake,  and  initiates  crusades 
against  whatever  it,  in  its  imaginary  holiness,  deems  to  be  contrary 
to  the  law  of  God  or  verity  of  dogma.  And  education,  instruc- 
tion, and  enlightenment  are  the  most  certain  means  by  which 
fanaticism  and  intolerance  can  be  rendered  powerless. 

No  true  Mason  scoffs  ?.t  honest  convictions  .and  an  ardent  zeal 
in  the  cause  of  what  one  believes  to  be  truth  and  justice.  But  he 


does  absolutely  deny  the  right  of  any  man  to  assume  the  preroga- 
tive of  Deity,  and  condemn  another's  faith  and  opinions  as  deserv- 
ing to  be  punished  because  heretical.  Nor  does  he  approve  the 
course  of  those  who  endanger  the  peace  and  quiet  of  great  nations, 
and  the  best  interest  of  their  own  race  by  indulging  in  a  chimeri- 
cal and  visionary  philanthropy — a  luxury  which  chiefly  consists  in 
drawing  their  robes  around  them  to  avoid  contact  with  their  fel- 
lows, and  proclaiming  themselves  holier  than  they. 

For  he  knows  that  such  follies  are  often  more  calamitous  than 
the  ambition  of  kings ;  and  that  intolerance  and  bigotry  have 
been  infinitely  greater  curses  to  mankind  than  ignorance  and  error. 
Better  any  error  than  persecution !  Better  any  opinion  than  the 
thumb-screw,  the  rack,  and  the  stake !  And  he  knows  also  how 
unspeakably  absurd  it  is,  for  a  creature  to  whom  himself  and 
everything  around  him  are  mysteries,  to  torture  and  slay  others, 
because  they  cannot  think  as  he  does  in  regard  to  the  profoundest 
of  those  mysteries,  to  understand  which  is  utterly  beyond  the 
comprehension  of  either  the  persecutor  or  the  persecuted. 

Masonry  is  not  a  religion.  He  who  makes  of  it  a  religious 
belief,  falsifies  and  denaturalizes  it.  The  Brahmin,  the  Jew,  the 
Mahometan,  the  Catholic,  the  Protestant,  each  professing  his  pe- 
culiar religion,  sanctioned  by  the  laws,  by  time,  and  by  climate, 
must  needs  retain  it,  and  cannot  have  two  religions ;  for  the  social 
and  sacred  laws  adapted  to  the  usages,  manners,  and  prejudices  of 
particular  countries,  are  the  work  of  men. 

But  Masonry  teaches,  and  has  preserved  in  their  purity,  the  car- 
dinal tenets  of  the  old  primitive  faith,  which  underlie  and  are  the 
foundation  of  all  religions.  All  that  ever  existed  have  had  a  basis 
of  truth ;  and  all  have  overlaid  that  truth  with  errors.  The  prim- 
itive truths  taught  by  the  Redeemer  wer-e  sooner  corrupted,  and 
intermingled  and  alloyed  with  fictions  than  when  taught  to  the 
first  of  our  race.  Masonry  is  the  universal  morality  which  is  suit- 
able to  the  inhabitants  of  every  clime,  to  the  man  of  every  creed. 
It  has  taught  no  doctrines,  except  those  truths  that  tend  directly 
to  the  well-being  of  man ;  and  those  who  have  attempted  to  direct 
it  toward  useless  vengeance,  political  ends,  and  Jesuitism,  have 
merely  perverted  it  to  purposes  foreign  to  its  pure  spirit  and  real 

Mankind  outgrows  the  sacrifices  and  the  mythologies  of  the 
childhood  of  the  world.  Yet  it  is  easy  for  human  indolence  to 


linger  near  these  helps,  and  refuse  to  pass  further  on.  So  the  un- 
adventurous  Nomad  in  the  Tartarian  wild  keeps  his  flock  in  the 
same  close-cropped  circle  where  they  first  learned  to  browse,  while 
the  progressive  man  roves  ever  forth  "to  fresh  fields  and  pastures 

The  latter  is  the  true  Mason ;  and  the  best  and  indeed  the  only 
good  Mason  is  he  who  with  the  power  of  business  does  the  work  of 
life;  the  upright  mechanic,  merchant,  or  farmer,  the  man  with 
the  power  of  thought,  of  justice,  or  of  love,  he  whose  whole  life 
is  one  great  act  of  performance  of  Masonic  duty.  The  natural 
use  of  the  strength  of  a  strong  man  or  the  wisdom  of  a  wise  one, 
is  to  do  the  zvork  of  a  strong  man  or  a  wise  one.  The  natural 
work  of  Masonry  is  practical  life ;  the  use  of  all  the  faculties  in 
their  proper  spheres,  and  for  their  natural  function.  Love  of 
Truth,  justice,  and  generosity  as  attributes  of  God,  must  appear  in 
a  life  marked  by  these  qualities ;  that  is  the  only  effectual  ordi- 
nance of  Masonry.  A  profession  of  one's  convictions,  joining  the 
Order,  assuming  the  obligations,  assisting  at  the  ceremonies,  are 
of  the  same  value  in  science  as  in  Masonry ;  the  natural  form  of 
Masonry  is  goodness,  morality,  living  a  true,  just,  affectionate, 
self-faithful  life,  from  the  motive  of  a  good  man.  It  is  loyal  obe- 
dience to  God's  law. 

The  good  Mason  does  the  good  thing  which  comes  in  his  way, 
and  because  it  comes  in  his  way;  from  a  love  of  duty,  and  not 
merely  because  a  law,  enacted  by  man  or  God,  commands  his  will 
to  do  it.  He  is  true  to  his  mind,  his  conscience,  heart,  and  soul, 
and  feels  small  temptation  to  do  to  others  what  he  would  not  wish 
to  receive  from  them.  He  will  deny  himself  for  the  sake  of  his 
brother  near  at  hand.  His  desire  attracts  in  the  line  of  his  duty, 
both  being  in  conjunction.  Not  in  vain  does  the  poor  or  the  op- 
pressed look  up  to  him.  You  find  such  men  in  al!  Christian  sects, 
Protestant  and  Catholic,  in  all  the  great  religious  parties  of  the 
civilized  world,  among  Buddhists,  Mahometans,  and  Jews.  They 
are  kind  fathers,  generous  citizens,  unimpeachable  in  their  busi- 
ness, beautiful  in  their  daily  lives.  You  see  their  Masonry  in  their 
work  and  in  their  play.  It  appears  in  all  the  forms  of  their  ac- 
tivity, individual,  domestic,  social,  ecclesiastical,  or  political.  True 
Masonry  within  must  be  morality  without  It  must  become 
eminent  morality,  which  is  philanthropy.  The  true  Mason  loves 
not  only  his  kindred  and  his  country,  but  all  mankind ;  not  only 


the  good,  but  also  the  evil,  among  his  brethren.  He  has  more 
goodness  than  the  channels  of  his  daily  life  will  hold.  It  runs 
over  the  banks,  to  water  and  to  feed  a  thousand  thirsty  plants. 
Not  content  with  the  duty  that  lies  along  his  track,  he  goes  out  to 
seek  it ;  not  only  willing,  he  has  a  salient  longing  to  do  good,  to 
spread  his  truth,  his  justice,  his  generosity,  his  Masonry  over  all 
the  world.  His  dai-ly  life  is  a  profession  of  his  Masonry,  published 
in  perpetual  good-will  to  men.  He  can  not  be  a  persecutor. 

Not  more  naturally  does  the  beaver  build  or  the  mocking-bird 
sing  his  own  wild,  gushing  melody,  than  the  true  Mason  lives  in 
this  beautiful  outward  life.  So  from  the  perennial  spring  swells 
forth  the  stream,  to  quicken  the  meadow  with  new  access  of  green, 
and  perfect  beauty  bursting  into  bloom.  Thus  Masonry  does  the 
work  it  was  meant  to  do.  The  Mason  does  not  sigh  and  weep,  and 
make  grimaces.  He  lives  right  on.  If  his  life  is,  as  whose  is  not, 
marked  with  errors,  and  with  sins,  he  ploughs  over  the  barren 
spot  with  his  remorse,  sows  with  new  seed,  and  the  old  desert  blos- 
soms like  a  rose.  He  is  not  confined  to  set  forms  of  thought,  of 
action,  or  of  feeling.  He  accepts  what  his  mind  regards  as  true, 
what  his  conscience  decides  is  right,  what  his  heart  deems  generous 
and  noble ;  and  all  else  he  puts  far  from  him.  Though  the  ancient 
and  the  honorable  of  the  Earth  bid  him  bow  down  to  them,  his 
stubborn  knees  bend  only  at  the  bidding  of  his  manly  soul.  His 
Masonry  is  his  freedom  before  God,  not  his  bondage  unto  men.  His 
mind  acts  after  the  universal  law  of  the  intellect,  his  conscience 
according  to  the  universal  moral  law,  his  affections  and  his  soul 
after  the  universal  law  of  each,  and  so  he  is  strong  with  the 
strength  of  God,  in  this  four-fold  way  communicating  with  Him. 

The  old  theologies,  the  philosophies  of  religion  of  ancient  times, 
will  not  suffice  us  now.  The  duties  of  life  are  to  be  done ;  we  are 
to  do  them,  consciously  obedient  to  the  law  of  God,  not  atheistic- 
ally,  loving  only  our  selfish  gain.  There  are  sins  of  trade  to  be 
corrected.  Everywhere  morality  and  philanthropy  are  needed. 
There  are  errors  to  be  made  way  with,  and  their  place  supplied 
with  new  truths,  radiant  with  the  glories  of  Heaven.  There  are 
great  wrongs  and  evils,  in  Church  and  State,  in  domestic,  social, 
and  public  life,  to  be  righted  and  outgrown.  Masonry  cannot  in 
our  age  forsake  the  broad  way  of  life.  She  must  journey  on  in  the 
open  street,  appear  in  the  crowded  square,  and  teach  men  by  her 
deeds,  her  life  more  eloquent  than  any  lips. 


This  Degree  is  chiefly  devoted  to  TOLERATION  ;  and  it  inculcates 
in  the  strongest  manner  that  great  leading  idea  of  the  Ancient 
Art.  that  a  belief  in  the  one  True  God.  and  a  moral  and  virtuous 
life,  constitute  the  only  religious  requisites  needed  to  enable  a  man 
to  be  a  Mason. 

Masonry  has  ever  the  most  vivid  remembrance  of  the  terrible 
and  artificial  tonvients  that  were  used  to  put  down  new  forms  of 
religion  or  extinguish  the  old.  It  sees  with  the  eye  of  memory  the 
ruthless  extermination  of  all  the  people  of  all  sexes  and  ages,  be- 
cause it  was  their  misfortune  not  to  know  the  God  of  the  Hebrews, 
or  to  worship  Him  under  the  wrong  name,  by  the  savage  troops  of 
Moses  and  Joshua.  It  sees  the  thumb-screws  and  the  racks,  the 
whip,  the  gallows,  and  the  stake,  the  victims  of  Diocletian  and 
Alva,  the  miserable  Covenanters,  the  Non-Conformists,  Servetus 
burned,  and  the  unoffending  Quaker  hung.  It  sees  Cranmer  hold 
his  arm,  now  no  longer  erring,  in  the  flame  until  the  hand  drops 
off  in  the  consuming  heat.  It  sees  the  persecutions  of  Peter  and 
Paul,  the  martyrdom  of  Stephen,  the  trials  of  Ignatius,  Polycarp, 
Justin,  and  Irenasus ;  and  then  in  turn  the  sufferings  of  the 
wretched  Pagans  under  the  Christian  Emperors,  as  of  the  Papists 
in  Ireland  and  under  Elizabeth  and  the  bloated  Henry.  The  Ro- 
man Virgin  naked  before  the  hungry  lions ;  young  Margaret  Gra- 
ham tied  to  a  stake  at  low-water  mark,  and  there  left  to  drown, 
singing  hymns  to  God  until  the  savage  waters  broke  over  her 
head ;  and  all  that  in  all  ages  have  suffered  by  hunger  and  naked- 
ness, peril  and  prison,  the  rack,  the  stake,  and  the  sword, — it  sees 
them  all,  and  shudders  at  the  long  roll  of  human  atrocities.  And 
it  sees  also  the  oppression  still  practised  in  the  name  of  religion — 
men  shot  in  a  Christian  jail  in  Christian  Italy  for  reading  the 
Christian  Bible ;  in  almost  every  Christian  State,  laws  forbidding 
freedom  of  speech  on  matters  relating  to  Christianity ;  and  the 
gallows  reaching  its  arm  over  the  pulpit. 

The  fires  of  Moloch  in  Syria,  the  harsh  mutilations  in  the  name 
of  Astarte,  Cybele,  Jehovah ;  the  barbarities  of  imperial  Pagan 
Torturers ;  the  still  grosser  torments  which  Roman-Gothic  Chris- 
tians in  Italy  and  Spain  heaped  on  their  brother-men ;  the  fiendish 
cruelties  to  which  Switzerland,  France,  the  Netherlands,  England, 
Scotland,  Ireland,  America,  have  been  witnesses,  are  none  too  pow- 
erful to  warn  man  of  the  unspeakable  evils  whicfi  follow  from  mis- 
takes and  errors  in  the  matter  of  religion,  and  especially  from 


investing  the  God  of  Love  with  the  cruel  and  vindictive  pas- 
sions of  erring  humanity,  and  making  blood  to  have  a  sweet 
savor  in  his  nostrils,  and  groans  of  agony  to  be  delicious  to  his 

Man  never  had  the  right  to  usurp  the  unexercised  prerogative 
of  God,  and  condemn  and  punish  another  for  his  belief.  Born  in 
a  Protestant  land,  we  are  of  that  faith.  If  we  had  opened  our  eyes 
to  the  light  under  the  shadows  of  St.  Peter's  at  Rome,  we  should 
have  been  devout  Catholics ;  born  in  the  Jewish  quarter  of  Aleppo, 
we  should  have  contemned  Christ  as  an  imposter;  in  Constanti- 
nople, we  should  have  cried  "Allah  il  Allah,  God  is  great  and  Ma- 
homet is  his  prophet!"  Birth,  place,  and  education  give  us  our 
faith.  Few  believe  in  any  religion  because  they  have  examined 
the  evidences  of  its  authenticity,  and  made  up  a  formal  judgment, 
upon  weighing  the  testimony.  Not  one  man  in  ten  thousand 
knows  anything  about  the  proofs  of  his  faith.  We  believe  what 
we  are  taught ;  and  those  are  most  fanatical  who  know  least  of  the 
evidences  on  which  their  creed  is  based.  Facts  and  testimony  are 
not,  except  in  very  rare  instances,  the  ground-wfork  of  faith.  It  is 
an  imperative  law  of  God's  Economy,  unyielding  and  inflexible  as 
Himself,  that  man  shall  accept  without  question  the  belief  of  those 
among  whom  he  is  born  and  reared ;  the  faith  so  made  a  part  of 
his  nature  resists  all  evidence  to  the  contrary ;  and  he  \vill  disbe- 
lieve even  the  evidence  of  his  own  senses,  rather  than  yield  up  the 
religious  belief  which  has  grown  up  in  him,  flesh  of  his  flesh  and 
bone  of  his  bone. 

What  is  truth  to  me  is  not  truth  to  another.  The  same  argu- 
ments and  evidences  that  convince  one  mind  make  no  impression 
on  another.  This  difference  is  in  men  at  their  birth.  No  man  is 
entitled  positively  to  assert  that  he  is  right,  where  other  men, 
equally  intelligent  and  equally  well-informed,  hold  directly  the 
opposite  opinion.  Each  thinks  it  impossible  for  the  other  to  be 
sincere,  and  each,  as  to  that,  is  equally  in  error.  "What  is  iruth?" 
was  a  profound  question,  the  most  suggestive  one  ever  put  to  man. 
Many  beliefs  of  former  and  present  times  seem  incomprehensible. 
They  startle  us  with  a  new  glimpse  into  the  human  soul,  that  mys- 
terious thing,  more  mysterious  the  more  we  note  its  workings. 
Here  is  a  man  superior  to  myself  in  intellect  and  learning;  and 
yet  he  sincerely  believes  what  seems  to  me  too  absurd  to  merit 
confutation ;  and  I  cannot  conceive,  and  sincere!}'  do  not  believe, 


that  he  is  both  sane  and  honest.  And  yet  he  is  both.  His  reason 
is  as  perfect  as  mine,  and  he  is  as  honest  as  I. 

The  fancies  of  a  lunatic  are  realities,  to  him.  Our  dreams  are 
realities  while  they  last;  and,  in  the  Past,  no  more  wnreal  than 
what  we  have  acted  in  our  waking  hours.  No  man  can  say  that 
he  hath  as  sure  possession  of  the  truth  as  of  a  chattel.  When 
men  entertain  opinions  diametrically  opposed  to  each  other,  and 
each  is  honest,  who  shall  decide  which  hath  the  Truth ;  and  how 
can  either  say  with  certainty  that  he  hath  it?  We  know  not 
what  is  the  truth.  That  we  ourselves  believe  and  feel  absolutely 
certain  that  our  own  belief  is  true,  is  in  reality  not  the  slightest 
proof  of  the  fact,  seem  it  never  so  certain  and  incapable  of  doubt 
to  us.  No  man  is  responsible  for  the  Tightness  of  his  faith;  but 
only  for  the  up  Tightness  of  it. 

Therefore  no  man  hath  or  ever  had  a  right  to  persecute  another 
for  his  belief ;  for  there  cannot  be  two  antagonistic  rights ;  and  if 
one  can  persecute  another,  because  he  himself  is  satisfied  that  the 
belief  of  that  other  is  erroneous,  the  other  has,  for  the  same  rea- 
son, equally  as  certain  a  right  to  persecute  him. 

The  truth  comes  to  us  tinged  and  colored  with  our  prejudices 
and  our  preconceptions,  which  are  as  old  as  ourselves,  and  strong 
with  a  divine  force.  It  comes  to  us  as  the  image  of  a  rod  comes  to 
us  through  the  water,  bent  and  distorted.  An  argument  sinks 
into  and  convinces  the  mind  of  one  man,  while  from  that  of  ano- 
ther it  rebounds  like  a  ball  of  ivory  dropped  on  marble.  It  is  no 
merit  in  a  man  to  have  a  particular  faith,  excellent  and  sound  and 
philosophic  as  it  may  be,  when  he  imbibed  it  with  his  mother's 
milk.  It  is  no  more  a  merit  than  his  prejudices  and  his  passions. 

The  sincere  Moslem  has  as  much  right  to  persecute  us,  as  we  to 
persecute  him ;  and  therefore  Masonry  wisely  requires  no  more 
than  a  belief  in  One  Great  Ail-Powerful  Deity,  the  Father  and 
Preserver  of  the  Universe.  Therefore  it  is  she  teaches  her  votaries 
that  toleration  is  one  of  the  chief  duties  of  every  good  Mason,  a 
component  part  of  that  charity  without  which  we  are  mere  hollow 
images  of  true  Masons,  mere  sounding  brass  and  tinkling  cymbals. 

No  evil  hath  so  afflicted  the  world  as  intolerance  of  religious 
opinion.  The  human  beings  it  has  slain  in  various  ways,  if  once 
and  together  brought  to  life,  would  make  a  nation  of  people ;  left 
to  live  and  increase,  would  have  doubled  the  population  of  the 
civilized  portion  of  the  globe ;  among  which  civilized  portion  it 


chiefly  is  that  religious  wars  are  waged.  The  treasure  and  the 
human  labor  thus  lost  would  have  made  the  earth  a  garden,  in 
which,  but  for  his  evil  passions,  man  might  now  be  as  happy  as  in 

No  man  truly  obeys  the  Masonic  law  who  merely  tolerates 
those  whose  religious  opinions  are  opposed  to  his  own.  Every 
man's  opinions  are  his  own  private  property,  and  the  rights  of  all 
men  to  maintain  er  ch  his  own  are  perfectly  equal.  Merely  to  tol- 
erate, to  bear  with  an  opposing  opinion,  is  to  assume  it  to  be  he- 
retical ;  and  assert  the  right  to  persecute,  if  we  would ;  and  claim 
our  toleration  of  :'t  as  a  merit.  The  Mason's  creed  goes  further 
than  that.  No  rr  in,  it  holds,  has  any  right  in  any  way  to  inter- 
fere with  the  religious  belief  of  another.  It  holds  that  each  man 
is  absolutely  sovereign  as  to  his  own  belief,  and  that  belief  is  a 
matter  absolutely  foreign  to  all  who  do  not  entertain  the  same 
belief ;  and  that,  if  there  were  any  right  of  persecution  at  all,  it 
would  in  all  cases  be  a  mutual  right;  because  one  party  has  the 
same  right  as  the  other  to  sit  as  judge  in  his  own  case ;  and  God  is 
the  only  magistrate  that  can  rightfully  decide  between  them.  To 
that  great  Judge,  Masonry  refers  the  matter;  and  opening  wide 
its  portals,  it  invites  to  enter  there  and  live  in  peace  and  harmony, 
the  Protestant,  the  Catholic,  the  Jew,  the  Moslem ;  every  man 
who  will  lead  a  truly  virtuous  and  moral  life,  love  his  brethren, 
minister  to  the  sick  and  distressed,  and  believe  in  the  ONE,  Ail- 
Powerful,  All-Wise,  everywhere-Present  GOD,  Architect,  Creator, 
and  Preserver  of  all  things,  by  whose  universal  law  of  Harmony 
ever  rolls  on  this  universe,  the  great,  vast,  infinite  circle  of  suc- 
ce-ssive  Dea-th  and  Life : — to  whose  INEFFABLE  NAME  let  all  true 
Masons  pay  profoundest  homage !  for  whose  thousand  blessings 
poured  upon  us,  let  us  feel  the  sincerest  gratitude,  now,  henceforth, 
and  forever! 

We  may  well  be  tolerant  of  each  other's  creed ;  fo-r  in  every 
faith  there  are  excellent  moral  precepts.  Far  in  the  South  of 
Asia,  Zoroaster  taught  this  doctrine:  "On  commencing  a  journey, 
the  Faithful  should  turn  his  thoughts  toward  Ormuzd,  and  confess 
him,  in  the  purity  of  his  heart,  to  be  King  of  the  World;  he 
should  love  him,  do  him  homage,  and  serve  him.  He  must  be 
upright  and  charitable,  despise  the  pleasures  of  the  body,  and  avoid 
pride  and  haughtiness,  and  vice  in  all  its  forms,  and  especially 
falsehood,  one  of  the  basest  sins  of  which  man  can  be  guilty.  He 


must  forget  injuries  and  not  avenge  himself.  He  must  honor  the 
memory  of  his  parents  and  relatives.  At  night,  before  retiring  to 
sleep,  he  should  rigorously  examine  his  conscience,  and  repent  of 
the  faults  which  weakness  or  ill-fortune  had  caused  him  to  com- 
mit." He  was  required  to  pray  for  strength  to  persevere  in  the 
Good,  and  to  obtain  forgiveness  for  his  errors.  It  was  his  duty  to 
confess  his  faults  to  a  Magus,  or  to  a  layman  renowned  for  his  vir- 
tues, or  to  the  Sun.  Fasting  and  maceration  were  prohibited ;  and, 
on  the  contrary,  it  was  his  duty  suitably  to  nourish  the  body  and 
to  maintain  its  vigor,  that  his  soul  might  be  strong  to  resist  the 
Genius  of  Darkness ;  that  he  might  more  attentively  read  the 
Divine  Word,  and  have  more  courage  to  perform  noble  deeds. 

And  in  the  North  of  Europe  the  Druids  taught  devotion  to 
friends,  indulgence  for  recr-  rocal  wrongs,  love  of  deserved  praise, 
prudence,  humanity,  hospitality,  respect  for  old  age,  disregard  of 
the  future,  temperance,  contempt  of  death,  and  a  chivalrous  defer- 
ence to  woman.  Listen  to  these  maxims  from  the  Hava  Maal,  or 
Sublime  Book  of  Odin  : 

"If  thou  hast  a  friend,  visit  him  often ;  the  path  will  grow  over 
with  grass,  and  the  trees  soon  cover  it,  if  thou  dost  not  constantly 
walk  upon  it.  He  is  a  faithful  friend,  who,  having  but  two  loaves, 
gives  his  friend  one.  Be  never  first  to  break  with  thy  friend ;  sor- 
row wrings  the  heart  of  him  who  has  no  one  save  himself  with 
whom  to  take  counsel.  There  is  no  virtu©us  man  who  has  not 
some  vice,  no  bad  man  who  has  not  some  virtue.  Happy  he  who 
obtains  the  praise  and  good-will  of  men ;  for  all  that  depends  on 
the  will  of  another  is  hazardous  and  uncertain.  Riches  flit  away 
in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye ;  they  are  the  most  inconstant  of 
friends ;  flocks  and  herds  perish,  parents  die,  friends  are  not  im- 
mortal, thou  thyself  diest;  I  know  but  one  thing  that  doth  not 
die.  the  judgment  that  is  passed  upon  the  dead.  Be  humane  to- 
ward those  whom  thou  meetest  on  the  road.  If  the.  guest  that 
cometh  to  thy  house  is  a-cold,  give  him  fire;  the  man  who  has 
journeyed  over  the  mountains  needs  food  and  dry  garments.  Mock 
not  at  the  aged;  for  words  full  of  sense  come  often  from  the 
wrinkles  of  age.  Be  moderately  wise,  and  not  over-prudent.  Let 
no  one  seek  to  know  his  destiny,  if  he  would  sleep  tranquilly. 
There  is  no  malady  more  cruel  than  to  be  discontented  with  our 
lot.  The  glutton  eats  his  own  death ;  and  the  wise  man  laughs  at 
the  fool's  greediness.  Nothing  is  more  injurious  to  the  young  than 


excessive  drinking;  the  more  one  drinks  the  more  he  loses  his 
reason ;  the  bird  of  forgetfulness  sings  before  those  who  intoxicate 
themselves,  and  wiles  away  their  souls.  Man  devoid  of  sense  be- 
lieves he  will  live  always  rf  he  avoids  war ;  but,  if  the  lances  spare 
him,  old  age  will  give  him  no  quarter.  Better  live  well  than  live 
long.  When  a  man  lights  a  fire  in  his  house,  death  comes  before 
it  goes  out." 

And  thus  said  the  Indian  books :  "Honor  thy  father  and  mother. 
Never  forget  the  benefits  thou  hast  received.  Learn  while  thou 
art  young.  Be  submissive  to  the  laws  of  thy  country.  Seek  the 
company  of  virtuous  men.  Speak  not  of  God  but  with  respect. 
Live  on  good  terms  with  thy  fellow-citizens.  Remain  in  thy  proper 
place.  Speak  ill  of  no  one.  Mock  at  the  bodily  infirmities  of 
none.  Pursue  not  unrelentingly  a  conquered  enemy.  Strive  to 
acquire  a  good  reputation.  The  best  bread  is  that  for  which  one 
is  indebted  to  his  own  labor.  Take  counsel  with  wise  men.  The 
more  one  learns,  the  more  he  acquires  the  faculty  of  learning. 
Knowledge  is  the  most  permanent  wealth.  As  well  be  dumb  as 
ignorant.  The  true  use  of  knowledge  is  to  distinguish  good  from 
evil.  Be  not  a  subject  of  shame  to  thy  parents.  What  one  learns 
in  youth  endures  like  the  engraving  upon  a  rock.  He  is  wise  who 
knows  himself.  Let  thy  books  be  thy  best  friends.  When  thou 
attainest  an  hundred  years,  cease  to  learn.  Wisdom  is  solidly 
planted,  even  on  the  shifting  ocean.  Deceive  no  one,  not  even 
thine  enemy.  Wisdom  is  a  treasure  that  everywhere  commands 
its  value.  Speak  mildly,  even  to  the  poor.  It  is  sweeter  to  for- 
give than  to  take  vengeance.  Gaming  and  quarrels  lead  to  misery. 
There  is  no  true  merit  without  the  practice  of  virtue.  To  honor 
our  mother  is  the  most  fitting  homage  we  can  pay  the  Divinity. 
There  is  no  tranquil  sleep  without  a  clear  conscience.  He  badly 
understands  his  interest  who  breaks  his  word." 

Twenty- four  centuries  ago  these  were  the  Chinese  Ethics : 

"The  Philosopher  [Confucius]  said,  'SAN!  my  doctrine  is  sim- 
ple, and  easy  to  be  understood.'  THSENG-TSEU  replied,  'that  is 
certain.'  The  Philosopher  having  gone  out,  the  disciples  asked 
what  their  master  had  meant  to  say.  THSENG-TSEU  responded, 
'The  doctrine  of  our  Master  consists  solely  in  being  upright  of 
heart,  and  loving  our  neighbor  as  we  love  ourself.'  " 

About  a  century  later,  the  Hebrew  law  said,  "If  any  man  hate 
his  neighbor  .  .  .  then  shall  ye  do  unto  him,  as  he  had  thought  to 


do  unto  his  brother  .  .  .  Better  is  a  neighbor  that  is  near,  than  a 
brother  afar  off  ...  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor  as  thyself." 

In  the  same  fifth  century  before  Christ,  SOCRATES  the  Grecian 
said,  "Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor  as  thyself." 

Three  generations  earlier,  ZOROASTER  had  said  to  the  Persians : 
"Offer  up  thy  grateful  prayers  to  the  Lord,  the  most  just  and  pure 
Ormuzd,  the  supreme  and  adorable  God.  who  thus  declared  to  his 
Prophet  Zerdusht :  'Hold  it  not  meet  to  do  unto  others  what  thou 
wouldst  not  desire  done  unto  thyself;  do  that  unto  the  people, 
which,  when  done  to  thyself,  is  not  disagreeable  unto  thee.'  " 

The  same  doctrine  had  been  long  taught  in  the  schools  of  Bab- 
ylon, Alexandria,  and  Jerusalem.  A  Pagan  declared  to  the  Phar- 
isee HILLEL  that  he  was  ready  to  embrace  the  Jewish  religion,  if 
he  could  make  known  to  him  in  a  few  words  a  summary  of  the 
whole  law  of  Moses.  "That  which  thou  likest  not  done  to  thy- 
self," said  Hillel,  "do  it  not  unto  thy  neighbor.  Therein  is  all  the 
law :  the  rest  is  nothing  but  the  commentary  upon  it." 

"Nothing  is  more  natural,"  said  CONFUCIUS,  "nothing  more 
simple,  than  the  principles  of  that  morality  which  I  endeavor,  by 
salutary  maxims,  to  inculcate  in  you  ...  It  is  humanity ;  which 
is  to  say,  that  universal  charity  among  all  of  our  species,  without 
distinction.  It  is  uprightness;  that  is,  that  rectitude  of  spirit 
and  of  heart,  which  makes  one  seek  for  truth  in  everything,  and 
desire  it,  without  deceiving  one's  self  or  others.  It  is,  finally,  sin- 
cerity or  good  faith ;  which  is  to  say,  that  frankness,  that  open- 
ness of  heart,  tempered  by  self-reliance,  which  excludes  all  feints 
and  all  disguising,  as  much  in  speech  as  in  action." 

To  diffuse  useful  information,  to  further  intellectual  refinement, 
sure  forerunner  of  moral  improvement,  to  hasten  the  coming  of 
the  great  day,  when  the  dawn  of  general  knowledge  shall  chase 
away  the  lazy,  lingering  mists  of  ignorance  and  error,  even  from 
the  base  of  the  great  social  pyramid,  is  indeed  a  high  calling,  in 
which  the  most  splendid  talents  and  consummate  virtue  may  well 
press  onward,  eager  to  bear  a  part.  From  the  Masonic  ranks 
ought  to  go  forth  those  whose  genius  and  not  their  ancestry  enno- 
ble them,  to  open  to  all  ranks  the  temple  of  science,  and  by  their 
own  example  to  make  the  humblest  men  emulous  to  climb  steps 
no  longer  inaccessible,  and  enter  the  unfolded  gates  burning  in 
the  sun. 

The  highest  intellectual  cultivation  is  perfectly  compatible  with 


the  daily  cares  and  toils,  of  working-men.  A  keen  relish  for  the 
most  sublime  truths  of  science  belongs  alike  to  every  class  of 
mankind.  And,  as  philosophy  was  taught  in  the  sacred  groves  of 
Athens,  and  under  the  Portico,  and  in  the  old  Temples  of  Egypt 
and  India,  so  in  our  Lodges  ought  Knowledge  to  be  dispensed,  the 
Sciences  taught,  and  the  Lectures  become  like  the  teachings  of 
Socrates  and  Plato,  of  Agassiz  and  Cousin. 

Real  knowledge  never  permitted  either  turbulence  or  unbelief; 
but  its  progress  is  the  forerunner  of  liberality  and  enlightened 
toleration.  Whoso  dreads  these  may  well  tremble ;  for  he  may  be 
well  assured  that  their  day  is  at  length  come,  and  must  put  to 
speedy  flight  the  evil  spirits  of  tyranny  and  persecution,  which 
haunted  the  long  night  now  gone  down  the  sky.  And  it  is  to  be 
hoped  that  the  time  will  soon  arrive,  when,  as  men  will  no  longer 
suffer  themselves  to  be  led  blindfold  in  ignorance,  so  will  they  no 
more  yield  to  the  vile  principle  of  judging  and  treating  their  fel- 
low-creatures, not  according  to  the  intrinsic  merit  of  their  actions, 
but  according  to  the  accidental  and  involuntary  coincidence  of 
their  opinions. 

Whenever  we  come  to  treat  with  entire  respect  those  who  con- 
scientiously differ  from  ourselves,  the  only  practical  effect  of  a  dif- 
ference will  be,  to  make  us  enlighten  the  ignorance  on  one  side  or 
the  other,  from  which  it  springs,  by  instructing  them,  if  it  be 
theirs ;  ourselves,  if  it  be  our  own ;  to  the  end  that  the  only  kind 
of  unanimity  may  be  produced  which  is  desirable  among  rational 
beings, — the  agreement  proceeding  from  full  conviction  after  the 
freest  discussion. 

The  Elu  of  Fifteen  ought  therefore  to  take  the  lead  of  his  fel- 
low-citizens, not  in  frivolous  amusements,  not  in  the  degrading 
pursuits  of  the  ambitious  vulgar;  but  in  the  truly  noble  task  of 
enlightening  the  mass  of  his  countrymen,  and  of  leaving  his  own 
name  encircled,  not  with  barbaric  splendor,  or  attached  to  courtly 
gewgaws,  but  illustrated  by  the  honors  most  worthy  of  our  ra- 
tional nature ;  coupled  with  the  diffusion  of  knowledge,  and  grate- 
fully pronounced  by  a  few,  at  least,  whom  his  wise  beneficence  has 
rescued  from  ignorance  and  vice. 

We  say  to  him,  in  the  words  of  the  great  Roman :  "Men  in  no 
respect  so  nearly  approach  to  the  Deity,  as  when  they  confer  bene- 
fits on  men.  To  serve  and  do  good  to  as  many  as  possible, — there 
is  nothing  greater  in  your  fortune  than  that  you  should  be  able, 


and  nothing  finer  in  your  nature,  than  that  you  should  be  desir- 
ous to  do  this."  This  is  the  true  mark  for  the  aim  of  every  man 
and  Mason  who  either  prizes  the  enjoyment  of  pure  happiness,  or 
sets  a  right  value  upon  a  high  and  unsullied  renown.  And  if  the 
benefactors  of  mankind,  when  they  rest  from  their  noble  labors, 
shall  be  permitted  to  enjoy  hereafter,  as  an  appropriate  reward  of 
their  virtue,  the  privilege  of  looking  down  upon  the  blessings  with 
which  their  exertions  and  charities,  and  perhaps  their  toils  and 
sufferings  have  clothed  the  scene  of  their  former  existence,  it  will 
not,  in  a  state  of  exalted  purity  and  wisdom,  be  the  founders  of 
mighty  dynasties,  the  conquerors  of  new  empires,  the  Caesars, 
Alexanders,  and  Tamerlanes ;  nor  the  mere  Kings  and  Counsel- 
lors, Presidents  and  Senators,  who  have  lived  for  their  party 
chiefly,  and  for  their  country  only  incidentally,  often  sacrificing  to 
their  own  aggrandizement  or  that  of  their  faction  the  good  of  their 
fellow-creatures ; — it  will  not  be  they  who  will  be  gratified  by  con- 
templating the  monuments  of  their  inglorious  fame;  but  those 
will  enjoy  that  delight  and  march  in  that  triumph,  who  can  trace 
the  remote  effects  of  their  enlightened  benevolence  in  the  im- 
proved condition  of  their  species,  and  exult  in  the  reflection,  that 
the  change  which  they  at  last,  perhaps  after  many  years,  survey, 
with  eyes  that  age  and  sorrow  can  make  dim  no  more, — of  Knowl- 
edge become  Power, — Virtue  sharing  that  Empire, — Superstition 
dethroned,  and  Tyranny  exiled,  is,  if  even  only  in  some  small  and 
very  slight  degree,  yet  still  in  some  degree,  the  fruit,  precious  if 
costly,  and  though  late  repaid  yet  long  enduring,  of  their  own 
self-denial  and  strenuous  exertion,  of  their  own  mite  of  charity 
and  aid  to  education  wisely  bestowed,  and  of  the  hardships  and 
hazards  which  they  encountered  here  below. 

Masonry  requires  of  its  Initiates  and  votaries  nothing  that  is 
impracticable.  It  does  not  demand  that  they  should  undertake 
to  climb  to  those  lofty  and  sublime  peaks  of  a  theoretical  and  im- 
aginary unpractical  virtue,  high  and  cold  and  remote  as  the  eternal 
snows  that  wrap  the  shoulders  of  Chimborazo,  and  at  least  as  in- 
accessible as  they.  It  asks  that  alone  to  be  done  which  is  easy  to 
be  done.  It  overtasks  no  one's  strength,  and  asks  no  one  to  go 
beyond  his  means  and  capacities.  It  does  not  expect  one  whose 
business  or  profession  yields  him  little  more  than  the  wants  of 
himself  and  his  family  require,  and  whose  time  is  necessarily  oc- 
cupied by  his  daily  vocations,  to  abandon  or  neglect  the  business 


by  which  he  and  his  children  live,  and  devote  himself  and  his 
means  to  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  among  men.  It  does  not  ex- 
pect him  to  publish  books  for  the  people,  or  to  lecture,  to  the  ruin 
of  his  private  affairs,  or  to  found  academies  and  colleges,  build  up 
libraries,  and  entitle  himself  to  statues. 

But  it  does  require  and  expect  every  man  of  us  to  do  something, 
within  and  according  to  his  means ;  and  there  is  no  Mason  who 
cannot  do  some  thing,  if  not  alone,  then  by  combination  and  asso- 

If  a  Lodge  cannot  aid  in  founding  a  school  or  an  academy  it 
can  still  do  something.  It  can  educate  one  boy  or  girl,  at  least, 
the  child  of  some  poor  or  departed  brother.  And  it  should  never 
be  forgotten,  that  in  the  poorest  unregarded  child  that  seems 
abandoned  to  ignorance  and  vice  may  slumber  the  virtues  of  a 
Socrates,  the  intellect  of  a  Bacon  or  a  Bossuet,  the  genius  of  a 
Shakespeare,  the  capacity  to  benefit  mankind  of  a  Washington ; 
and  that  in  rescuing  him  from  the  mire  in  which  he  is  plunged, 
and  giving  him  the  means  of  education  and  development,  the 
Lodge  that  does  it  may  be  the  direct  and  immediate  means  of  con- 
ferring upon  the  world  as  great  a  boon  as  that  given  it  by  John 
Faust  the  boy  of  Mentz ;  may  perpetuate  the  liberties  of  a  country 
and  change  the  destinies  of  nations,  and  write  a  new  chapter  in 
the  history  of  the  world. 

For  we  never  know  the  importance  of  the  act  we  do.  The 
daughter  of  Pharaoh  little  thought  what  she  was  doing  for  the 
human  race,  and  the  vast  unimaginable  consequences  that  de- 
pended on  her  charitable  act,  when  she  drew  the  little  child  of  a 
Hebrew  woman  from  among  the  rushes  that  grew  along  the  bank 
of  the  Nile,  and  determined  to  rear  it  as  if  it  were  her  own. 

How  often  has  an  act  of  charity,  costing  the  doer  little,  given 
to  the  world  a  great  painter,  a  great  musician,  a  great  inventor ! 
How  often  has  such  an  act  developed  the  ragged  boy  into  the  ben- 
efactor of  his  race !  On  what  small  and  apparently  unimportant 
circumstances  have  turned  and  hinged  the  fates  of  the  world's 
great  conquerors.  There  is  no  law  thit  limits  the  returns  thit 
shall  be  reaped  from  a  single  good  deed.  The  widow's  mite  may 
not  only  be  as  acceptable  to  God,  but  may  produce  as  great  results 
as  the  rich  man's  costly  offerinp-.  The  poorest  boy,  helped  by  be- 
nevolence, may  come  to  lead  armies,  to  control  senates,  to  decide 
on  peace  and  war,  to  dictate  to  cabinets ;  and  his  magnificent 


thoughts  and  noble  words  may  be  law  many  years  hereafter  to  mil- 
lions of  men  yet  unborn. 

But  the  opportunity  to  effect  a  great  good  does  not  often  occur 
to  any  one.  It  is  worse  than  folly  for  one  to  lie  idle  and  inert,  and 
expect  the  accident  to  befall  him,  by  which  his  influences  shall  live 
forever.  He  can  expect  that  to  happen,  only  in  consequence  of  one 
or  many  or  all  of  a  long  series  of  acts.  He  can  expect  to  benefit 
the  world  only  as  men  attain  other  results;  by  continuance,  by 
persistence,  by  a  steady  and  uniform  habit  of  laboring  for  the 
enlightenment  of  the  world,  to  the  extent  of  his  means  and  ca- 

For  it  is,  in  all  instances,  by  steady  labor,  by  giving  enough  of 
application  to  our  work,  and  having  enough  of  time  for  the  doing 
of  it,  by  regular  pains-taking,  and  the  plying  of  constant  assidui- 
ties, and  not  by  any  process  of  legerdemain,  that  we  secure  the 
strength  and  the  staple  of  real  excellence.  It  was  thus  that  De- 
mosthenes, clause  after  clause,  and  sentence  after  sentence,  elabo- 
rated to  the  uttermost  his  immortal  orations.  It  was  thus  that 
Newton  pioneered  his  way,  by  the  steps  of  an  ascending  geometry, 
to  the  mechanism  of  the  Heavens,  and  Le  Verrier  added  a  planet 
to  our  Solar  System. 

It  is  a  most  erroneous  opinion  that  those  who  have  left  the  most 
stupendous  monuments  of  intellect  behind  them,  were  not  differ- 
ently exercised  from  the  rest  of  the  species,  but  only  differently 
gifted;  that  they  signalized  themselves  only  by  their  talent,  and 
hardly  ever  by  their  industry ;  for  it  is  in  truth  to  the  most  stren- 
uous application  of  those  commonplace  faculties  which  are  dif- 
fused among  all,  that  they  are  indebted  for  the  glories  which  now 
encircle  their  remembrance  and  their  name. 

We  must  not  imagine  it  to  be  a  vulgarizing  of  genius,  that  it 
should  be  lighted  up  in  any  other  way  than  by  a  direct  inspiration 
from  Heaven  ;  nor  overlook  the  steadfastness  of  purpose,  the  devo- 
tion to  some  single  but  great  object,  the  unweariedness  of  labor 
that  is  given,  not  in  convulsive  and  preternatural  throes,  but  by 
little  and  little  as  the  strength  of  the  mind  may  bear  it ;  the  accu- 
mulation of  many  small  efforts,  instead  of  a  few  grand  and  gigan- 
tic, but  perhaps  irregular  movements,  on  the  part  of  energies  that 
are  marvellous ;  by  which  former  alone  the  great  results  are 
brought  out  that  write  their  enduring  records  on  the  face  of  the 
earth  and  in  the  history  of  nations  and  of  man. 


We  must  not  overlook  these  elements,  to  which  genius  ®wes  the 
best  and  proudest  9f  her  achievements ;  nor  imagine  that  qualities 
so  generally  possessed  as  patience  and  pains-taking,  and  resolute 
industry,  have  no  share  in  upholding  a  distinction  so  illustrious 
as  that  of  the  benefactor  of  his  kind. 

We  must  not  forget  that  great  results  are  most  ordinarily  pro- 
duced by  an  aggregate  of  many  contributions  and  exertions ;  as  it 
is  the  invisible  particles  of  vapor,  each  separate  and  distinct  from 
the  other,  that,  rising  from  the  oceans  and  their  bays  and  gulfs, 
from  lakes  and  rivers,  and  wide  morasses  and  overflowed  plains, 
float  away  as  clouds,  and  distill  upon  the  earth  in  dews,  and  fall  in 
showers  and  rain  and  snows  upon  the  broad  plains  and  rude  moun- 
tains, and  make  the  great  navigable  streams  that  are  the  arteries 
along  which  flows  the  life-blood  of  a  country. 

And  so  Masonry  can  do  much,  if  each  Mason  be  content  to  do 
his  share,  and  if  their  united  efforts  are  directed  by  wise  counsels 
to  a  common  purpose.  "It  is  for  God  and  for  Omnipotency  to  do 
mighty  things  in  a  moment ;  but  by  degrees  to  grow  to  greatness 
is  the  course  that  He  hath  left  for  man." 

If  Masonry  will  but  be  true  to  her  mission,  and  Masons  to  their 
promises  and  obligations — if,  re-entering  vigorously  upon  a  career 
of  beneficence,  she  and  they  will  but  pursue  it  earnestly  and  unfal- 
teringly, remembering  that  our  contributions  to  the  cause  of  char- 
ity and  education  then  deserve  the  greatest  credit  when  it  costs  us 
something,  the  curtailing  of  a  comfort  or  the  relinquishment  of  a 
luxury,  to  make  them — if  we  will  but  give  aid  to  what  were  once 
Masonry's  great  schemes  for  human  improvement,  not  fitfully  and 
spasmodically,  but  regularly  and  incessantly,  as  the  vapors  rise 
and  the  springs  run,  and  as  the  sun  rises  and  the  stars  come  up 
into  the  heavens,  then  we  may  be  sure  that  great  results  will  be 
attained  and  a  great  work  done.  And  then  it  will  most  surely  be 
seen  that  Masonry  is  not  effete  or  impotent,  nor  degenerated  nor 
drooping  to  a  fatal  decay. 



[Elu  of  the  Twelve.] 

THE  duties  of  a  Prince  Ameth  are,  to  be  earnest,  true,  reliable, 
and  sincere ;  to  protect  the  people  against  illegal  impositions  and 
exactions  ;  to  contend  for  their  political  rights,  and  to  see,  as  far  as 
he  may  or  can,  that  those  bear  the  burdens  who  reap  the  benefits 
of  the  Government. 

You  are  to  be  true  unto  all  men. 

You  are  to  be  frank  and  sincere  in  all  things. 

You  are  to  be  earnest  in  doing  whatever  it  is  your  duty  to  do. 

And  no  man  must  repent  that  he  has  relied  upon  your  resolve, 
your  profession,  or  your  word. 

The  great  distinguishing  characteristic  of  a  Mason  is  sympathy 
with  his  kind.  He  recognizes  in  the  human  race  one  great  family, 
all  connected  with  himself  by  those  invisible  links,  and  that 
mighty  net-work  of  circumstance,  forged  and  woven  by  God. 

Feeling  that  sympathy,  it  is  his  first  Masonic  duty  to  serve  his 
fellow-man.  At  his  first  entrance  into  the  Order,  he  ceases  to  be 
isolated,  and  becomes  one  of  a  great  brotherhood,  assuming  new 
duties  toward  every  Mason  that  lives,  as  every  Mason  at  the  same 
moment  assumes  them  toward  him. 

Nor  are  those  duties  on  his  part  confined  to  Masons  alone.  He 
assumes  many  in  regard  to  his  country,  and  especially  toward  the 
great,  suffering  masses  of  the  common  people ;  for  they  too  are  his 
brethren,  and  God  hears  them,  inarticulate  as  the  moanings  of 
their  misery  are.  By  all  proper  means,  of  persua'sion  and  influ- 


ence,  and  otherwise,  if  the  occasion  and  emergency  require,  he  is 
bound  to  defend  them  against  oppression,  and  tyrannical  and  ille- 
gal exactions. 

He  labors  equally  to  defend  and  to  improve  the  people.  He  does 
not  flatter  them  to  mislead  them,  nor  fawn  upon  them  to  rule 
them,  nor  conceal  his  opinions  to  humor  them,  nor  tell  them  that 
they  can  never  err,  and  that  their  voice  is  the  voice  of  God.  He 
knows  that  the  safety  of  every  free  government,  and  its  continu- 
ance and  perpetuity  depend  upon  the  virtue  and  intelligence  of 
the  common  people ;  and  that,  unless  their  liberty  is  of  such  a 
kind  as  arms  can  neither  procure  nor  take  away ;  unless  it  is  the 
fruit  of  manly  courage,  of  justice,  temperance,  and  generous  vir- 
tue— unless,  being  such,  it  has  taken  deep  root  in  the  minds  and 
hearts  of  the  people  at  large,  there  will  not  long  be  wanting  those 
who  will  snatch  from  them  by  treachery  what  they  have  acquired 
by  arms  or  institutions. 

He  knows  that  if,  after  being  released  from  the  toils  of  war,  the 
people  neglect  the  arts  of  peace ;  if  their  peace  and  liberty  be  a 
state  of  warfare;  if  war  be  their  only  virtue,  and  the  summit  of 
their  praise,  they  will  soon  find  peace  the  most  adverse  to  their 
interests.  It  will  be  only  a  more  distressing  war ;  and  that  which 
they  imagined  liberty  will  be  the  worst  of  slavery.  For,  unless  by 
the  means  of  knowledge  and  morality,  not  frothy  and  loquacious, 
but  genuine,  unadulterated,  and  sincere,  they  clear  the  horizon  of 
the  mind  from  those  mists  of  error  and  passion  which  arise  from 
ignorance  and  vice,  they  will  always  have  those  who  will  bend  their 
necks  to  the  yoke  as  if  they  were  brutes ;  who,  notwithstanding  all 
their  triumphs,  will  put  them  up  to  the  highest  bidder,  as  if  they 
were  mere  booty  made  in  war;  and  find  an  exuberant  source  of 
wealth  and  power,  in  the  people's  ignorance,  prejudice,  and  pas- 

The  people  that  does  not  subjugate  the  propensity  of  the  wealthy 
to  avarice,  ambition,  and  sensuality,  expel  luxury  from  them  and 
their  families,  keep  down  pauperism,  diffuse  knowledge  among  the 
poor,  and  labor  to  raise  the  abject  from  the  mire  of  vice  and  low 
indulgence,  and  to  keep  the  industrious  from  starving  in  sight  of 
luxurious  festivals,  will  find  that  it  has  cherished,  in  that  avarice, 
ambition,  sensuality,  selfishness,  and  luxury  of  the  one  class,  and 
that  degradation,  misery,  drunkenness,  ignorance,  and  brutaliza- 
tion  of  the  other,  more  stubborn  and  intractable  despots  at  home 


than  it  ever  encountered  in  the  field ;  and  even  its  very  bowels  will 
be  continually  teeming  with  the  intolerable  progeny  of  tyrants. 

These  are  the  first  enemies  to  be  subdued ;  this  constitutes  the 
campaign  of  Peace;  these  are  triumphs,  difficult  indeed,  but 
bloodless ;  and  far  more  honorable  than  those  trophies  which  are 
purchased  only  by  slaughter  and  rapine ;  and  if  not  victors  in  this 
service,  it  is  in  vain  to  have  been  victorious  over  the  despotic  enemy 
in  the  field. 

For  if  any  people  thinks  that  it  is  a  grander ;  a  more  benefi- 
cial, or  a  wiser  policy,  to  invent  subtle  expedients  by  stamps 
and  imposts,  for  increasing  the  revenue  and  draining  the  life-blood 
of  an  impoverished  people ;  to  multiply  its  naval  and  military 
force ;  to  rival  in  craft  the  ambassadors  of  foreign  states ;  to  plot 
the  swallowing  up  of  foreign  territory  ;  to  make  crafty  treaties  and 
alliances;  to  rule  prostrate  states  and  abject  provinces  by  fear  and 
force ;  than  to  administer  unpolluted  justice  to  the  people,  to  re- 
lieve the  condition  and  raise  the  estate  of  the  toiling  masses,  redress 
the  injured  and  succor  the  distressed  and  conciliate  the  discon- 
tented, and  speedily  restore  to  every  one  his  own ;  then  that  people 
is  involved  in  a  cloud  of  error,  and  will  too  late  perceive,  when  the 
illusion  of  these  mighty  benefits  has  vanished,  that  in  neglecting 
these,  which  it  thought  inferior  considerations,  it  has  only  been 
precipitating  its  own  ruin  and  despair. 

Unfortunately,  every  age  presents  its  own  special  problem,  most 
difficult  and  often  impossible  to  solve ;  and  that  which  this  age 
offers,  and  forces  upon  the  consideration  of  all  thinking  men,  is 
this — how,  in  a  populous  and  wealthy  country,  blessed  with  free 
institutions  and  a  constitutional  government,  are  the  great  masses 
of  the  manual-labor  class  to  be  enabled  to  have  steady  work  at  fair 
wages,  to  be  kept  from  starvation,  and  their  children  from  vice  and 
debauchery,  and  to  be  furnished  with  that  degree,  not  of  mere 
reading  and  writing,  but  of  knowledge,  that  shall  fit  them  intelli- 
gently to  do  the  duties  and  exercise  the  privileges  of  freemen ; 
even  to  be  intrusted  with  the  dangerous  right  of  suffrage? 

For  though  we  do  not  know  why  God,  being  infinitely  merciful 
as  well  as  wise,  has  so  ordered  it.  it  seems  to  be  unquestionably  his 
law,  that  even  in  civilized  and  Christian  countries,  the  large  mass 
of  the  population  shall  be  fortunate,  if,  during  their  whole  life, 
from  infancy  to  old  age,  in  health  and  sickness,  "they  have  enough 
of  the  commonest  and  coarsest  food  to  keep  themselves  and  their 


children  from  the  continual  gnawing  of  hunger — enough  of  the 
commonest  and  coarsest  clothing  to  protect  themselves  and  their 
little  ones  from  indecent  exposure  and  the  bitter  cold ;  and  if  they 
have  over  their  heads  the  rudest  shelter. 

And  He  seems  to  have  enacted  this  law — which  no  human  com- 
munity has  yet  found  the  means  to  abrogate — that  when  a  country 
becomes  populous,  capital  shall  concentrate  in  the  hands  of  a  lim- 
ited number  of  persons,  and  labor  become  more  and  more  at  its 
mercy,  until  mere  manual  labor,  that  of  the  weaver  and  iron- 
worker, and  other  artisans,  eventually  ceases  to  be  worth  more 
than  a  bare  subsistence,  and  often,  in  great  cities  and  vast  extents 
of  country,  not  even  that,  and  goes  or  crawls  about  in  rags,  beg- 
ging, and  starving  for  want  of  work. 

While  every  ox  and  horse  can  find  work,  and  is  worth  being  fed, 
it  is  not  always  so  with  man.  To  be  employed,  to  have  a  chance 
to  work  at  anything  like  fair  wages,  becomes  the  great  engrossing 
object  of  a  man's  life.  The  capitalist  can  live  without  employing 
the  laborer,  and  discharges  him  whenever  that  labor  ceases  to  be 
profitable.  At  the  moment  when  the  weather  is  most  inclement, 
provisions  dearest,  and  rents  highest,  he  turns  him  off  to  starve. 
If  the  day-laborer  is  taken  sick,  his  wages  stop.  When  old,  he  has 
no  pension  to  retire  upon.  His  children  cannot  be  sent  to  school ; 
for  before  their  bones  are  hardened  they  must  get  to  work  lest  they 
starve.  The  man,  strong  and  able-bodied,  works  for  a  shilling  or 
two  a  day,  and  the  woman  shivering  over  her  little  pan  of  coals, 
when  the  mercury  drops  far  below  zero,  after  her  hungry  children 
have  wailed  themselves  to  sleep,  sews  by  the  dim  light  of  her  lonely 
candle,  for  a  bare  pittance,  selling  her  life  to  him  who  bargained 
only  for  the  work  of  her  needle. 

Fathers  and  mothers  slay  their  children,  to  have  the  burial-fees, 
that  with  the  price  of  one  child's  life  they  may  continue  life  in 
those  that  survive.  Little  girls  with  bare  feet  sweep  the  street- 
crossings,  when  the  winter  wind  pinches  them,  and  beg  piteously 
for  pennies  of  those  who  wear  warm  furs.  Children  grow  up  in 
squalid  misery  and  brutal  ignorance  ;  want  compels  virgin  and  wife 
to  prostitute  themselves :  women  starve  and  freeze,  and  lean  up 
against  the  walls  of  workhouses,  like  bundles  of  foul  rags,  all  night 
long,  and  night  after  night,  when  the  cold  rain  falls,  and  there 
chances  to  be  no  room  for  them  within ;  and  hundreds  of  families 
are  crowded  into  a  single  building,  rife  with  horrors  and  teeming 


with  foul  air  and  pestilence;  where  men,  women,  and  children 
huddle  together  in  their  filth ;  all  ages  and  all  colors  sleeping  in- 
discriminately together ;  while,  in  a  great,  free,  Republican  State, 
in  the  full  vigor  of  its  youth  and  strength,  one  person  in  every 
seventeen  is  a  pauper  receiving  charity. 

How  to  deal  with  this  apparently  inevitable  evil  and  mortal  dis- 
ease is  by  far  the  most  important  of  all  social  problems.  What  is 
to  be  done  with  pauperism  and  over-supply  of  labor  ?  How  is  the 
life  of  any  country  to  last,  when  brutality  and  drunken  semi-bar- 
barism vote,  and  hold  offices  in  their  gift,  and  by  fit  representatives 
of  themselves  control  a  government?  How,  if  not  wisdom  and 
authority,  but  turbulence  and  low  vice  are  to  exalt  to  senatorships 
miscreants  reeking  with  the  odors  and  pollution  of  the  hell,  the 
prize-ring-,  the  brothel,  and  the  stock-exchange,  where  gambling  is 
legalized  and  rascality  is  laudable? 

Masonry  will  do  all  in  its  power,  by  direct  exertion  and  co-oper- 
ation, to  improve  and  inform  as  well  as  to  protect  the  people ;  to 
better  their  physical  condition,  relieve  their  miseries,  supply  their 
wants,  and  minister  to  their  necessities.  Let  every  Mason  in  this 
good  work  do  all  that  may  be  in  his  power. 

For  it  is  true  now,  as  it  always  was  and  always  will  be,  that  to  be 
free  is  the  same  thing  as  to  be  pious,  to  be  wise,  to  be  temperate 
and  just,  to  be  frugal  and  abstinent,  and  to  be  magnanimous  and 
brave ;  and  to  be  the  opposite  of  all  these  is  the  same  as  to  be  a 
slave.  And  it  usually  happens,  by  the  appointment,  and,  as  it 
were,  retributive  justice  of  the  Deity,  that  that  people  which  can- 
not govern  themselves,  and  moderate  their  passions,  but  crouch 
under  the  slavery  of  their  lusts  and  vices,  are  delivered  up  to  the 
sway  of  those  whom  they  abhor,  and  made  to  submit  to  an  invol- 
untary servitude. 

And  it  is  also  sanctioned  by  the  dictates  of  justice  and  by  the 
constitution  of  Nature,  that  he  who,  from  the  imbecility  or  de- 
rangement of  his  intellect,  is  incapable  of  governing  himself, 
should,  like  a  minor,  be  committed  to  the  government  of  another. 

•Above  all  things  let  us  never  forget  that  mankind  constitutes 
one  great  brotherhood  ;  all  born  to  encounter  suffering  and  sorrow, 
and  therefore  bound  to  sympathize  with  each  other. 

For  no  tower  of  Pride  was  ever  yet  high  enough  to  lift  its  pos- 
sessor above  the  trials  and  fears  and  frailties  -of  humanity.  No 
human  hand  ever  built  the  wall,  nor  ever  shall,  that  will  keep  out 


affliction,  pain,  and  infirmity.  Sickness  and  sorrow,  trouble  and 
death,  are  dispensations  that  level  everything.  They  know  none, 
high  nor  low.  The  chief  wants  of  life,  the  great  and  grave  necessi- 
ties of  the  human  soul,  give  exemption  to  none.  They  make  all 
poor,  all  weak.  They  put  supplication  in  the  mouth  of  every 
human  being,  as  truly  as  in  that  of  the  meanest  beggar. 

But  the  principle  of  misery  is  not  an  evil  principle.  We  err. 
and  the  consequences  teach  us  wisdom.  All  elements,  all  the  laws 
of  things  around  us,  minister  to  this  end ;  and  through  the  paths 
of  painful  error  and  mistake,  it  is  the  design  of  Providence  to  lead 
us  to  truth  and  happiness.  If  erring  only  taught  us  to  err :  if 
mistakes  confirmed  us  in  imprudence ;  if  the  miseries  caused  by 
vicious  indulgence  had  a  natural  tendency  to  make  us  more  abject 
slaves  of  vice,  then  suffering  would  be  wholly  evil.  But,  on  the 
contrary,  all  tends  and  is  designed  to  produce  amendment  and  im- 
provement. Suffering  is  the  discipline  of  virtue ;  of  that  which  is 
infinitely  better  than  happiness,  and  yet  embraces  in  itself  all  essen- 
tial happiness.  It  nourishes,  invigorates,  and  perfects  it.  Virtue 
is  the  prize  of  the  severely-contested  race  and  hard-fought  battle ; 
and  it  is  worth  all  the  fatigue  and  wounds  of  the  conflict.  Man 
should  go  forth  with  a  brave  and  strong  heart,  to  battle  with  ca- 
lamity. He  is  to  master  it,  and  not  let  it  become  his  master.  He 
is  not  to  forsake  the  post  of  trial  and  of  peril ;  but  to  stand  firmly 
in  his  lot,  until  the  great  word  of  Providence  shall  bid  him  fly,  or 
bid  him  sink.  With  resolution  and  courage  the  Mason  is  to  do 
the  work  which  it  is  appointed  for  him  to  do,  looking  through  the 
dark  cloud  of  human  calamity,  to  the  end  that  rises  high  and 
bright  bcfc-re  him.  The  lot  of  sorrow  is  great  and  sublime.  None 
suffer  forever,  nor  for  nought,  nor  without  purpose.  It  is  the 
ordinance  of  God's  wisdom,  and  of  His  Infinite  Love,  to  procure 
for  us  infinite  happiness  and  glory. 

Virtue  is  the  truest  liberty :  nor  is  he  free  who  stoops  to  pas- 
sions ;  nor  he  in  bondage  who  serves  a  noble  master.  Examples 
are  the  best  and  most  lasting  lectures ;  virtue  the  best  example. 
He  that  hath  done  good  deeds  and  set  good  precedents,  in  sincerity, 
is  happy.  Time  shall  not  outlive  his  worth.  He  lives  truly  after 
death,  whose  good  deeds  are  his  pillars  of  remembrance ;  and  no  day 
but  adds  some  grains  to  his  heap  of  glory.  Good  works  are  seeds, 
that  after  sowing  return  us  a  continual  harvest :  and  the  memory 
of  noble  actions  is  more  enduring  than  monuments  of  marble. 

1 82  MORALS   AND   DOGMA. 

Life  is  a  school.  The  world  is  neither  prison  nor  penitentiary, 
nor  a  palace  of  ease,  nor  an  amphitheatre  for  games  and  specta- 
cles ;  but  a  place  of  instruction,  and  discipline.  Life  is  given  for 
moral  and  spiritual  training;  and  the  entire  course  of  the  great 
school  of  life  is  an  education  for  virtue,  happiness,  and  a  future 
existence.  The  periods  of  Life  are  its  terms;  all  human  condi- 
tions, its  forms ;  all  human  employments,  its  lessons.  Families 
are  the  primary  departments  of  this  moral  education ;  the  various 
circles  of  society,  its  advanced  stages;  Kingdoms  and  Republics, 
its  universities. 

Riches  and  Poverty,  Gayeties  and  Sorrows,  Marriages  and 
Funerals,  the  ties  of  life  bound  or  broken,  fit  and  fortunate,  or  un- 
toward and  painful,  are  all  lessons.  Events  are  not  blindly  and 
carelessly  flung  together.  Providence  does  not  school  one  man, 
and  screen  another  from  the  fiery  trial  of  its  lessons.  It  has  nei- 
ther rich  favorites  nor  poor  victims.  One  event  happeneth  to  all. 
One  end  and  one  design  concern  and  urge  all  men. 

The  prosperous  man  has  been  at  school.  Perhaps  he  has  thought 
that  it  was  a  great  thing,  and  he  a  great  personage ;  but  he  has 
been  merely  a  pupil.  He  thought,  perhaps,  that  he  was  Master, 
and  had  nothing  to  do,  but  to  direct  and  command ;  but  there  was 
ever  a  Master  above  him,  the  Master  of  Life.  He  looks  not  at  our 
splendid  state,  or  our  many  pretensions,  nor  at  the  aids  and  appli- 
ances of  our  learning;  but  at  our  learning  itself.  He  puts  the 
poor  and  the  rich  upon  the  same  form;  and  difference 
between  them,  but  their  progress. 

If  from  prosperity  we  have  learned  moderation,  temperance, 
candor,  modesty,  gratitude  to  God,  and  generosity  to  man,  then  we 
are  entitled  to  be  honored  and  rewarded.  If  we  have  learned  self- 
ishness, self-indulgence,  wrong-doing,  and  vice,  to  forget  and 
overlook  our  less  fortunate  brother,  and  to  scoff  at  the  providence 
of  God,  then  we  are  unworthy  and  dishonored,  though  we  have 
been  nursed  in  affluence,  or  taken  our  degrees  from  the  lineage  of 
an  hundred  noble  descents  ;  as  truly  so,  in  the  eye  of  Heaven,  and  of 
all  right-thinking  men,  as  though  we  lay,  victims  of  beggary  and 
disease,  in  the  hospital,  by  the  hedge,  or  on -the  dung-hill.  The 
most  ordinary  human  equity  looks  not  at  the  school,  but  at  the 
scholar;  and  the  equity  of  Heaven  will  not-Jook  beneath  that 

The  poor  man  also  is  at  school.     Let  him  take  care  that  h« 


learn,  rather  than  complain.  Let  him  hold  to  his  integrity,  his 
candor,  and  his  kindness  of  heart.  Let  him  beware  of  envy,  and 
of  bondage,  and  keep  his  self-respect.  The  body's  toil  is  nothing. 
Let  him  beware  of  the  mind's  drudgery  and  degradation.  While 
he  betters  his  condition  if  he  can,  let  him  be  more  anxious  to  bet- 
ter his  soul.  Let  him  be  willing,  while  poor,  and  even  if  always 
poor,  to  learn  poverty's  great  lessons,  fortitude,  cheerfulness,  con- 
tentment, and  implicit  confidence  in  God's  Providence.  With 
these,  and  patience,  calmness,  self-command,  disinterestedness,  and 
affectionate  kindness,  the  humble  dwelling  may  be  hallowed,  and 
made  more  dear  and  noble  than  the  loftiest  palace.  Let  him, 
above  all  things,  see  that  he  lose  not  his  independence.  Let  him 
not  cast  himself,  a  creature  poorer  than  the  poor,  an  indolent,  help- 
less, despised  beggar,  on  the  kindness  of  others.  Every  man  should 
choose  to  have  God  for  his  Master,  rather  than  man ;  and  escape 
not  from  this  school,  either  by  dishonesty  or  alms-taking,  lest  he 
fall  into  that  state,  worse  than  disgrace,  where  he  can  have  no 
respect  for  himself. 

The  ties  of  Society  teach  us  to  love  one  another.  That  is  a  mis- 
erable society,  where  the  absence  of  affectionate  kindness  is  sought 
to  be  supplied  by  punctilious  decorum,  graceful  urbanity,  and  pol- 
ished insincerity ;  where  ambition,  jealousy,  and  distrust  rule,  in 
place  of  simplicity,  confidence,  and  kindness. 

So,  too,  the  social  state  teaches  modesty  and  gentleness ;  and 
from  neglect,  and  notice  unworthily  bestowed  on  others,  and  injus- 
tice, and  the -world's  failure  to  appreciate  us,  we  learn  patience  and 
quietness,  to  be  superior  to  society's  opinion,  not  cynical  and  bit- 
ter, but  gentle,  candid,  and  affectionate  still. 

Death  is  the  great  Teacher,  stern,  cold,  inexorable,  irresistible ; 
whom  the  collected  might  of  the  world  cannot  stay  or  ward  off. 
The  breath,  that  parting  from  the  lips  of  King  or  beggar,  scarcely 
stirs  the  hushed  air,  cannot  be  bought,  or  brought  back  for  a  mo- 
ment, with  the  wealth  of  Empires.  What  a  lesson  is  this,  teach- 
ing our  frailty  and  feebleness,  and  an  Infinite  Power  beyond  us ! 
It  is  a  fearful  lesson,  that  never  becomes  familiar.  It  walks  through 
the  earth  in  dread  mystery,  and  lays  its  hands  upon  all.  It  is  a 
universal  lesson,  that  is  read  everywhere  and  by  all  men.  Its  mes- 
sage comes  every  year  and  every  day.  The  past  years  are  crowded 
with  its  sad  and  solemn  mementoes;  and  death's  finger  traces  its 
handwriting  upon  the  walls  of  every  human  habitation. 

184  MORALS    AND   DOGMA. 

It  teaches  us  Duty;  to  act  our  part  well;  to  fulfill  the  work  as- 
signed us.  When  one  is  dying,  and  after  he  is  dead,  there  is  but 
one  question :  Has  he  lived  well?  There  is  no  evil  in  death  but 
that  which  life  makes. 

There  are  hard  lessons  in  the  school  of  God's  Providence;  and 
yet  the  school  of  life  is  carefully  adjusted,  in  all  its  arrangements 
and  tasks,  to  man's  powers  and  passions.  There  is  no  extravagance 
in  its  teachings ;  nor  is  anything  done  for  the  sake  of  present 
effect.  The  whole  course  of  human  life  is  a  conflict  with  difficul- 
ties;  and,  if  rightly  conducted,  a  progress  in  improvement.  It  is 
never  too  late  for  man  to  learn.  Not  part  only,  but  the  whole,  of 
life  is  a  school.  There  never  comes  a  time,  even  amidst  the  decays 
of  age,  when  it  is  fit  to  lay  aside  the  eagerness  of  acquisition,  or  the 
cheerfulness  of  endeavor.  Man  walks,  all  through  the  course  of 
life,  in  patience  and  strife,  and  sometimes  in  darkness ;  for,  from 
patience  is  to  come  perfection ;  from  strife,  triumph  is  to  issue ; 
from  the  cloud  of  darkness  the  lightning  is  to  flash  that  shall  open 
the  way  to  eternity. 

Let  the  Mason  be  faithful  in  the  school  of  life,  and  to  all  its  les- 
sons !  Let  him  not  learn  nothing,  nor  care  not  whether  he  learns 
or  not.  Let  not  the  years  pass  over  him,  witnesses  of  only  his 
sloth  and  indifference ;  or  see  him  zealous  to  acquire  everything 
but  virtue.  Nor  let  him  labor  only  for  himself;  nor  forget  that 
the  humblest  man  that  lives  is  his  brother,  and  hath  a  claim  on  his 
sympathies  and  kind  offices ;  and  that  beneath  the  rough  garments 
which  labor  wears  may  beat  hearts  as  noble  as  throb  under  the 
stars  of  princes.  * 

God,  who  counts  by  souls,  not  stations, 

Loves  and  pities  you  and  me; 
For  to  Him  all  vain  distinctions 

Are  as  pebbles  on  the  sea. 

Nor  are  the  other  duties  inculcated  in  this  Degree  of  less  impor- 
tance. Truth,  a  Mason  is  early  told,  is  a  Divine  attribute  and  the 
foundation  of  every  virtue ;  and  frankness,  reliability,  sincerity, 
straightforwardness,  plain-dealing,  are  but  different  modes  in 
which  Truth  develops  itself.  The  dead,  the  absent,  the  innocent, 
and  those  that  trust  him,  no  Mason  will  deceive  willingly.  To  all 
these  he  owes  a  nobler  justice,  in  that  they  are  the  most  certain 
trials  of  human  Equity.  Only  the  most  abandoned  of  men,  said 


Cicero,  will  deceive  him,  who  would  have  remained  uninjured  if 
he  had  not  trusted.  All  the  noble  deeds  that  have  beat  their 
marches  through  succeeding  ages  have  proceeded  from  men  of 
truth  and  genuine  courage.  The  man  who  is  always  true  is  both 
virtuous  and  wise;  and  thus  possesses  the  greatest  guards  of 
safety :  for  the  law  has  not  power  to  strike  the  virtuous ;  nor  can 
fortune  subvert  the  wise. 

The  bases  of  Masonry  being  morality  and  virtue,  it  is  by  study- 
ing one  and  practising  the  other,  that  the  conduct  of  a  Mason  be- 
comes irreproachable.  The  good  of  Humanity  being  its  principal 
object,  disinterestedness  is  one  of  the  first  virtues  that  it  requires 
of  its  members;  for  that  is  the  source  of  justice  and  benefi- 

To  pity  the  misfortunes  of  others ;  to  be  humble,  but  without 
meanness;  to  be  proud,  but  without  arrogance;  to  abjure  every 
sentiment  of  hatred  and  revenge ;  to  show  himself  magnanimous 
and  liberal,  without  ostentation  and  without  profusion;  to  be  the 
enemy  of  vice ;  to  pay  homage  to  wisdom  and  virtue ;  to  respect 
innocence ;  to  be  constant  and  patient  in  adversity,  and  modest  in 
prosperity ;  to  avoid  every  irregularity  that  stains  the  soul  and  dis- 
tempers the  body — it  is  by  following  these  precepts  that  a  Mason 
will  become  a  good  citizen,  a  faithful  husband,  a  tender  father,  an 
obedient  son,  and  a  true  brother ;  will  honor  friendship,  and  fulfill 
with  ardor  the  duties  which  virtue  and  the  social  relations  impose 
upon  him. 

It  is  because  Masonry  imposes  upon  us  these  duties  that  it  is 
properly  and  significantly  styled  zvork;  and  he  who  imagines  that 
he  becomes  a  Mason  by  merely  taking  the  first  two  or  three  De- 
grees, and  that  he  may,  having  leisurely  stepped  upon  that  small 
elevation,  thenceforward  worthily  wear  the  honors  of  Masonry, 
without  labor  or  exertion,  or  self-denial  or  sacrifice,  and  that  there 
is  nothing  to  be  done  in  Masonry,  is  strangely  deceived. 

Is  it  true  that  nothing  remains  to  be  done  in.  Masonry  ? 

Does  one  Brother  no  longer  proceed  by  law  against  another 
Brother  of  his  Lodge,  in  regard  to  matters  that  could  be  easily  set- 
tled within  the  Masonic  family  circle? 

Has  'the  duel,  that  hideous  heritage  of  barbarism,  interdicted 
among  Brethren  by  our  fundamental  laws,  and  denounced  by  the 
municipal  code,  yet  disappeared  .from  the  soil  we  inhabit  ?  Do  Ma- 
sons of  high  rank  religiously  refrain  from  it ;  or  do  they  not,  bow- 


ing  to  a  corrupt  public  opinion,  submit  to  its  arbitrament,  despite 
the  scandal  which  it  occasions  to  the  Order,  and  in  violation  of  the 
feeble  restraint  of  their  oath  ? 

Do  Masons  no  longer  form  uncharitable  opinions  of  their  Breth- 
ren, enter  harsh  judgments  against  them,  and  judge  themselves  by 
one  rule  and  their  Brethren  by  another  ? 

Has  Masonry  any  well-regulated  system  of  charity?  Has  it 
done  that  which  it  should  have  done  for  the  cause  of  education? 
Where  are  its  schools,  its  academies,  its  colleges,  its  hospitals,  and 

Are  political  controversies  now  conducted  with  no  violence  and 
bitterness  ? 

Do  Masons  refrain  from  defaming  and  denouncing  their  Breth- 
ren who  differ  with  them  in  religious  or  political  opinions  ? 

What  grand  social  problems  or  useful  projects  engage  our  atten- 
tion at  our  communications?  Where  in  our  Lodges  are  lectures 
habitually  delivered  for  the  real  instruction  of  the  Brethren?  Do 
not  our  sessions  pass  in  the  discussion  of  minor  matters  of  busi- 
ness, the  settlement  of  points  of  order  and  questions  of  mere 
administration,  and  the  admission  and  advancement  of  Can- 
didates, whom  after  their  admission  we  take  no  pains  to  in- 


In  what  Lodge  are  our  ceremonies  explained  and  elucidated ; 
corrupted  as  they  are  by  time,  until  their  true  features  can 
scarcely  be  distinguished;  and  where  are  those  great  primi- 
tive truths  of  revelation  taught,  which  Masonry  has  preserved  to 
the  world? 

We  have  high  dignities  and  sounding  titles.  Do  their  possess- 
ors qualify  themselves  to  enlighten  the  world  in  respect  to  the 
aims  and  objects  of  Masonry?  Descendants  of  those  Initiates 
who  governed  empires,  does  your  influence  enter  into  practical  life 
and  operate  efficiently  in  behalf  of  well-regulated  and  constitu- 
tional liberty? 

Your  debates  should  be  but  friendly  conversations.  You  need 
concord,  union,  and  peace.  Why  then  do  you  retain  among  you 
men  who  excite  rivalries  and  jealousies ;  why  permit  great  and 
violent  controversy  and  ambitious  pretensions?  How  do  your 
own  words  and  acts  agree?  If  your  Masonry  is  a  nullity,  how 
can  you  exercise  any  influence  on  others? 

Continually  you  praise  each  other,  and  utter  elaborate  and  high- 


wrought  eulogies  upon  the  Order.  Everywhere  you  assume  that 
you  are  what  you  should  be,  and  nowhere  do  you  look  upon  your- 
selves as  you  are.  Is  it  true  that  all  our  actions  are  so  many  acts 
of  homage  to  virtue  ?  Explore  the  recesses  of  your  hearts ;  let  us 
examine  ourselves  with  an  impartial  eye,  and  make  answer  to  our 
own  questioning!  Can  we  bear  to  ourselves  the  consoling  testi- 
mony that  we  always  rigidly  perform  our  duties ;  that  we  even  half 
perform  them? 

Let  us  away  with  this  odious  self-flattery !  Let  us  be  men,  if  we 
cannot  be  sages !  The  laws  of  Masonry,  above  others  excellent, 
cannot  wholly  change  men's  natures.  They  enlighten  them,  they 
point  out  the  true  way ;  but  they  can  lead  them  in  it,  only  by  re- 
pressing the  fire  of  their  passions,  and  subjugating  their  selfish- 
ness. Alas,  these  conquer,  and  Masonry  is  forgotten ! 

After  praising  each  other  all  our  lives,  there  are  always  excellent 
Brethren,  who,  over  our  coffins,  shower  unlimited  eulogies.  Every 
one  of  us  who  dies,  however  useless  his  life,  has  been  a  model  of 
all  the  virtues,  a  very  child  of  the  celestial  light.  In  Egypt, 
among  our  old  Masters,  where  Masonry  was  more  cultivated  than 
vanity,  no  one  could  gain  admittance  to  the  sacred  asylum  of  the 
tomb  until  he  had  passed  under  the  most  solemn  judgment.  A 
grave  tribunal  sat  in  judgment  upon  all,  even  the  kings.  They 
said  to  the  dead,  "Whoever  thou  art,  give  account  to  thy  country 
of  thy  actions!  What  hast  thou  done  with  thy  time  and  life? 
The  law  interrogates  thee,  thy  country  hears  thee,  Truth  sits  in 
judgment  on  thee !"  Princes  came  there  to  be  judged,  escorted 
only  by  their  virtues  and  their  vices.  A  public  accuser  recounted 
the  history  of  the  dead  man's  life,  and  threw  the  blaze  of  the  torch 
of  truth  on  all  his  actions.  If  it  were  adjudged  that  he  had  led 
an  evil  life,  his  memory  was  condemned  in  the  presence  of  the 
nation,  and  his  body  was  denied  the  honors  of  sepulture.  What  a 
lesson  the  old  Masonry  taught  to  the  sons  of  the  people ! 

Is 'it  true  that  Masonry  is  effete;  that  the  acacia,  withered, 
affords  no  shade ;  that  Masonry  no  longer  marches  in  the  advance- 
guard  of  Truth?  No.  Is  freedom  yet  universal?  Have  igno- 
rance and  prejudice  disappeared  from  the  earth?  Are  there  no 
longer  enmities  among  men  ?  Do  cupidity  and  falsehood  no  longer 
exist?  Do  toleration  and  harmony  prevail  among  religious  and 
political  sects?  There  are  works  yet  left  for  Masonry  to  accom- 
plish, greater  than  the  twelve  labors  of  Hercules ;  to  advance  ever 


resolutely  and  steadily;  to  enlighten  the  minds  of  the  people,  to 
reconstruct  society,  to  reform  the  laws,  and  to  improve  the  public 
morals.  The  eternity  in  front  of  it  is  as  infinite  as  the  one  be- 
hind. And  Masonry  cannot  cease  to  labor  in  the  cause  of  social 
progress,  without  ceasing  to  be  true  to  itself,  without  ceasing  to  be 





[Master  Architect.] 

THE  great  duties  that  are  inculcated  by  the  lessons  taught  by 
the  working-instruments  of  a  Grand  Master  Architect,  demanding 
so  much  of  us,  and  taking  for  granted  the  capacity  to  perform 
them  faithfully  and  fully,  bring  us  at  once  to  reflect  upon  the  dig- 
nity of  human  nature,  and  the  vast  powers  and  capacities  of  the 
human  soul ;  and  to  that  theme  we  invite  your  attention  in  this 
Degree.  Let  us  begin  to  rise  from  earth  toward  the  Stars. 

Evermore  the  human  soul  struggles  toward  the  light,  toward 
God,  and  the  Infinite.  It  is  especially  so  in  its  afflictions.  Words 
go  but  a  little  way  into  the  depths  of  sorrow.  The  thoughts  that 
writhe  there  in  silence,  that  go  into  the  stillness  of  Infinitude  and 
Eternity,  have  no  emblems.  Thoughts  enough  come  there,  such 
as  no  tongue  ever  uttered.  They  do  not  so  much  want  human 
sympathy,  as  higher  help.  There  is  a  loneliness  in  deep  sorrow 
which  the  Deity  alone  can  relieve.  Alone,  the  mind  wrestles  with 
the  great  problem  of  calamity,  and  seeks  the  solution  from  the 
Infinite  Providence  of  Heaven,  and  thus  is  led  directly  to  God. 

There  are  many  things  in  us  of  which  we  are  not  distinctly 
conscious.  To  waken  that  slumbering  consciousness  into  life,  and 
so  to  lead  the  soul  up  to  the  Light,  is  one  office  of  every  great 
ministration  to  human  nature,  whether  its  vehicle  be  the  pen,  the 
pencil,  or  the  tongue.  We  are  unconscious  of  the  intensity  and 
awfulness  of  the  life  within  us.  Health  and  sickness,  joy  and  sor- 
row, success  and  disappointment,  life  and  death,  love  and  loss,  are 



familiar  words  upon  our  lips ;  and  we  do  not  know  to  what  depths 
they  point  within  us. 

We  seem  never  to  know  what  any  thing  means  or  is  worth  until 
we  have  lost  it.  Many  an  organ,  nerve,  and  fibre  in  our  bodily 
frame  performs  its  silent  part  for  years,  and  we  are  quite  uncon- 
scious of  Hs  value.  It  is  not  until  it  is  injured  that  we  discover 
that  value,  find  how  essential  it  was  to  our  happiness  and  com- 
fort. We  never  know  the  full  significance  of  the  words,  "prop- 
erty," "ease,"  and  "health;"  the  wealth  of  meaning  in  the  fond 
epithets,  "parent,"  "child,"  "beloved,"  and  "friend,"  until  the 
thing  or  the  person  is  taken  away;  until,  in  place  of  the  bright, 
visible  being,  comes  the  awful  and  desolate  shadow,  where  nothing 
is:  where  we  stretch  out  our  hands  in  vain,  and  strain  our  eyes 
upon  dark  and  dismal  vacuity.  Yet,  in  that  vacuity,  we  do  not 
lose  the  object  that  we  loved.  It  becomes  only  the  more  real  to  us. 
Our  blessings  not  only  brighten  when  they  depart,  but  are  fixed 
in  enduring  reality ;  and  love  and  friendship  receive  their  everlast- 
ing seal  under  the  cold  impress  of  death. 

A  dim  consciousness  of  infinite  mystery  and  grandeur  lies  be- 
neath all  the  commonplace  of  life.  There  is  an  awfulness  and  a 
majesty  around  us,  in  all  our  little  worldliness.  The  rude  peasant 
from  the  Apennines,  asleep  at  the  foot  of  a  pillar  in  a  majestic 
Roman  church,  seems  not  to  hear  or  see,  but  to  dream  only  of  the 
herd  he  feeds  or  the  ground  he  tills  in  the  mountains.  But  the 
choral  symphonies  fall  softly  upon  his  ear,  and  the  gilded  arches 
are  dimly  seen  through  his  half-slumbering  eyelids. 

So  the  soul,  however  given  up  to  the  occupations  of  daily  life, 
cannot  quite  lose  the  sense  of  where  it  is,  and  of  what  is  above  it 
and  around  it.  The  scene  of  its  actual  engagements  may  be  small ; 
the  path  of  its  steps,  beaten  and  familiar;  the  objects  it  handles, 
easily  spanned,  and  quite  worn  out  with  daily  uses.  So  it  may  be, 
and  amidst  such  things  that  we  all  live.  So  we  live  our  little  life; 
but  Heaven  is  above  us  and  all  around  and  close  to  us ;  and  Eter- 
nity is  before  us  and  behind  us ;  and  suns  and  stars  are  silent  wit- 
nesses and  watchers  over  us.  We  are  enfolded  by  Infinity.  Infi- 
nite Powers  and  Infinite  spaces  lie  all  around  us.  The  dread  arch 
of  Mystery  spreads  over  us,  and  no  voice  ever  pierced  it.  Eternity 
is  enthroned  amid  Heaven's  myriad  starry  heights ;  and  no  utter- 
ance or  word  ever  came  from  those  far-off  and  silent  spaces. 
Above,  is  that  awful  majesty ;  around  us,  everywhere,  it  stretches 


off  into  infinity ;  and  beneath  it  is  this  little  struggle  of  life,  this 
poor  day's  conflict,  this  busy  ant-hill  of  Time. 

But  from  that  ant-hill,  not  only  the  talk  of  the  streets,  the 
sounds  of  music  and  revelling,  the  stir  and  tread  of  a  multitude, 
the  shout  of  joy  and  the  shriek  of  agony  go  up  into  the  silent  and 
all-surrounding  Infinitude;  but  also,  amidst  the  stir  and  noise  of 
visible  life,  from  the  inmost  bosom  of  the  visible  man,  there  goes 
up  an  imploring  call,  a  beseeching  cry,  an  asking,  unuttered,  and 
unutterable,  for  revelation,  wailingly  and  in  almost  speechless 
agony  praying  the  dread  arch  of  mystery  to  break,  and  the 
stars  that  roll  above  the  waves  of  mortal  trouble,  to  speak ; 
the  enthroned  majesty  of  those  awful  heights  to  find  a  voice; 
the  mysterious  and  reserved  heavens  to  come  near;  and  all  to 
tell  us  what  they  alone  know ;  to  give  us  information  of  the 
loved  and  lost ;  to  make  known  to  us  what  we  are,  and  whither  we 
are  going. 

Man  is  encompassed  with  a  dome  of  incomprehensible  wonders. 
In  him  and  about  him  is  that  which  should  fill  his  life  with  maj- 
esty and  sacredness.  Something  of  sublimity  and  sanctity  has 
thus  flashed  down  from  heaven  into  the  heart  of  every  one  that 
lives.  There  is  no  being  so  base  and  abandoned  but  hath  some 
traits  of  that  sacredness  left  upon  him ;  something,  so  much  per- 
haps in  discordance  with  his  general  repute,  that  he  hides  it  from 
all  around  him;  some  sanctuary  in  his  soul,  where  no  one  may 
enter;  some  sacred  inclosure,  where  the  memory  of  a  child  is,  or 
the  image  of  a  venerated  parent,  or  the  remembrance  of  a  pure 
love,  or  the  echo  of  some  word  of  kindness  once  spoken  to  him ; 
an  echo  that  will  never  die  away. 

Life  is  no  negative,  or  superficial  or  worldly  existence.  Our 
steps  are  evermore  haunted  with  thoughts,  far  beyond  their  own 
range,  which  some  have  regarded  as  the  reminiscences  of  a  pre- 
existent  state.  So  it  is  with  us  all,  in  the  beaten  and  worn  track 
of  this  wordlv  pilgrimage.  There  is  more  here;  than  the  world 
we  live  in.  It  is  not  all  of  life  to  live.  An  unseen  and  infinite 
presence  is  here ;  a  sense  of  something  greater  than  we  possess ;  a 
seeking,  through  all  the  void  wastes  of  life,  for  a  good  beyond  it ; 
a  crying  out  of  the  heart  for  interpretation ;  a  memory  of  the 
dead,  touching  continually  some  vibrating  thread  in  this  great  tis- 
sue of  mystery. 

We  all  not  only  have  better  intimations,  but  are  capable  of  bet- 


ter  things  than  we  know.  The  pressure  of  some  great  emergency 
would  develop  in  us  powers,  beyond  the  worldly  bias  of  our  spir- 
its;  and  Heaven  so  deals  with  us,  from  time  to  time,  as  to  call 
forth  those  better  things.  There  is  hardly  a  family  in  the  world 
so  selfish,  but  that,  if  one  in  it  were  doomed  to  die — one,  to  be 
selected  by  the  others, — it  would  be  utterly  impossible  for  its  mem- 
bers, parents  and  children,  to  choose  out  that  victim ;  but  that 
each  would  say,  "I  will  die;  but  I  cannot  choose."  And  in  how 
many,  if  that  dire  extremity  had  come,  would  not  one  and  another 
step  forth,  freed  from  the  vile  meshes  of  ordinary  selfishness,  and 
say,  like  the  Roman  father  and  son,  "Let  the  blow  fall  on  me !" 
There  are  greater  and  better  things  in  us  all,  than  the  world  takes 
account  of,  or  than  we  take  note  of;  if  we  would  but  find  them 
out.  And  it  is  one  pait  of  our  Masonic  culture  to  find  these  traits 
of  power  and  sublime  devotion,  to  revive  these  faded  impressions 
of  generosity  and  self-sacrifice,  the  almost  squandered  bequests  of 
God's  love  and  kindness  to  our  souls ;  and  to  induce  us  to  yield 
ourselves  to  their  guidance  and  control. 

Upon  all  conditions  of  men  presses  down  one  impartial  law.  To 
all  situations,  to  all  fortunes,  high  or  low,  the  mind  gives  their 
character.  They  are,  in  effect,  not  what  they  are  in  themselves, 
but  what  they  are  to  the  feeling  of  their  possessors.  The  King 
may  be  mean,  degraded,  miserable ;  the  slave  of  ambition,  fear, 
voluptuousness,  and  every  low  passion.  The  Peasant  may  be  the 
real  Monarch,  the  moral  master  of  his  fate,  a  free  and  lofty  being, 
more  than  a  Prince  in  happiness,  more  than  a  King  in  honor. 

Man  is  no  bubble  upon  the  sea  of  his  fortunes,  helpless  and 
irresponsible  upon  the  tide  of  events.  Out  of  the  same  circum- 
stances, different  men  bring  totally  different  results.  The  same 
difficulty,  distress,  poverty,  or  misfortune,  that  breaks  down  one 
man,  builds  up  another  and  makes  him  strong.  It  is  the  very  attri- 
bute and  glory  of  a  man,  that  he  can  bend  the  circumstances  of 
his  condition  to  the  intellectual  and  moral  purposes  of  his  nature, 
and  it  is  the  power  and  mastery  of  his  will  that  chiefly  distinguish 
him  from  the  brute. 

The  faculty  of  moral  will,  developed  in  the  child,  is  a  new  ele- 
ment of  his  nature.  It  is  a  new  power  brought  upon  the  scene, 
and  a  ruling  power,  delegated  from  Heaven.  Never  was  a  human 
being  sunk  so  low  that  he  had  not,  by  God's  gift,  the  power  to  rise. 
Because  God  commands  him  to  rise,  it  is  certain  that  he  can  rise. 


Every  man  has  the  power,  and  should  use  it,  to  make  all  situations, 
trials,  and  temptations  instruments  to  promote  his  virtue  and  hap- 
piness ;  and  is  so  far  from  being  the  creature  of  circumstances, 
that  he  creates  and  controls  them,  making  them  to  be  all  that  they 
are,  of  evil  or  of  good,  to  him  as  a  moral  being. 

Life  is  what  we  make  it,  and  the  world  is  what  we  make  it.  The 
eyes  of  the  cheerful  and  of  the  melancholy  man  are  fixed  upon 
the  same  creation  ;  but  very  different  are  the  aspects  which  it  bears 
to  them.  To  the  one,  it  is  all  beauty  and  gladness ;  the  waves  of 
ocean  roll  in  light,  and  the  mountains  are  covered  with  day.  Life, 
to  him,  flashes,  rejoicing,  upon  every  flower  and  every  tree  that 
trembles  in  the  breeze.  There  is  more  to  him,  everywhere,  than 
the  eye  sees ;  a  presence  of  profound  joy  on  hill  and  valley,  and 
bright,  dancing  water.  The  other  idly  or  mournfully  gazes  at  the 
same  scene,  and  even-thing  wears  a  dull,  dim,  and  sickly  aspect. 
The  murmuring  of  the  brooks  is  a  discord  to  him,  the  great  roar  of 
the  sea  has  an  angry  and  threatening  emphasis,  the  solemn  music 
of  the  pines  sings  the  requiem  of  his  departed  happiness,  the 
cheerful  light  shines  garishly  upon  his  eyes  and  offends  him.  The 
great  train  of  the  seasons  passes  before  him  like  a  funeral  proces- 
sion ;  and  he  sighs,  and  turns  impatiently  away.  The  eye  makes 
that  which  it  looks  upon ;  the  ear  makes  its  own  melodies  and 
discords ;  the  world  without  reflects  the  \vorld  within. 

Let  the  Mason  never  forget  that  life  and  the  world  are  what  we 
make  them  by  our  social  character ;  by  our  adaptation,  or  want  of 
adaptation  to  the  social  conditions,  relationships,  and  pursuits  of 
the  world.  To  the  selfish,  the  cold,  and  the  insensible,  to  the 
haughty  and  presuming,  to  the  proud,  who  demand  more  than 
they  are  likely  to  receive,  to  the  jealous,  ever  afraid  they  shall  not 
receive  enough,  to  those  who  are  unreasonably  sensitive  about  the 
good  or  ill  opinions  of  others,  to  all  violators  of  the  social  laws, 
the  rude,  the  violent,  the  dishonest,  and  the  sensual,^-to  all  these, 
the  social  condition,  from  its  very  nature,  will  present  annoyances, 
disappointments,  and  pains,  appropriate  to  their  several  charac- 
ters. The  benevolent  affections  will  not  revolve  around  selfish- 
ness ;  the  cold-hearted  must  expect  to  meet  coldness ;  the  proud, 
haughtiness ;  the  passionate,  anger ;  and  the  violent,  rudeness. 
Those  who  forget  the  rights  of  others,  must  not  be  surprised  if 
their  own  are  forgotten ;  and  those  who  stoop  to  the  lowest  em- 
braces of  sense  must  not  wonder,  if  others  are  not  concerned  to 


find  their  prostrate  honor,  and  lift  it  up  to  the  remembrance  and 
respect  of  the  world. 

To  the  gentle,  many  will  be  gentle ;  to  the  kind,  many  will  be 
kind.  A  good  man  will  find  that  there  is  goodness  in  the  world ; 
an  honest  man  will  find  that  there  is  honesty  in  the  world ;  and  a 
man  of  principle  will  find  principle  and  integrity  in  the  minds  of 

There  are  no  blessings  which  the  mind  may  not  convert  into  the 
bitterest  of  evils ;  and  no  trials  which  it  may  not  transform  into 
the  noblest  and  divinest  blessings.  There  are  no  temptations  from 
which  assailed  virtue  may  not  gain  strength,  instead  of  falling  be- 
fore them,  vanquished  and  subdued.  It  is  true  that  temptations 
have  a  great  power,  and  virtue  often  falls ;  but  the  might  of  these 
temptations  lies  not  in  themselves,  but  in  the  feebleness  of  our 
own  virtue,  and  the  weakness  of  our  own  hearts.  We  rely  too 
much  on  the  strength  of  our  ramparts  and  bastions,  and  allow  the 
enemy  to  make  his  approaches,  by  trench  and  parallel,  at  his  lei- 
sure. The  offer  of  dishonest  gain  and  guilty  pleasure  makes  the 
honest  man  more  honest,  and  the  pure  man  more  pure.  They 
raise  his  virtue  to  the  height  of  towering  indignation.  The  fair 
occasion,  the  safe  opportunity,  the  tempting  chance  become  the 
defeat  and  disgrace  of  the  tempter.  The  honest  and  upright  man 
does  not  wait  until  temptation  has  made  its  approaches  and 
mounted  its  batteries  on  the  last  parallel. 

But  to  the  impure,  the  dishonest,  the  false-hearted,  the  corrupt, 
and  the  sensual,  occasions  come  every  day,  and  in  every  scene,  and 
through  every  avenue  of  thought  and  imagination.  He  is  pre- 
pared to  capitulate  before  the  first  approach  is  commenced ;  and 
sends  out  the  white  flag  when  the  enemy's  advance  comes  in  sight 
of  his  walls.  He  makes  occasions ;  or,  if  opportunities  come  not, 
evil  thoughts  come,  and  he  throws  wide  open  the  gates  of  his  heart 
and  welcomes  those  bad  visitors,  and  entertains  them  with  a  lavish 

The  business  of  the  world  absorbs,  corrupts,  ar,d  degrades  one 
mind,  while  in  another  it  feeds  and  nurses  the  noblest  independ- 
ence, integrity,  and  generosity.  Pleasure  is  a -poison  to  some,  and 
a  healthful  refreshment  to  others.  To  one,  the  world  is  a  great 
harmony,  like  a  noble  strain  of  music  vvith  infinite  modulations ; 
to  another,  it  is  a  huge  factory,  the  riash  and  clang  of  whose  ma- 
chitrery  jars'upon-his  ears  and  fre'.s  him  to  madness.  Life  is  sub- 


stantially  the  same  thing  to  all  who  partake  of  its  lot.  Yet  some 
rise  to  virtue  aad  glory ;  while  others,  undergoing  the  same  disci- 
pline, and  enjoying  the  same  privileges,  sink  to  shame  and  per- 

Thorough,  faithful,  and  honest  endeavor  to  improve,  is  always 
successful,  and  the  highest  happiness.  To  sigh  sentimentally  over 
human  misfortune,  is  fit  only  for  the  mind's  childhood ;  and  the 
mind's  misery  is  chiefly  its  own  fault;  appointed,  under  the  good 
Providence  of  God,  as  the  punisher  and  corrector  of  its  fault.  In 
the  long  run,  the  mind  will  be  happy,  just  in  proportion  to  its 
fidelity  and  wisdom.  When  it  is  miserable,  it  has  planted  the 
thorns  in  its  own  path ;  it  grasps  them,  and  cries  out  in  loud  com- 
plaint ;  and  that  complaint  is  but  the  louder  confession  that  the 
thorns  which  grew  there,  it  planted. 

A  certain  kind  and  degree  of  spirituality  enter  into  the  largest 
part  of  even  the  most  ordinary  life.  You  can  carry  on  no  busi- 
ness, without  some  faith  in  man.  You  cannot  even  dig  in  the 
ground,  without  a  reliance  on  the  unseen  result.  You  cannot 
think  or  reason  or  even  step,  without  confiding  in  the  inward, 
spiritual  principles  of  your  nature.  All  the  affections  and  bonds, 
and  hopes  and  interests  of  life  centre  in  the  spiritual ;  and  you 
know  that  if  that  central  bond  were  broken,  the  wrorld  would  rush 
to  chaos. 

Believe  that  there  is  a  God ;  that  He  is  our  father ;  that  He  has 
a  paternal  interest  in  our  welfare  and  improvement;  that  He  has 
given  us  powers,  by  means  of  which  we  may  escape  from  sin  and 
ruin ;  that  He  has  destined  us  to  a  future  life  of  endless  progress 
toward  perfection  and  a  knowledge  of  Himself — believe  this,  as 
every  Mason  should,  and  you  can  live  calmly,  endure  patiently, 
labor  resolutely,  deny  yourselves  cheerfully,  hope  steadfastly,  and 
be  conquerors  in  the  great  struggle  of  life.  Take  away  any  one 
of  these  principles,  and  what  remains  for  us?  Say  that  there  is 
no  God ;  or  no  way  opened  for  hope  and  reformation  and  triumph, 
no  heaven  to  come,  no  rest  for  the  weary,  no  home  in  the  bosom 
of  God  for  the  afflicted  and  disconsolate  soul ;  or  that  God  is  but 
an  ugly  blind  Chance  that  stabs  in  the  dark;  or  a  somewhat  that 
is,  when  attempted  to  be  defined,  a  /zovrhat,  emotionless,  passion- 
less, the  Supreme  Apathy  to  which  all  things,  good  and  evil,  are 
alike  indifferent :  or  a  jealous  God  who  revengefully  visits  the  sins 
of  the  fathers  on  the  children,  and  when  the  fathers  have  eaten 


sour  grapes,  sets  the  children's  teeth  on  edge ;  an  arbitrary  su- 
preme Will,  that  has  made  it  right  to  be  virtuous,  and  wrong  to 
lie  and  steal,  because  IT  pleased  to  make  it  so  rather  than  other- 
wise, retaining  the  power  to  reverse  the  law ;  or  a  fickle,  vacillat- 
ing, inconstant  Deity,  or  a  cruel,  bloodthirsty,  savage  Hebrew  or 
Puritanic  one;  and  we  are  but  the  sport  of  chance  and  the  vic- 
tims of  despair;  hapless  wanderers  upon  the  face  of  a  desolate, 
forsaken,  or  accursed  and  hated  earth;  surrounded  by  darkness, 
struggling  with  obstacles,  toiling  for  barren  results  and  empty  pur- 
poses, distracted  with  doubts,  and  misled  by  false  gleams  of  light ; 
wanderers  with  no  way,  no  prospect,  no  home;  doomed  and  de- 
serted mariners  on  a  dark  and  stormy  sea,  without  compass  or 
course,  to  whom  no  stars  appear;  tossing  helmless  upon  the  wel- 
tering, angry  waves,  with  no  blessed  haven  in  the  distance  whose 
guiding-star  invites  us  to  its  welcome  rest. 

The  religiou?  faith  thus  taught  by  Masonry  is  indispensable  to 
the  attainment  of  the  great  ends  of  life ;  and  must  therefore  have 
been  designed  to  be  a  part  of  it.  We  are  made  for  this  faith ;  and 
there  must  be  something,  somewhere,  for  us  to  believe  in.  We 
cannot  grow  heakh fully,  nor  live  happily,  without  it.  It  is  there- 
fore true.  If  we  could  cut  off  from  any  soul  all  the  principles 
taught  by  Masonry,  the  faith  in  a  God,  in  immortality,  in  virtue, 
in  essential  rectitude,  that  soul  would  sink  into  sin,  misery,  dark- 
ness, and  ruin.  If  we  could  cut  off  all  sense  of  these  truths,  the 
man  would  sink  at  once  to  the  grade  of  the  animal. 

No  man  can  suffer  and  be  patient,  can  struggle  and  conquer,  can 
improve  and  be  happy,  otherwise  than  as  the  swine  are,  without 
conscience,  without  hope,  without  a  reliance  on  a  just,  wise,  and 
beneficent  God.  We  must,  of  necessity,  embrace  the  great  truths 
taught  by  Masonry,  and  live  by  them,  to  live  happily.  "I  put  my 
trust  in  God,"  is  the  protest  of  Masonry  against  the  belief  in  a 
cruel,  angry,  and  revengeful  God,  to  be  feared  and  not  reverenced 
by  His  creatures. 

Society,  in  its  great  relations,  is  as  much  the  creation  of  Heaven 
as  is  the  system  of  the  Universe.  If  that  bond  of  gravitation 
that  holds  all  worlds  and  systems  together,  were  suddenly  severed, 
the  universe  would  fly  into  wild  and  boundless  chaos.  And  ii  we 
were  to  sever  all  the  moral  bonds  that  hold  society  together ;  if  we 
could  cut  off  from  it  every  conviction  of  Trutn  and  Integrity,  of 
an  authority  above  it,  and  of  a  conscience  within  it,  it  would  im- 


mediately  rush  to  disorder  and  frightful  anarchy  and  ruin.  The 
religion  we  teach  is  therefore  as  really  a  principle  of  things,  and 
as  certain  and  true,  as  gravitation. 

Faith  in  moral  principles,  in  virtue,  and  in  God,  is  as  necessary 
for  the  guidance  of  a  man,  as  instinct  is  for  the  guidance  of  an  ani- 
mal. And  therefore  this  faith,  as  a  principle  of  man's  nature,  has 
a  mission  ac  truly  authentic  in  God's  Providence,  as  the  principle 
of  instinct.  The  pleasures  of  the  soul,  too,  must  depend  on  cer- 
tain principles.  They  must  recognize  a  soul,  its  properties  and 
responsibilities,  a  conscience,  and  the  sense  of  an  authority  above 
us;  and  these  are  the  principles  of  faith.  No  man  can  suffer  and 
be  patient,  can  struggle  and  conquer,  can  improve  and  be  happy, 
without  conscience,  without  hope,  without  a  reliance  on  a  just, 
wise,  and  beneficent  God.  We  must  of  necessity  embrace  the 
great  truths  taught  by  Masonry,  and  live  by  them,  to  live  happily. 
Everything  in  the  universe  has  fixed  and  certain  law^  and  prin- 
ciples for  its  action ; — the  star  in  its  orbit,  the  animal  in  its  activ- 
ity, the  physical  man  in  his  functions.  And  he  has  likewise  fixed 
and  certain  laws  and  principles  as  a  spiritual  being.  His  soul  does 
not  die  for  want  of  aliment  or  guidance.  For  the  rational  soul 
there  is  ample  provision.  From  the  lofty  pine,  rocked  in  the  dark- 
ening tempest,  the  cry  of  the  young  raven  is  heard ;  and  it  would 
be  most  strange  if  there  were  no  answer  for  the  cry  and  call  of  the 
soul,  tortured  by  want  and  sorrow  and  agony.  The  total  rejection 
of  all  moral  and  religious  belief  would  strike  out  a  principle  from 
human  nature,  as  essential  to  it  as  gravitation  to  the  stars,  in- 
stinct to  animal  life,  the  circulation  of  the  blood  to  the  human 

God  has  ordained  that  life  shall  be  a  social  state.  We  are  mem- 
bers of  a  civil  community.  The  life  of  that  community  depends 
upon  its  meral  condition.  Public  spirit,  intelligence,  uprightness, 
temperance,  kindness,  domestic  purity,  will  make  it  a  happy  com- 
munity, and  give  it  prosperity  and  continuance.  Wide-spread  self- 
ishness, dishonesty,  intemperance,  libertinism,  corruption,  and 
crime,  will  make  it  miserable,  and  bring  about  dissolution  and 
speedy  ruin.  A  whole  people  lives  one  life ;  one  mighty  heart 
heaves  in  its  bosom ;  it  is  one  great  pulse  of  existence  that  throbs 
there.  One  stream  of  life  flows  there,  with  ten  thousand  inter- 
mingled branches  and  channels,  through  all  the  homes  of  human 
love.  One  sound  as  of  many  waters,  a  rapturous  jubilee  or  a 


mournful  sighing,  comes  up  from  the  congregated  dwellings  of  a 
whole  nation. 

The  Public  is  no  vague  abstraction;  nor  should  that  which  is 
done  against  that  Public,  against  public  interest,  law,  or  virtue, 
press  but  lightly  on  the  conscience.  It  is  but  a  vast  expansion  of 
individual  life;  an  ocean  of  tears,  an  atmosphere  of  sighs,  or  a 
great  whole  of  joy  and  gladness.  It  suffers  with  the  suffering  of 
millions;  it  rejoices  with  the  joy  of  millions.  What  a  vast  crime 
does  he  commit, — private  man  or  public  man,  agent  or  contractor, 
legislator  or  magistrate,  secretary  or  president, — who  dares,  with 
indignity  and  wrong,  to  strike  the  bosom  of  the  Public  Welfare,  to 
encourage  venality  and  corruption,  and  shameful  sale  of  the  elec- 
tive franchise,  or  of  office;  to  sow  dissension,  and  to  weaken  the 
bonds  of  amity  that  bind  a  Nation  together!  What  a  huge  ini- 
quity, he  who,  with  vices  like  the  daggers  of  a  parricide,  dares  to 
pierce  that  mighty  heart,  in  which  the  ocean  of  existence  is  flow- 

What  an  unequalled  interest  lies  in  the  virtue  of  every  one  whom 
we  love !  In  his  virtue,  nowhere  but  in  his  virtue,  is  garnered  up 
the  incomparable  treasure.  What  care  we  for  brother  or  friend, 
compared  with  what  we  care  for  his  honor,  his  fidelity,  his  reputa- 
tion, his  kindness?  How  venerable  is  the  rectitude  of  a  parent! 
How  sacred  his  reputation !  No  blight  that  can  fall  upon  a  child, 
is  like  a  parent's  dishonor.  Heathen  or  Christian,  every  parent 
would  have  his  child  do  well ;  and  pours  out  upon  him  all  the  full- 
ness of  parental  love,  in  the  one  desire  that  he  may  do  well ;  that 
he  may  be  worthy  of  his  cares,  and  his  freely  bestowed  pains ;  that 
he  may  walk  in  the  way  of  honor  and  happiness.  In  that  way  he 
cannot  walk  one  step  without  virtue.  Such  is  life,  in  its  relation- 
ships. A  thousand  ties  embrace  it,  like  the  fine  nerves  of  a  deli- 
cate organization ;  like  the  strings  of  an  instrument  capable  of 
sweet  melodies,  but  easily  put  out  of  tune  or  broken,  by  rudeness, 
anger,  and  selfish  indulgence. 

If  life  could,  by  any  process,  be  made  insensible  to  pain  and 
pleasure ;  if  the  human  heart  were  hard  as  adamant,  then  avarice, 
ambition,  and  sensuality  might  channel  out  their  paths  in  it,  and 
make  it  their  beaten  way ;  and  none  would  wonder  or  protest.  If 
we  could  be  patient  under  the  load  of  a  mere,  worldly  life ;  if  we 
could  bear  that  burden  as  the  beasts  bear  it ;  then,  like  beasts,  we 
might  bend  all  our  thoughts  to  the  earth ;  and  no  call  from  the 


great  Heavens  above  us  would  startle  us  from  our  plodding  and 
earthly  course. 

But  we  are  not  insensible  brutes,  who  can  refuse  the  call  of  rea- 
son and  conscience.  The  soul  is  capable  of  remorse.  When  the 
great  dispensations  of  life  press  down  upon  us,  we  weep,  and  suffer 
and  sorrow.  And  sorrow  and  agony  desire  other  companionships 
than  worldliness  and  irreligion.  We  are  not  willing  to  bear  those 
burdens  of  the  heart,  fear,  anxiety,  disappointment,  and  trouble, 
without  any  object  or  use.  We  are  not  willing  to  suffer,  to  be  sick 
and  afflicted,  to  have  our  days  and  months  lost  to  comfort  and  joy, 
and  overshadowed  with  calamity  and  grief,  without  advantage  or 
compensation ;  to  barter  away  the  dearest  treasures,  the  very  suf- 
ferings, of  the  heart;  to  sell  the  life-blood  from  failing  frame  and 
fading  cheek,  our  tears  of  bitterness  and  groans  of  anguish,  for 
nothing.  Human  nature,  frail,  feeling,  sensitive,  and  sorrowing, 
cannot  bear  to  suffer  for  nought. 

Everywhere,  human  life  is  a  great  and  solemn  dispensation. 
Man,  suffering,  enjoying,  loving,  hating,  hoping,  and  fearing, 
chained  to  the  earth  and  yet  exploring  the  far  recesses  of  the  uni- 
verse, has  the  power  to  commune  with  God  and  His  angels. 
Around  this  great  action  of  existence  the  curtains  of  Time  are 
drawn ;  but  there  are  openings  through  them  which  give  us 
glimpses  of  eternity.  God  looks  down  upon  this  scene  of  human 
probation.  The  wise  and  the  good  in  all  ages  have  interposed  for 
it,  with  their  teachings  and  their  blood.  Everything  that  exists 
around  us,  every  movement  in  nature,  every  counsel  of  Provi- 
dence, every  interposition  of  God,  centres  upon  one  point — the 
fidelity  of  man.  And  even  if  the  ghosts  of  the  departed  and  re- 
membered could  come  at  midnight  through  the  barred  doors  of 
our  dwellings,  and  the  shrouded  dead  should  glide  through  the 
aisles  of  our  churches  and  sit  in  our  Masonic  Temples,  their  teach- 
ings would  be  no  more  eloquent  and  impressive  than  the  dread 
realities  of  life;  than  those  memories  of  misspent  years,  those 
ghosts  of  departed  opportunities,  that,  pointing  to  our  conscience 
and  eternity,  cry  continually  in  our  ears,  "Work  while  the 
day  lasts!  for  the  night  of  death  cometh,  in  which  no  man  can 

There  are  no  tokens  of  public  mourning  for  the  calamity  of  the 
soul.  Men  weep  when  the  body  dies ;  and  when  it  is  borne  to  its 
last  rest,  they  follow  it  with  sad  and  mournful  procession.  But 


for  the  dying  soul,  there  is  no  open  lamentation ;  for  the  lost  soul 
there  are  no  obsequies. 

And  yet  the  mind  and  soul  of  man  have  a  value  which  nothing 
else  has.  They  are  worth  a  care  which  nothing  else  is  worth ;  and 
to  the  single,  solitary  individual,  they  ought  to  possess  an  interest 
which  nothing  else  possesses.  The  stored  treasures  of  the  heart, 
the  unfathomable  mines  that  are  in  the  soul  to  be  wrought,  the 
broad  and  boundless  realms  of  Thought,  the  freighted  argosy  of 
man's  hopes  and  best  affections,  are  brighter  than  gold  and  dearer 
than  treasure. 

And  yet  the  mind  is  in  reality  little  known  or  considered.  It  is 
all  which  man  permanently  is,  his  inward  being,  his  divine  energy, 
his  immortal  thought,  his  boundless  capacity,  his  infinite  aspira- 
tion ;  and  nevertheless,  few  value  it  for  what  it  is  worth.  Few  see 
a  brother-mind  in  others,  through  the  rags  with  which  poverty 
has  clothed  it,  beneath  the  crushing  burdens  of  life,  amidst  the 
close  pressure  of  worldly  troubles,  wants  and  sorrows.  Few 
acknowledge  and  cheer  it  in  that  humble  lot,  and  feel  that 
the  nobility  of  earth,  and  the  commencing  glory  of  Heaven  are 

Men  do  not  feel  the  worth  of  their  own  souls.  They  are  proud 
of  their  mental  powers ;  but  the  intrinsic,  inner,  infinite  worth  of 
their  own  minds  they  do  not  perceive.  The  poor  man,  admitted 
to  a  palace,  feels,  lofty  and  immortal  being  as  he  is,  like  a  mere 
ordinary  thing  amid  the  splendors  that  surround  him.  He  sees  the 
carriage  of  wealth  roll  by  him,  and  forgets  the  intrinsic  and  eter- 
nal dignity  of  his  own  mind  in  a  poor  and  degrading  envy,  and 
feels  as  an  humbler  creature,  because  others  are  above  him,  not  in 
mind,  but  in  mensuration.  Men  respect  themselves,  according  as 
they  are  more  wealthy,  higher  in  rank  or  office,  loftier  in  the 
world's  opinion,  able  to  command  more  votes,  more  the  favorites 
of  the  people  or  of  Power. 

The  difference  among  men  is  not  so  much  in  their  nature  and 
intrinsic  power,  as  in  the  faculty  of  communication.  Some  have 
the  capacity  of  uttering  and  embodying  in  words  their  thoughts. 
All  men,  more  or  less,  feel  those  thoughts.  The  glory  of  genius 
and  the  rapture  of  virtue,  when  rightly  revealed,  are  diffused  and 
shared  among  unnumbered  minds.  When  eloquence  and  poetry 
speak ;  when  those  glorious  arts,  statuary,  painting,  and  music, 
take  audible  or  visible  shape ;  when  patriotism,  charity,  and  virtue 


speak  with  a  thrilling  potency,  the  hearts  of  thousands  glow  with 
a  kindred  joy  and  ecstasy.  If  it  were  not  so.  there  would  be  no 
eloquence ;  for  eloquence  is  that  to  which  other  hearts  respond ;  it 
is  the  faculty  and  power  of  making  other  hearts  respond.  No  one 
is  so  low  or  degraded,  as  not  sometimes  to  be  touched  with  the 
beauty  of  goodness.  No  heart  is  made  of  materials  so  common, 
or  even  base,  as  not  sometimes  to  respond,  through  every  chord  of 
it,  to  the  call  of  honor,  patriotism,  generosity,  and  virtue.  The 
poor  African  Slave  will  die  for  the  master  or  mistress,  or  in  de- 
fence of  the  children,  whom  he  loves.  The  poor,  lost,  scorned, 
abandoned,  outcast  woman  will,  without  expectation  of  reward, 
nurse  those  who  are  dying  on  every  hand,  utter  strangers  to  her, 
with  a  contagious  and  horrid  pestilence.  The  pickpocket  will 
scale  burning  walls  to  rescue  child  or  woman,  unknown  to  him, 
from  the  ravenous  flames. 

Most  glorious  is  this  capacity !  A  power  to  commune  with  God 
and  His  Angels ;  a  reflection  of  the  Uncreated  Light ;  a  mirror 
that  can  collect  and  concentrate  upon  itself  all  the  moral  splen- 
dors of  the  Universe.  It  is  the  soul  alone  that  gives  any  value  to 
the  things  of  this  world ;  and  it  is  only  by  raising  the  soul  to  its 
just  elevation  above  all  other  things,  that  wre  can  look  rightly 
upon  the  purposes  of  this  earth.  No  sceptre  nor  throne,  nor  struc- 
ture of  ages,  nor  broad  empire,  can  compare  with  the  wonders  and 
grandeurs  of  a  single  thought.  That  alone,  of  all  things  that 
have  been  made,  comprehends  the  Maker  of  all.  That  alone  is 
the  key  which  unlocks  all  the  treasures  of  the  Universe;  the 
power  that  reigns  over  Space,  Time,  and  Eternity.  That,  under 
God,  is  the  Sovereign  Dispenser  to  man  of  all  the  blessings  and 
glories  that  lie  within  the  compass  of  possession,  or  the  range  of 
possibility.  Virtue.  Heaven,  and  Immortality  exist  not,  nor  ever 
will  exist  for  us  except  as  they  exist  and  will  exist,  in  the  percep- 
tion, feeling,  and  thought  of  the  glorious  mind. 

My  Brother,  in  the  hope  that  you  have  listened  to  and  under- 
stood the  Instruction  and  Lecture  of  this  Degree,  and  that  you 
feel  the  dignity  of  your  own  nature  and  the  vast  capacities  of  your 
own  soul  for  good  or  evil,  I  proceed  briefly  to  communicate  to  you 
the  remaining  instruction  of  this  Degree. 

The  Hebrew  word,  in  the  old  Hebrew  and  Samaritan  character, 
suspended  in  the  East,  over  the  five  columns,  is  ADONAI,  one  of 
the  names  of  God,  usually  translated  Lord;  and  which  the  He- 


bi  ews,  in  reading,  always  substitute  for  the  True  Name,  which  is 
for  them  ineffable. 

The  five  columns,  in  the  five  different  orders  of  architecture,  are 
emblematical  to  us  of  the  five  principal  divisions  of  the  Ancient 
and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  : 

i. — The  Tuscan,  of  the  three  blue  Degrees,  or  the  primitive 

2. — The  Doric,  of  the  ineffable  Degrees,  from  the  fourth  to  the 
fourteenth,  inclusive. 

3. — The  Ionic,  of  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth,  or  second  temple 

4. — The  Corinthian,  of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  Degrees, 
or  those  of  the  new  law. 

5. — The  Composite,  of  the  philosophical  and  chivalric  Degrees 
intermingled,  from  the  nineteenth  to  the  thirty-second,  in- 

The  North  Star,  always  fixed  and  immutable  for  us,  represents 
the  point  in  the  centre  of  the  circle,  or  the  Deity  in  the  centre  of 
the  Universe.  It  is  the  especial  symbol  of  duty  and  of  faith.  To 
it,  and  the  seven  that  continually  revolve  around  it,  mystical 
meanings  are  attached,  which  you  will  learn  hereafter,  if  you 
should  be  permitted  to  advance,  when  you  are  made  acquainted 
with  the  philosophical  doctrines  of  the  Hebrews. 

The  Morning  Star,  rising  in  the  East,  Jupiter,  called  by  the 
Hebrews  Tsadoc  or  Tsydyk,  Just,  is  an  emblem  to  us  of  the  ever- 
approaching  dawn  of  perfection  and  Masonic  light. 

The  three  great  lights  of  the  Lodge  are  symbols  to  us  of  the 
Power,  Wisdom,  and  Beneficence  of  the  Deity.  They  are  also 
symbols  of  the  first  three  Sephiroth,  or  Emanations  of  the  Deity, 
according  to  the  Kabalah,  K ether,  the  omnipotent  divine  will; 
Chochmah,  the  divine  intellectual  power  to  generate  thought,  and 
Binah,  the  divine  intellectual  capacity  to  produce  it — the  two  lat- 
ter, usually  translated  Wisdom  and  Understanding,  being  the 
active  and  the  passive,  the  positive  and  the  negative,  which  we  do 
not  yet  endeavor  to  explain  to  you.  They  are  the  columns  Jachin 
and  Boaz,  that  stand  at  the  entrance  to  the  Masonic  Temple. 

In  another  aspect  of  this  Degree,  the  Chief  of  the  Architects 
[D^2  31,  Rab  Banaim,]  symbolizes  the  constitutional  executive 
head  and  chief  of  a  free  government ;  and  the  Degree  teaches  us 
that  no  free  government  can  long  endure,  when  the  people  cease 


to  select  for  their  magistrates  the  best  and  the  wisest  of  their 
statesmen ;  when,  passing  these  by,  they  permit  factions  or  sordid 
interests  to  select  for  them  the  small,  the  low,  the  ignoble,  and  the 
obscure,  and  into  such  hands  commit  the  country's  destinies. 
There  is,  after  all,  a  "divine  right"  to  govern;  and  it  is  vested  in 
the  ablest,  wisest,  best,  of  every  nation.  "Counsel  is  mine,  and 
sound  wisdom :  I  am  understanding :  I  am  power :  by  me  kings 
do  reign,  and  princes  decree  justice;  by  me  princes  rule,  and 
nobles,  even  all  the  magistrates  of  the  earth." 

For  the  present,  my  Brother,  let  this  suffice.  We  welcome  you 
among  us,  to  this  peaceful  retreat  of  virtue,  to  a  participation  in 
our  privileges,  to  a  share  in  our  joys  and  our  sorrows. 



WHETHER  the  legend  and  history  of  this  Degree  are  historically 
true,  or  but  an  allegory,  containing  in  itself  a  deeper  truth  and  a 
pro  founder  meaning,  we  shall  not  now  debate.  If  it  be  but  a 
legendary  myth,  you  must  find  out  for  yourself  what  it  means.  It 
is  certain  that  the  word  which  the  Hebrews  are  not  now  permitted 
to  pronounce  was  in  common  use  by  Abraham,  Lot,  Isaac,  Jacob, 
Laban,  Rebecca,  and  even  among  tribes  foreign  to  the  Hebrews, 
before  the  time  of  Moses;  and  that  it  recurs  a  hundred  times  in 
the  lyrical  effusions  of  David  and  other  Hebrew  poets. 

We  know  that  for  many  centuries  the  Hebrews  have  been  for.- 
bidclen  to  pronounce  the  Sacred  Name ;  that  wherever  it  occurs, 
they  have  for  ages  read  the  word  Adonai  instead ;  and  that  under 
n.  when  the  masoretic  points,  which  represent  the  vowels,  came  to 
be  used,  they  placed  those  which  belonged  to  the  latter  word. 
The  possession  of  the  true  pronunciation  was  deemed  to  confer  on 
him  who  had  it  extraordinary  and  supernatural  powers ;  and  the 
Word  itself,  worn  upon  the  person,  was  regarded  as  an  amulet,  a 
protection  against  personal  danger,  sickness,  and  evil  spirits.  We 
know  that  all  this  was  a  vain  superstition,  natural  to  a  rude  peo- 
ple, necessarily  disappearing  as  the  intellect  of  man  became  en- 
lightened ;  and  wholly  unworthy  of  a  Mason. 

It  is  noticeable  that  this  notion  of  the  sanctity  of  the  Divine 

Name  or  Creative  Word  was  common  to  all  the  ancient  nations. 

The  Sacred  Word  HOM  was  supposed  by  the  ancjent  Persians  (who 

were  among  the  earliest  emigrants  from  Northern  India)  to  be 



pregnant  with  a  mysteiious  power;  and  they  taught  that  by  its 
utterance  the  world  was  created.  In  India  it  was  forbidden  to 
pronounce  the  word  AUM  or  OM,  the  Sacred  Name  of  the  One 
Deity,  manifested  as  Brahma,  Vishna,  and  Seeva. 

These  superstitious  notions  in  regard  to  the  efficacy  of  the  Word, 
and  the  prohibition  against  pronouncing  it,  could,  being  errors, 
have  formed  no  part  of  the  pure  primitive  religion,  or  of  the 
esoteric  doctrine  taught  by  Moses,  and  the  full  knowledge  of  which 
was  confined  to  the  Initiates ;  unless  the  whole  was  but  an  ingeni- 
ous invention  for  the  concealment  of  some  other  Name  or  truth, 
the  interpretation  and  meaning  whereof  was  made  known  only  to 
the  select  few.  If  so,  the  common  notions  in  regard  to  the  Word 
grew  up  in  the  minds  of  the  people,  like  other  errors  and  fables 
among  all  the  ancient  nations,  out  of  original  truths  and  symbols 
and  allegories  misunderstood.  So  it  has  always  been  that  allego- 
ries, intended  as  vehicles  of  truth,  to  be  understood  by  the  sages, 
have  become  or  bred  errors,  by  being  literally  accepted. 

It  is  true,  that  before  the  masoretic  points  were  invented  (which 
was  after  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era),  the  pronunciation 
of  a  word  in  the  Hebrew  language  could  not  be  known  from  the 
characters  in  which  it  was  written.  It  was,  therefore,  possible  for 
that  of  the  name  of  the  Deity  to  have  been  forgotten  and  lost.  It 
is  certain  that  its  true  pronunciation  is  not  that  represented  by  the 
word  Jehovah ;  and  therefore  that  that  is  not  the  true  name  of 
Deity,  nor  the  Ineffable  Word. 

The  ancient  symbols  and  allegories  always  had  more  than  one 
interpretation.  They  always  had  a  double  meaning,  and  sometimes 
more  than  two,  one  serving  as  the  envelope  of  the  other.  Thus 
the  pronunciation  of  the  word  was  a  symbol ;  and  that  pronuncia- 
tion and  the  word  itself  were  lost,  when  the  knowledge  of  the  true 
nature  and  attributes  of  God  faded  out  of  the  minds  of  the  Jewish 
people.  That  is  one  interpretation — true,  but  not  the  inner  and 
profoundest  one. 

Men  were  figuratively  said  to  forget  the  name  of  God,  when  they 
lost  that  knowledge,  and  worshipped  the  heathen  deities,  and 
burned  incense  to  them  on  the  high  places,  and  passed  their  chil- 
dren through  the  fire  to  Moloch. 

Thus  the  attempts  of  the  ancient  Israelites  and  of  the  Initiates 
to  ascertain  the  True  Name  of  the  Deity,  and  its  pronounciation, 
and  the  loss  of  the  True  Word,  are  an  allegory,  in  which  are  rep- 


resented  the  general  ignorance  of  the  true  nature  and  attributes 
of  God,  the  proneness  of  the  people  of  Judah  and  Israel  to  wor- 
ship other  deities,  and  their  low  and  erroneous  and  dishonoring 
notions  of  the  Grand  Architect  of  the  Universe,  which  all  shared 
except  a  few  favored  persons ;  for  even  Solomon  built  altars  and 
sacrificed  to  Astarat,  the  goddess  of  the  Tsidunim,  and  Malcum, 
the  Aamunite  god,  and  built  high  places  for  Kamus,  the  Moabite 
deity,  and  Malec  the  god  of  the  Beni-Aamun.  The  true  nature  of 
God  was  unknown  to  them,  like  His  name;  and  they  worshipped 
the  calves  of  Jeroboam,  as  in  the  desert  they  did  that  made  for 
them  by  Aarun. 

The  mass  of  the  Hebrews  did  not  believe  in  the  existence  of  one 
only  God  until  a  late  period  in  their  history.  Their  early  and 
popular  ideas  of  the  Deity  were  singularly  low  and  unworthy. 
Even  while  Moses  was  receiving  the  law  upon  Mount  Sinai,  they 
forced  Aarun  to  make  them  an  image  of  the  Egyptian  god  Apis, 
and  fell  down  and  adored  it.  They  were  ever  ready  to  return  to 
the  worship  of  the  gods  of  the  Mitzraim ;  and  soon  after  the  death 
of  Joshua  they  became  devout  worshippers  of  the  false  gods  of  all 
the  surrounding  nations.  "Ye  have  borne,"  Amos,  the  prophet, 
said  to  them,  speaking  of  their  forty  years'  journeying  in  the  des- 
ert, under  Moses,  "the  tabernacle  of  your  Malec  and  Kaiun  your 
idols,  the  star  of  your  god,  which  ye  made  to  yourselves." 

Among  them,  as  among  other  nations,  the  conceptions  of  God 
formed  by  individuals  varied  according  to  their  intellectual  and 
spiritual  capacities ;  poor  and  imperfect,  and  investing  God  with 
the  commonest  and  coarsest  attributes  of  humanity,  among  the 
ignorant  and  coarse ;  pure  and  lofty  among  the  virtuous  and  richly 
gifted.  These  conceptions  gradually  improved  and  became  puri- 
fied and  ennobled,  as  the  nation  advanced  in  civilization — being 
lowest  in  the  historical  books,  amended  in  the  prophetic  writings, 
and  reaching  their  highest  elevation  among  the  poets. 

Among  all  the  ancient  nations  there  was  one  faith  and  one 
idea  of  Deity  for  the  enlightened,  intelligent,  and  educated,  and 
another  for  the  common  people.  To  this  rule  the  Hebrews  were  no 
exception.  Yehovah,  to  the  mass  of  the  people,  was  like  the  gods 
of  the  nations  around  them,  except  that  he  was  the  peculiar  God, 
first  of  the  family  of  Abraham,  of  that  of  Isaac,  and  of  that  of 
Jacob,  and  afterward  the  Nationa1  God ;  and,  as  they  believed, 
more  powerful  than  the  other  gode  of  the  same  nature  worshipped 


by  their  neighbors — "Who  among  the  Baalim  is  like  unto  thee,  O 
Yehovah  ?" — expressed  their  whole  creed. 

The  Deity  of  the  early  Hebrews  talked  to  Adam  and  Eve  in  the 
garden  of  delight,  as  he  walked  in  it  in  the  cool  of  the  day;  he 
conversed  with  Kayin ;  he  sat  and  ate  with  Abraham  in  his  tent ; 
that  patriarch  required  a  visible  token,  before  he  would  believe  in 
his  positive  promise ;  he  permitted  Abraham  to  expostulate  with 
him,  and  to  induce  him  to  change  his  first  determination  in  regard 
to  Sodom ;  he  wrestled  with  Jacob ;  he  showed  Moses  his  person, 
though  not  his  face;  he  dictated  the  minutest  police  regulations 
and  the  dimensions  of  the  tabernacle  and  its  furniture,  to  the 
Israelites;  he  insisted  on  and  delighted  in  sacrifices  and  burnt- 
offerings  ;  he  was  angry,  jealous,  and  revengeful,  as  well  as  waver- 
ing and  irresolute ;  he  allowed  Moses  to  reason  him  out  of  his 
fixed  resolution  utterly  to  destroy  his  people ;  he  commanded  the 
performance  of  the  most  shocking  and  hideous  acts  of  cruelty  and 
barbarity.  He  hardened  the  heart  of  Pharaoh ;  he  repented  of 
the  evil  that  he  had  said  he  would  do  unto  the  people  of  Nineveh ; 
and  he  did  it  not,  to  the  disgust  and  anger  of  Jonah. 

Such  were  the  popular  notions  of  the  Deity ;  and  either  the 
priests  had  none  better,  or  took  little  trouble  to  correct  these  no- 
tions ;  or  the  popular  intellect  was  not  enough  enlarged  to  enable 
them  to  entertain  any  higher  conceptions  of  the  Almighty. 

But  such  were  not  the  ideas  of  the  intellectual  and  enlightened 
few  among  the  Hebrews.  It  is  certain  that  they  possessed  a 
knowledge  of  the  true  nature  and  attributes  of  God ;  as  the  same 
class  of  men  did  among  the  other  nations — Zoroaster,  Menu,  Con- 
fucius, Socrates,  and  Plato.  But  their  doctrines  on  this  subject 
were  esoteric ;  they  did  not  communicate  them  to  the  people  at 
large,  but  only  to  a  favored  few ;  and  as  they  were  communicated 
in  Egypt  and  India,  in  Persia  and  Phoenicia,  in  Greece  and  Samo- 
thrace,  in  the  greater  mysteries,  to  the  Initiates. 

The  communication  of  this  knowledge  and  other  secrets,  some 
of  which  are  perhaps  lost,  constituted,  under  other  names,  what 
we  now  call  Masonry,  or  Free  or  Frank-Masonry.  That  knowl- 
edge was,  in  one  sense,  the  Lost  Word,  which  was  made  known  to 
the  Grand  Elect,  Perfect,  and  Sublime  Masons.  It  would  be  folly 
to  pretend  that  the  forms  of  Masonry  were  the  same  in  those  ages 
as  they  are  now.  The  present  name  of  the  Order,  and  its  titles, 
and  the  names  of  the  Degrees  now  in  use,  were  not  then  known. 


Even  Blue  Masonry  cannot  trace  back  its  authentic  history,  with 
its  present  Degrees,  further  than  the  year  1700,  if  so  far.  But,  by 
whatever  name  it  was  known  in  this  or  the  other  country,  Masonry 
existed  as  it  now  exists,  the  same  in  spirit  and  at  heart,  not  only 
when  Solomon  builded  the  temple,  but  centuries  before — before 
even  the  first  colonies  emigrated  into  Southern  India,  Persia,  and 
Egypt,  from  the  cradle  of  the  human  race. 

The  Supreme,  Self-existent,  Eternal,  All-wise,  All-powerful,  In- 
finitely Good,  Pitying,  Beneficent,  and  Merciful  Creator  and  Pre- 
server of  the  Universe  was  the  same,  by  whatever  name  he  was 
called,  to  the  intellectual  and  enlightened  men  of  all  nations.  The 
name  was  nothing,  if  not  a  symbol  and  representative  hieroglyph 
of  his  nature  and  attributes.  The  name  AL  represented  his 
remoteness  above  men,  his  inaccessibility;  BAL  and  BALA,  his 
might;  ALOHIM,  his  various  potencies;  IHUH,  existence  and  the 
generation  of  things.  None  of  his  names,  among  the  Orientals, 
were  the  symbols  of  a  divinely  infinite  love  and  tenderness,  and 
all-embracing  mercy.  As  MOLOCH  or  MALEK  he  was  but  an 
omnipotent  monarch,  a  tremendous  and  irresponsible  Will;  as 
ADONAI,  only  an  arbitrary  LORD  and  Master;  as  AL  Shaddi, 
potent  and  a  DESTROYER. 

To  communicate  true  and  correct  ideas  in  respect  of  the  Deity 
was  one  chief  object  of  the  mysteries.  In  them,  Khurum  the 
King,  and  Khurum  the  Master,  obtained  their  knowledge  of  him 
and  his  attributes;  and  in  them  that  knowledge  was  taught  to 
Moses  and  Pythagoras. 

Wherefore  nothing  forbids  you  to  consider  the  whole  legend  of 
this  Degree,  like  that  of  the  Master's,  an  allegory,  representing  the 
perpetuation  of  the  knowledge  of  the  True  God  in  the  sanctuaries 
of  initiation.  By  the  subterranean  vaults  you  may  understand 
the  places  of  initiation,  which  in  the  ancient  ceremonies  were  gen- 
erally under  ground.  The  Temple  ef  Solomon  presented  a  sym- 
bolic image  of  the  Universe ;  and  resembled,  in  its  arrangements 
and  furniture,  all  the  temples  of  the  ancient  nations  that  practised 
the  mysteries.  The  system  of  numbers  was  intimately  connected 
with  their  religions  and  worship,  and  has  come  down  to  us  in  Ma- 
sonry ;  though  the  esoteric  meaning  with  which  the  numbers  used 
by  us  are  pregnant  is  unknown  to  the  vast  majority  of  those  who 
use  them.  Those  numbers  were  especially  employed  that  had  a 
reference  to  the  Deity,  represented  his  attributes,  or  figured  in  the 


frame-work  of  the  world,  in  time  and  space,  and  formed  more  or 
less  the  bases  of  that  frame-work.  These  were  universally  re- 
garded as  sacred,  being  the  expression  of  order  and  intelligence, 
the  utterances  of  Divinity  Himself. 

The  Holy  of  Holies  of  the  Temple  formed  a  cube ;  in  which, 
drawn  on  a  plane  surface,  there  are  4  +  3  +  2  =  9  lines  visible, 
and  three  sides  or  faces.  It  corresponded  with  the  number  four, 
by  which  the  ancients  presented  Nature,  it  being  the  number  of 
substances  or  corporeal  forms,  and  of  the  elements,  the  cardinal 
points  and  seasons,  and  the  secondary  colors.  The  number  three 
everywhere  represented  the  Supreme  Being.  Hence  the  name  of 
the  Deity,  engraven  upon  the  triangular  plate,  and  that  sunken 
into  the  cube  of  agate,  taught  the  ancient  Mason,  and  teaches  us, 
that  the  true  knowledge  of  God,  of  His  nature  and  His  attributes, 
is  written  by  Him  upon  the  leaves  of  the  great  Book  of  Universal 
Nature,  and  may  be  read  there  by  all  who  are  endowed  with  the 
requisite  amount  of  intellect  and  intelligence.  This  knowledge 
of  God,  so  written  there,  and  of  which  Masonry  has  in  all  ages 
been  the  interpreter,  is  the  Master  Mason's  Word. 

Within  the  Temple,  all  the  arrangements  were  mystically  and 
symbolically  connected  with  the  same  system.  The  vault  or  ceil- 
ing, starred  like  the  firmament,  was  supported  by  twelve  columns, 
representing  the  twelve  months  of  the  year.  The  border  that  ran 
around  the  columns  represented  the  zodiac,  and  one  of  the  twelve 
celestial  signs  was  appropriated  to  each  column.  The  brazen  sea 
was  supported  by  twelve  oxen,  three  looking  to  each  cardinal  point 
of  the  compass. 

And  so  in  our  day  every  Masonic  Lodge  represents  the  Uni- 
verse. Each  extends,  we  are  told,  from  the  rising  to  the  setting 
sun.  from  the  South  to  the  North,  from  the  surface  of  the  Earth 
to  the  Heavens,  and  from  the  same  to  the  centre  of  the  globe.  In 
it  are  represented  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars ;  three  great  torches  in 
the  East,  West,  and  South,  forming  a  triangle,  give  it  light ;  and, 
like  the  Delta  or  Triangle  suspended  in  the  East,  and  inclosing  the 
Ineffable  Name,  indicate,  by  the  mathematical  equality  of  the 
angles  and  sides,  the  beautiful  and  harmonious  proportions  which 
govern  in  the  aggregate  and  details  of  the  Universe ;  while  those 
sides  and  angles  represent,  by  their  number,  three,  the  Trinity  of 
Power,  Wisdom,  and  Harmony,  which  presided  at  the  building  of 
this  marvellous  work.  These  three  great  lights  also  represent  the 


great  mystery  of  the  three  principles,  of  creation,  dissolution  or 
destruction,  and  reproduction  or  regeneration,  consecrated  by  all 
creeds  in  their  numerous  Trinities. 

The  luminous  pedestal,  lighted  by  the  perpetual  flame  within,  is 
a  symbol  of  that  light  of  Reason,  given  by  God  to  man,  by  which 
he  is  enabled  to  read  in  the  Bock  of  Nature  the  record  of  the 
thought,  the  revelation  of  the  attributes  of  the  Deity. 

The  three  Masters,  Adoniram,  Joabert,  and  Stolkin,  are  types 
of  the  True  Mason,  who  seeks  for  knowledge  from  pure  motives, 
and  that  he  may  be  the  better  enabled  to  serve  and  benefit  his  fel- 
low-men ;  while  the  discontented  and  presumptuous  Masters  who 
were  buried  in  the  ruins  of  the  arches  represent  those  who  strive 
to  acquire  it  for  unholy  purposes,  to  gain  power  over  their  fellows, 
to  gratify  their  pride,  their  vanity,  or  their  ambition. 

The  Lion  that  guarded  the  Ark  and  held  in  his  mouth  the  key 
wherewith  to  open  it,  figuratively  represents  Solomon,  the  Lion  of 
the  Tribe  of  Judah,  who  preserved  and  communicated  the  key  to 
the  true  knowledge  of  God,  of  His  laws,  and  of  the  profound  mys- 
teries of  the  moral  and  physical  Universe. 

ENOCH  ["pjn,  Khanoc],  we  are  told,  walked  with  God  three 
hundred  years,  after  reaching  the  age  of  sixty-five — "walked  with 
God,  and  he  was  no  more,  for  God  had  taken  him."  His  name 
signified  in  the  Hebrew,  INITIATE  or  INITIATOR.  The  legend  of 
the  columns,  of  granite  and  brass  or  bronze,  erected  by  him,  is 
probably  symbolical.  That  of  bronze,  which  survived  the  flood,  is 
supposed  to  symbolize  the  mysteries,  of  which  Masonry  is  the  legit- 
imate successor — from  the  earliest  times  the  custodian  and  depos- 
i^ory  of  the  great  philosophical  and  religious  truths,  unknown  to 
the  world  at  large,  and  handed  down  from  age  to  age  by  an  un- 
broken current  of  tradition,  embodied  in  Symbols,  emblems,  and 

The  legend  of  this  Degree  is  thus,  partially,  interpreted.  It  is  of 
little  importance  whether  it  is  in  anywise  historical.  For  its  value 
consists  in  the  lessons  which  it  inculcates,  and  the  duties  which  it 
prescribes  to  those  who  receive  it.  The  parables  and  allegories  of 
the  Scriptures  are  not  less  valuable  than  history.  Nay,  they  are 
more  so,  because  ancient  history  is  little  instructive,  and  truths  are 
concealed  in  and  symbolized  by  the  legend  and  the  myth. 

There  are  profounder  meanings  concealed  m  the  symbols  of  this 
Degree,  connected  with  the  philosophical  system  of  the  Hebrew 


Kabalists,  which  you  will  learn  hereafter,  if  you  should  be  so 
fortunate  as  to  advance.  They  are  unfolded  in  the  higher  De- 
grees. The  lion  [S"1K,  <T*X,  Arai,  Araiah,  which  also  means  the 
altar]  still  holds  in  his  mouth  the  key  of  the  enigma  of  the 

But  there  is  one  application  of  this  Degree,  that  you  are  now 
entitled  to  know  ;  and  which,  remembering  that  Khurum,  the  Mas- 
ter, is  the  symbol  of  human  freedom,  you  would  probably  discover 
for  yourself. 

It  is  not  enough  for  a  people  to  gain  its  liberty.  It  must  secure 
it.  It  must  not  intrust  it  to  the  keeping,  or  hold  it  at  the  pleasure, 
of  any  one  man.  The  keystone  of  the  Royal  Arch  of  the  great 
Temple  of  Liberty  is  a  fundamental  law,  charter,  or  constitution : 
the  expression  of  the  fixed  habits  of  thought  of  the  people,  em- 
bodied in  a  written  instrument,  or  the  result  of  the  slow  accre- 
tions and  the  consolidation  of  centuries ;  the  same  in  war  as  in 
peace ;  that  cannot  be  hastily  changed,  nor  be  violated  with  impu- 
nity, but  is  sacred,  like  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant  of  God,  which 
none  could  touch  and  live. 

A  permanent  constitution,  rooted  in  the  affections,  expressing 
the  will  and  judgment,  and  built  upon  the  instincts  and  settled 
habits  of  thought  of  the  people,  with  an  independent  judiciary,  an 
elective  legislature  of  two  branches,  an  executive  responsible  to 
the  people,  and  the  right  of  trial  by  jury,  will  guarantee  the  liber- 
ties of  a  people,  if  it  be  virtuous  and  temperate,  without  luxury, 
and  without  the  lust  of  conquest  and  dominion,  and  the  follies  of 
visionary  theories  of  impossible  perfection. 

Masonry  teaches  its  Initiates  that  the  pursuits  and  occupations 
of  this  life,  its  activity,  care,  and  ingenuity,  the  predestined  devel- 
opments of  the  nature  given  us  by  God,  tend  to  promote  His  great 
design,  in  making  the  world ;  and  are  not  at  war  with  the  great 
purpose  of  life.  It  teaches  that  everything  is  beautiful  in  its 
time,  in  its  place,  in  its  appointed  office ;  that  everything  which 
man  is  put  to  do,  if  rightly  and  faithfully  done,  naturally  helps  to 
work  out  his  salvation ;  that  if  he  obeys  the  genuine  principles  of 
his  calling,  he  will  be  a  good  man :  and  that  it  is  only  by  neglect 
and  non-performance  of  the  task  set  for  him  by  Heaven,  by  wan- 
.  dering  into  idle  dissipation,  or  by  violating  their  beneficent  and 
lofty  spirit,  that  he  becomes  a  bad  man.  The  appointed  action  of 
life  is  the  great  training  of  Providence ;  and  if  man  yields  himself 


to  it,  he  will  need  neither  churches  nor  ordinances,  except  for  the 
expression  of  his  religious  homage  and  gratitude. 

For  there  is  a  religion  of  toil.  It  is  not  all  drudgery,  a  mere 
stretching  of  the  limbs  and  straining  of  the  sinews  to  tasks.  It 
has  a  meaning  and  an  intent.  A  living  heart  pours  life-blood  into 
the  toiling  arm ;  and  warm  affections  inspire  and  mingle  with 
man's  labors.  They  are  the  home  affections.  Labor  toils  a-field, 
or  plies  its  task  in  cities,  or  urges  the  keels  of  commerce  over  wide 
oceans;  but  home  is  its  centre;  and  thither  it  ever  goes  with  its 
earnings,  with  the  means  of  support  and  comfort  for  others ;  offer- 
ings sacred  to  the  thought  of  every  true  man,  as  a  sacrifice  at  a 
golden  shrine.  Many  faults  there  are  amidst  the  toils  of  life ; 
many  harsh  and  hasty  words  are  uttered;  but  still  the  toils  go 
on,  weary  and  hard  and  exasperating  as  they  often  are.  For  in 
that  home  is  age  or  sickness,  or  helpless  infancy,  or  gentle  child- 
hood, or  feeble  woman,  that  must  not  want.  If  man  had  no  other 
than  mere  selfish  impulses,  the  scene  of  labor  which  we  behold 
around  us  would  not  exist. 

The  advocate  who  fairly  and  honestly  presents  his  case,  with  a 
feeling  of  true  self-respect,  honor,  and  conscience,  to  help  the  tri- 
bunal on  toward  the  right  conclusion,  with  a  conviction  that  God's 
justice  reigns  there,  is  acting  a  religious  part,  leading  that  day  a 
religious  life;  or  else  right  and  justice  are  "no  part  of  religion. 
Whether,  during  all  that  day,  he  has  once  appealed,  in  form  or  in 
terms,  to  his  conscience,  or  not;  whether  he  has  once  spoken  of 
religion  and  God,  or  not;  if  there  has  been  the  inward  purpose, 
the  conscious  intent  and  desire,  that  sacred  justice  should  tri- 
umph, he  has  that  day  led  a  good  and  religions  life,  and  made  a 
most  essential  contribution  to  that  religion  of  life  and  of  society, 
the  cause  of  equity  between  man  and  man,  and  of  truth  and  right 
action  in  the  world. 

Books,  to  be  of  religious  tendency  in  the  Masonic  sense,  need 
not  be  books  of  sermons,  of  pious  exercises,  or  of  prayers.  What- 
ever inculcates  pure,  noble,  and  patriotic  sentiments,  or  touches 
the  heart  with  the  beauty  of  virtue,  and  the  excellence  of  an  up- 
right life,  accords  with  the  religion  of  Masonry,  and  is  the  Gospel 
of  literature  and  art.  That  Gospel  is  preached  from  many  a  book 
and  painting,  from  many  a  poem  and  fiction,  and  review  and  news- 
paper ;  and  it  is  a  painful  error  and  miserable*  narrowness,  not  to 
recognize  these  wide-spread  agencies  of  Heaven's  providing ;  not 


to  see  and  welcome  these  many-handed  coadjutors,  to  the  great 
and  good  cause.  The  oracles  of  God  do  not  speak  from  the  pulpit 

There  is  also  a  religion  of  society.  In  business,  there  is  much 
more  than  sale,  exchange,  price,  payment ;  for  there  is  the  sacred 
faith  of  man  in  man.  When  we  repose  perfect  confidence  in  the 
integrity  of  another;  when  we  feel  that  he  will  not  swerve  from 
the  right,  frank,  straightforward,  conscientious  course,  for  any 
temptation;  his  integrity  and  conscientiousness  are  the  image  of 
God  to  us ;  and  when  we  believe  in  it,  it  is  as  great  and  generous 
an  act,  as  when  we  believe  in  the  rectitude  of  the  Deity. 

In  gay  assemblies  for  amusement,  the  good  affections  of  life  gush 
and  mingle.  If  they  did  not,  these  gathering-places  would  be  as 
dreary  and  repulsive  as  the  caves  and  dens  of  outlaws  and  robbers. 
When  friends  meet,  and  hands  are  warmly  pressed,  and  the  eye 
kindles  and  the  countenance  is  suffused  with  gladness,  there  is  a 
religion  between  their  hearts ;  and  each  loves  and  worships  the 
True  and  Good  that  is  in  the  other.  It  is  not  policy,  or  self-inter- 
est, or  selfishness  that  spreads  such  a  charm  around  that  meeting, 
but  the  halo  of  bright  and  beautiful  affection. 

The  same  splendor  of  kindly  liking,  and  affectionate  regard, 
shines  like  the  soft  overarching  sky,  over  all  the  world ;  over  all 
places  where  men  meet,  and  walk  or  toil  together ;  not  over  lovers' 
bowers  and  marriage-altars  alone,  not  over  the  homes  of  purity 
and  tenderness  alone ;  but  over  all  tilled  fields,  and  busy  work- 
shops, and  dusty  highways,  and  paved  streets.  There  is  not  a 
worn  stone  upon  the  sidewalks,  but  has  been  the  altar  of  such 
offerings  of  mutual  kindness ;  nor  a  wooden  pillar  or  iron  railing 
against  which  hearts  beating  with  affection  have  not  leaned.  How 
many  soever  other  elements  there  are  in  the  stream  of  life  flowing 
through  these  channels,  that  is  surely  here  and  everywhere ;  hon- 
est, heartfelt,  disinterested,  inexpressible  affection. 

Every  Masonic  Lodge  is  a  temple  of  religion ;  and  its  teachings 
are  instruction  in  religion.  For  here  are  inculcated  disinterested- 
ness, affection,  toleration,  devotedness,  patriotism, truth, a  generous 
sympathy  with  those  who  suffer  and  mourn,  pity  for  the  fallen, 
mercy  for  the  erring,  relief  for  those  in  want,  Faith,  Hope,  and 
Charity.  Here  we  meet  as  brethren,  to  learn  to  know  and  love 
each  other.  Here  we  greet  each  other  gladly,  are  lenient  to  each 
other's  faults,  regardful  of  each  other's  feelings,  ready  to  relieve 


each  other's  wants.  This  is  the  true  religion  revealed  to  the  an- 
cient patriarchs ;  which  Masonry  has  taught  for  many  centuries, 
and  which  it  will  continue  to  teach  as  long  as  time  endures.  If 
unworthy  passions,  or  selfish,  bitter,  or  revengeful  feelings,  con- 
tempt, dislike,  hatred,  enter  here,  they  are  intruders  and  not  wel- 
come, strangers  uninvited,  and  not  guests. 

Certainly  there  are  many  evils  and  bad  passions,  and  much  hate 
and  contempt  and  unkindness  everywhere  in  the  world.  We  can- 
not refuse  to  see  the  evil -that  is  in  life.  But  all  is  not  evil.  We 
still  see  God  in  the  world.  There  is  good  amidst  the  evil.  The 
hand  of  mercy  leads  wealth  to  the  hovels  of  poverty  and  sorrow. 
Truth  and  simplicity  live  amid  many  wiles  and  sophistries.  There 
are  good  hearts  underneath  gay  robes,  and  under  tattered  gar- 
ments also. 

Love  clasps  the  hand  of  love,  amid  all  the  envyings  and  dis- 
tractions of  showy  competition ;  fidelity,  pity,  and  sympathy  hold 
the  long  night-watch  by  the  bedside  of  the  suffering  neighbor, 
amidst  the  surrounding  poverty  and  squalid  misery.  Devoted 
men  go  from  city  to  city  to  nurse  those  smitten  down  by  the  terri- 
ble pestilence  that  renews  at  intervals  its  mysterious  marches. 
Women  well-born  and  delicately  nurtured  nursed  the  wounded 
soldiers  in  hospitals,  before  it  became  fashionable  to  do  so;  and 
even  poor  lost  women,  whom  God  alone  loves  and  pities,  tend  the 
plague-stricken  with  a  patient  and  generous  heroism.  Masonry 
and  its  kindred  Orders  teach  men  to  love  each  other,  feed  the  hun- 
gry, clothe  the  naked,  comfort  the  sick,  and  bury  the  friendless 
dead.  Everywhere  God  finds  and  blesses  the  kindly  office,  the 
pitying  thought,  and  the  loving  heart. 

There  is  an  element  of  good  in  all  men's  lawful  pursuits  and  a 
•  divine  spirit  breathing  in  all  their  lawful  affections.  The  ground 
on  which  they  tread  is  holy  ground.  There  is  a  natural  religion 
of  life,  answering,  with  however  many  a  broken  tone,  to  the  reli- 
gion of  nature.  There  is  a  beauty  and  glory  in  Humanity,  in  man, 
answering,  with  however  many  a  mingling  shade,  to  the  loveliness 
of  soft  landscapes,  and  swelling  hills,  and  the  wondrous  glory  of 
the  starry  heavens. 

Men  may  be  virtuous,  self-improving,  and  religious  in  their  em- 
ployments. Precisely  for  that,  those  employments  were  made.  All 
their  social  relations,  friendship,  love,  the  ties  of  family,  were  made 
to  be  holy.  They  may  be  religious,  not  by  a  kind  of  protest  and 


resistance  against  their  several  vocations  ;  but  by  conformity  to 
their  true  spirit.  Those  vocations  do  not  exclude  religion  ;  but  de- 
mand it,  for  their  own  perfection.  They  may  be  religious  laborers, 
whether  in  field  or  factory;  religious  physicians,  lawyers,  sculp- 
tors, poets,  painters,  and  musicians.  They  may  be  religious  in  all 
the  toils  and  in  all  the  amusements  of  life.  Their  life  may  be  a 
religion  ;  the  broad  earth  its  altar  ;  its  incense  the  very  breath  of 
life  ;  its  fires  ever  kindled  by  the  brightness  of  Heaven. 

Bound  up  with  our  poor,  frail  life,  is  the  mighty  thought  that 
spurns  the  narrow  span  of  all  visible  existence.  Ever  the  soul 
reaches  outward,  and  asks  for  freedom.  It  looks  forth  from  the 
narrow  and  grated  windows  of  sense,  upon  the  wide  immeasurable 
creation  ;  it  knows  that  around  it  and  beyond  it  lie  outstretched 
the  infinite  and  everlasting  paths. 

Everything  within  us  and  without  us  ought  to  stir  our  minds  to 
admiration  and  wonder.  We  are  a  mystery  encompassed  with 
mysteries.  The  connection  of  mind  with  matter  is  a  mystery  ; 
the  wonderful  telegraphic  communication  between  the  brain  and 
every  part  of  the  body,  the  power  and  action  of  the  will.  Ev- 
ery familiar  step  is  more  than  a  story  in  a  land  of  enchantment. 
The  power  of  movement  is  as  mysterious  as  the  power  of  thought. 
Memory,  and  dreams  that  are  the  indistinct  echoes  of  dead  mem- 
ories are  alike  inexplicable.  Universal  harmony  springs  from  in- 
finite complication.  The  momentum  of  every  step  we  take  in  our 
dwelling  contributes  in  part  to  the  order  of  the  Universe.  We 
are  connected  by  ties  of  thought,  and.  even  of  matter  and  its  forces, 
with  the  whole  boundless  Universe  and  all  the  past  and  coming 
generations  of  men. 

The  humblest  object  beneath  our  eye  as  completely  defies 
our  scrutiny  as  the  economy  of  the  most  distant  star.  Every 
leaf  and  every  blade  of  grass  holds  within  itself  secrets 
which  no  human  penetration  will  ever  fathom.  No  man  can 
tell  what  is  its  principle  of  life.  No  man  can  know  what  his  power 
of  secretion  is.  Both  are  inscrutable  mysteries.  Wherever  we 
place  our  hand,  we  lay  it  upon  the  locked  bosom  of  mystery.  Step 
where  we  will,  we  tread  upon  wonders.  The  sea-sands,  the  clods 
of  the  field,  the  water  -worn  pebbles  on  the  hills,  the  rude  masses 
of  rock,  are  traced  over  and  over,  in  every  direction,  with  a  hand- 
writing older  and  more  significant  and  sublime  than  all  the  ancient 
ruins,  and  all  the  overthrown  and  buried  cities  that  past  genera- 


tions  have  left  upon  the  earth ;  for  it  is  the  handwriting  of  the 

A  Mason's  great  business  with  life  is  to  read  the  book  of  its 
teaching;  to  find  that  life  is  not  the  doing  of  drudgeries,  but  the 
bearing  of  oracles.  The  old  mythology  is  but  a  leaf  in  that  book ; 
for  it  peopled  the  world  with  spiritual  natures;  and  science, 
many-leaved,  still  spreads  before  us  the  same  tale  of  wonder. 

We  shall  be  just  as  happy  hereafter,  as  we  are  pure  and  upright, 
and  no  more,  just  as  happy  as  our  character  prepares  us  to  be,  and 
no  more.  Our  moral,  like  our  mental  character,  is  not  formed  in 
a  moment ;  it  is  the  habit  of  our  minds ;  the  result  of  many 
thoughts  and  feelings  and  efforts,  bound  togther  by  many  natural 
and  strong  ties.  The  great  law  of  Retribution  is,  that  all  coming 
experience  is  to  be  affected  by  every  present  feeling ;  every  future 
moment  of  being  must  answer  for  every  present  moment ;  one 
moment,  sacrificed  to  vice,  or  lost  to  improvement,  is  forever  sacri- 
ficed and  lost ;  an  hour's  delay  to  enter  the  right  path,  is  to  put  us 
back  so  far,  in  the  everlasting-  pursuit  of  happiness ;  and  every 
sin,  even  of  the  best  men,  is  to  be  thus  answered  for,  if  not  accord- 
ing to  the  full  measure  of  its  ill-desert,  yet  according  to  a  rule  of 
unbending  rectitude  and  impartiality. 

The  law  of  retribution  presses  upon  every  man,  whether  he 
thinks  of  it  or  not.  It  pursues  him  through  all  the  courses  of 
life,  with  a  step  that  never  falters  nor  tires,  and  with  an  eye  that 
never  sleeps.  If  it  were  not  so,  God's  government  would  not  be 
impartial ;  there  would  be  no  discrimination ;  no  moral  dominion ; 
no  light  shed  upon  the  mysteries  of  Providence. 

Whatsoever  a  man  soweth,  that,  and  not  something  else,  shall 
he  reap.  That  which  we  are  doing,  good  or  evil,  grave  or  gay ; 
that  which  we  do  to-day  and  shall  do  to-morrow ;  each  thought, 
each  feeling,  each  action,  each  event ;  every  passing  hour,  every 
breathing  moment ;  all  are  contributing  to  form  the  character, 
according  to  which  we  are  to  be  judged.  Every  particle  of  influ- 
ence that  goes  to  form  that  aggregate, — our  character, — will,  in 
that  future  scrutiny,  be  sifted  out  from  the  mass ;  and,  particle  by 
particle,  with  ages  perhaps  intervening,  fall  a  distinct  contribu- 
tion to  the  sum  of  our  joys  or  woes.  Thus  every  idle  word  and 
idle  hour  will  give  answer  in  the  judgment. 

Let  us  take  care,  therefore,  what  we  sow.  "An  evil  temptation 
comes  upon  us ;  the  opportunity  of  unrighteous  gain,  or  of  unhal- 


lowed  indulgence,  either  in  the  sphere  of  business  cr  pleasure, 
of  society  or  solitude.  We  yield ;  and  plant  a  seed  of  bitterness 
and  sorrow.  To-morrow  it  will  threaten  discovery.  Agitated  and 
alarmed,  we  cover  the  sin,  and  bury  it  deep  in  falsehood  and  hy- 
pocrisy. In  the  bosom  where  it  lies  concealed,  in  the  fertile  soil 
of  kindred  vices,  that  sin  dies  not,  but  thrives  and  grows ;  and 
other  and  still  other  germs  of  evil  gather  around  the  accursed 
root ;  until,  from  that  single  seed  of  corruption,  there  springs  up 
in  the  soul  all  that  is  horrible  in  habitual  lying,  knavery,  or  vice. 
Loathingly,  often,  we  take  each  downward  step;  but  a  frightful 
power  urges  us  onward ;  and  the  hell  of  debt,  disease,  ignominy, 
or  remorse  gathers  its  shadows  around  our  steps  even  on  earth ; 
and  are  yet  but  the  beginnings  of  sorrows.  The  evil  deed  may  be 
done  in  a  single  moment ;  but  conscience  never  dies,  memory  never 
sleeps ;  guilt  never  can  become  innocence ;  and  remorse  can  never 
whisper  peace. 

Beware,  thou  who  art  tempted  to  evil !  Beware  what  thou 
layest  up  for  the  future !  Beware  what  thou  layest  up  in  the 
archives  of  eternity !  Wrong  .not  thy  neighbor !  lest  the  thought 
of  him  thou  injurest,  and  who  suffers  by  thy  act,  be  to  thee  a  pang 
which  years  will  not  deprive  of  its  bitterness !  Break  not  into  the 
house  of  innocence,  to  rifle  it  of  its  treasure ;  lest  when  many 
years  have  passed  over  thee,  the  moan  of  its  distress  may  not  have 
died  away  from  thine  ear !  Build  not  the  desolate  throne  of  ambi- 
tion in  thy  heart;  nor  be  busy  with  devices,  and  circumventing^, 
and  selfish  schemings ;  lest  desolation  and  loneliness  be  on  thy 
path,  as  it  stretches  into  the  long  futurity !  Live  not  a  useless, 
an  impious,  or  an  injurious  life !  for  bound  up  with  that  life  is  the 
immutable  principle  of  an  endless  retribution,  and  elements  of 
God's  creating,  which  will  never  spend  their  force,  but  continue 
ever  to  unfold  with  the  ages  of  eternity.  Be  not  deceived !  God 
has  formed  thy  nature,  thus  to  answer  to  the  future.  His  law 
can  never  be  abrogated,  nor  His  justice  eluded ;  and  forever  and 
ever  it  will  be  true,  that  "Whatsoever  a  man  soweth,  that  also  he 
shall  reap." 





[Perfect  Elu.] 

IT  is  for  each  individual  Mason  to  discover  the  secret  of  Ma- 
sonry, by  reflection  upon  its  symbols  and  n  wise  consideration  and 
analysis  of  what  is  said  and  done  in  the  work.  Masonry  does  not 
inculcate  her  truths.  She  states  them,  once  and  briefly ;  or  hints 
them,  perhaps,  darkly;  or  interposes  a  cloud  between  them  and 
eyes  that  would  be  dazzled  by  them.  "Seek,  and  ye  shall  find," 
knowledge  and  the  truth. 

The  practical  object  of  Masonry  is  the  physical  and  moral 
amelioration  and  the  intellectual  and  spiritual  improvement  of 
individuals  and  society.  Neither  can  be  effected,  except  by  the 
dissemination  of  truth.  It  is  falsehood  in  doctrines  and  fallacy 
in  principles,  to  which  most  of  the  miseries  of  men  and  the  mis- 
fortunes of  nations  are  owing.  Public  opinion  is  rarely  right  on 
any  point ;  and  there  are  and  always  will  be  important  truths  to 
be  substituted  in  that  opinion  in  the  place  of  many  errors  and 
absurd  and  injurious  prejudices.  There  are  few  truths  that  public 
opinion  has  not  at  some  time  hated  and  persecuted  as  heresies; 
and  few  errors  that  have  not  at  some  time  seemed  to  it  truths  radi- 
ant from  the  immediate  presence  of  God.  There  are  moral  mala- 
dies, also,  of  man  and  society,  the  treatment  of  which  requires  not 
only  boldness,  but  also,  and  more,  prudence  and  discretion ;  since 
they  are  more  the  fruit  of  false  and  pernicious  doctrines,  moral, 
political,  and  religious,  than  of  vicious  inclinations. 

Much  of  the  Masonic  secret  manifests  itself,  without  speech 


revealing  it,  to  him  who  even  partially  comprehends  all  the  De- 
grees in  proportion  as  he  receives  them  ;  and  particularly  to  those 
who  advance  to  the  highest  Degrees  of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted 
Scottish  Rite.  That  Rite  raises  a  corner  of  the  veil,  even  in  the 
Degree  of  Apprentice  ;  for  it  there  declares  that  Masonry  is  a 

Masonry  labors  to  improve  the  social  order  by  enlightening 
men's  minds,  warming  their  hearts  with  the  love  of  the  good,  in- 
spiring them  with  the  great  principle  of  human  fraternity,  and 
requiring  of  its  disciples  that  their  language  and  actions  shall  con- 
form to  that  principle,  that  they  shall  enlighten  each  other,  con- 
trol their  passions,  abhor  vice,  and  pity  the  vicious  man  as  one 
afflicted  with  a  deplorable  malady. 

It  is  the  universal,  eternal,  immutable  religion,  such  as  God 
planted  it  in  the  heart  of  universal  humanity.  Xo  creed  has  ever 
been  long-lived  that  was  not  built  on  this  foundation.  It  is  the 
base,  and  they  are  the  superstructure.  "Pure  religion  and  unde- 
filed  before  God  and  the  Father  is  this,  to  visit  the  fatherless  and 
widows  in  their  affliction,  and  to  keep  himself  unspotted  from  the 
world."  "Is  not  this  the  fast  that  I  have  chosen?  to  loose  the 
bands  of  wickedness,  to  undo  the  heavy  burdens,  and  to  let  the 
oppressed  go  free,  and  that  ye  break  every  yoke?"  The  ministers 
of  this  religion  are  all  Masons  who  comprehend  it  and  are  devoted 
to  it  ;  its  sacrifices  to  God  are  good  works,  the  sacrifices  of  the 
base  and  disorderly  passions,  the  offering  up  of  self-interest  on  the 
altar  of  humanity,  and  perpetual  efforts  to  attain  to  all  the  moral 
perfection  of  which  man  is  capable. 

To  make  honor  and  duty  the  steady  beacon-lights  that  shall 
guide  your  life-vessel  over  the  stormy  seas  of  time;  to  do  that 
which  it  is  right  to  do,  not  because  it  will  insure  you  success,  or 
bring  with  it  a  reward,  or  gain  the  applause  of  men,  or  be  "the 
best  policy,"  more  prudent  or  more  advisable;  but  because  it  is 
right,  and  therefore  ought  to  be  done;  to  war  incessantly  against 
error,  intolerance,  ignorance,  and  vice,  and  yet  to  pity  those  who 
err,  to  be  tolerant  even  of  intolerance,  to  teach  the  ignorant,  and 
to  labor  to  reclaim  the  vicious,  are  some  of  the  duties  of  a  Mason. 

A  good  Mason  is  one  that  can  look  upon  death,  and  see  its  face 
with  the  same  countenance  with  which  he  hears  its  story;  that 
can  endure  all  the  labors  of  his  life  with  his  soul  supporting  his 
body,  that  can  equally  despise  riches  when  he  hath  them  and 


when  he  hath  them  not ;  that  is  not  sadder  if  they  are  in  his  neigh- 
bor's exchequer,  nor  more  lifted  up  if  they  shine  around  about  his 
own  walls ;  one  that  is  not  moved  with  good  fortune  coming  to 
him,  nor  going  from  him;  that  can  look  upon  another  man's  lands 
with  equanimity  and  pleasure,  as  if  they  were  his  own ;  and  yet 
look  upon  his  own,  and  use  them  too,  just  as  if  they  were  another 
man's ;  that  neither  spends  his  goods  prodigally  and  foolishly,  nor 
yet  keeps  them  avariciously  and  like  a  miser ;  that  weighs  not  ben- 
efits by  weight  and  number,  but  by  the  mind  and  circumstances 
of  him  who  confers  them;  that  never  thinks  his  charity  expen- 
sive, if  a  worthy  person  be  the  receiver;  that  does  nothing  for 
opinion's  sake,  but  everything  for  conscience,  being  as  careful  of 
his  thoughts  as  of  his  acting  in  markets  and  theatres,  and  in  as 
much  awe  of  himself  as  of  a  whole  assembly ;  that  is  bountiful 
and  cheerful  to  his  friends,  and  charitable  and  apt  to  forgive  his 
enemies ;  that  loves  his  country,  consults  its  honor,  and  obeys  its 
laws,  and  desires  and  endeavors  nothing  more  than  that  he  may 
do  his  duty  and  honor  God.  And  such  a  Mason  may  reckon  his 
life  to  be  the  life  of  a  man,  and  compute  his  months,  not  by 
the  course  of  the  sun,  but  by  the  zodiac  and  circle  of  his  vir- 

The  whole  world  is  but  one  republic,  of  which  each  nation  is  a 
family,  and  every  individual  a  child.  Masonry,  not  in  anywise 
derogating  from  the  differing  duties  which  the  diversity  of  states 
requires,  tends  to  create  a  new  people,  which,  composed  of  men  of 
many  nations  and  tongues,  shall  all  be  bound  together  by  the 
bonds  of  science,  morality,  and  virtue. 

Essentially  philanthropic,  philosophical,  and  progressive,  it  ha5 
for  the  basis  of  its  dogma  a  firm  belief  in  the  existence  of  God 
and  his  providence,  and  of  the  immortality  of  the  soul ;  for  its 
object,  the  dissemination  of  moral,  political,  philosophical,  and 
religious  truth,  and  the  practice  of  all  the  virtues.  In  every  age, 
its  device  has  been,  "Liberty,  Equality,  Fraternity,"  with  constitu- 
tional government,  law,  order,  discipline,  and  subordination  to 
legitimate  authority — government  and  not  anarchy. 

But  it  is  n-.ither  a  political  party  nor  a  religious  sect.  It  em- 
braces all  parties  and  all  sects,  to  form  from  among  them  all  a  vast 
fraternal  association.  It  recognizes  the  dignity  of  human  nature, 
and  man's  right  to  such  freedom  as  he  is  fitted  for:  and  it 
knows  nothing  that  should  place  one  man  below  another,  except 

GRAND  ELECT,   PERFECT,  AND  SUBLIME   MASON.     ..          221 

ignorance,  debasement,  and  crime,  and  the  necessity  of  subordina- 
tion to  lawful  will  and  authority. 

It  is  philanthropic;  for  it  recognizes  the  great  truth  that  all 
men  are  of  the  same  origin,  have  common  interests,  and  should 
co-operate  together  to  the  same  end. 

Therefore  it  teaches  its  members  to  love  one  another,  to  give  to 
each  other  mutual  assistance  and  support  in  all  the  circumstances 
of  life,  to  share  each  other's  pains  and  sorrows,  as  well  as  their  joys 
and  pleasures ;  to  guard  the  reputations,  respect  the  opinions,  and 
be  perfectly  tolerant  of  the  errors,  of  each  other,  in  matters  of 
faith  and  beliefs. 

It  is  philosophical,  because  it  teaches  the  great  Truths  concern- 
ing the  nature  and  existence  of  one  Supreme  Deity,  and  the  exist- 
ence and  immortality  of  the  soul.  It  revives  the  Academy  of 
Plato,  and  the  wise  teachings  of  Socrates.  It  reiterates  the  max- 
ims of  Pythagoras,  Confucius,  and  Zoroaster,  and  reverentially 
enforces  the  sublime  lessons  of  Him  who  died  upon  the  Cross. 

The  ancients  thought  that  universal  humanity  acted  under  the 
influence  of  two  opposing  Principles,  the  Good  and  the  Evil :  of 
which  the  Good  urg^d  men  toward  Truth,  Independence,  and  De- 
voteclness ;  and  the  Evil  toward  Falsehood,  Servility,  and  Selfish- 
ness. Masonry  represents  the  Good  Principle  and  constantly  wars 
against  the  evil  one.  It  is  the  Hercules,  the  Osiris,  the  Apollo,  the 
Mithras,  and  the  Ormuzd,  at  everlasting  and  deadly  feud  with  the 
demons  of  ignorance,  brutality,  baseness,  falsehood,  slavishness  of 
soul,  intolerance,  superstition,  tyranny,  meanness,  the  insolence  of 
wealth,  and  bigotry. 

When  despotism  and  superstition,  twin-powers  of  evil  and  dark- 
ness, reigned  even-where  and  seemed  invincible  and  immortal,  it 
invented,  to  avoid  persecution,  the  mysteries,  that  is  to  say,  the 
allegory,  the  symbol,  and  the  emblem,  and  transmitted  its  doc- 
trines by  the  secret  mode  of  initiation.  Now,  retaining  its  ancient 
symbols,  and  in  part  its  ancient  ceremonies,  it  displays  in  every 
civilized  country  its  banner,  on  which  in  letters  of  living  light  its 
great  principles  are  written ;  and  it  smiles  at  the  puny  efforts  of 
kings  and  popes  to  crush  it  out  by  excommunication  and  inter- 

Man's  views  in  regard  to  God,  will  contain  only  so  much  posi- 
tive truth  as  the  human  mind  is  capable  of  receiving;  whether 
that  truth  is  attained  by  the  exercise  of  reason,  or  communicated 


by  revelation.  It  must  necessarily  be  both  limited  and  alloyed,  to 
bring  it  within  the  competence  of  finite  human  intelligence.  Be- 
ing finite,  we  can  form  no  correct  or  adequate  idea  of  the  Infinite ; 
being  material,  we  can  form  no  clear  conception  of  the  Spiritual. 
We  do  believe  in  and  know  the  infinity  of  Space  and  Time,  and 
the  spirituality  of  the  Soul;  but  the  idea  of  that  infinity  and 
spirituality  eludes  us.  Even  Omnipotence  cannot  infuse  infinite 
conceptions  into  finite  minds ;  nor  can  God,  without  first  entirely 
changing  the  conditions  of  our  being,  pour  a  complete  and  full 
knowledge  of  His  own  nature  and  attributes  into  the  narrow  capa- 
city of  a  human  soul.  Human  intelligence  could  not  grasp  it, 
nor  human  language  express  it.  The  visible  is,  necessarily,  the 
measure  of  the  invisible. 

The  consciousness  of  the  individual  reveals  itself  alone.  His 
knowledge  cannot  pass  beyond  the  limits  of  his  own  being.  His 
conceptions  of  other  things  and  other  beings  are  only  his  concep- 
tions. They  are  not  those  things  or  beings  themselves.  The  living 
principle  of  a  living  Universe  must  be  INFINITE;  while  all  our 
ideas  and  conceptions  are  finitf,  and  applicable  only  to  finite  beings. 

The  Deity  is  thus  not  an  object  of  knowledge,  but  of  faith;  not 
to  be  approached  by  the  understanding,  but  by  the  moral  sense; 
not  to  be  conceived,  but  to  be  felt.  All  attempts  to  embrace  the 
Infinite  in  the  conception  of  the  Finite  are,  and  must  be  only  ac- 
commodations to  the  frailty  of  man.  Shrouded  from  human  com- 
prehension in  an  obscurity  from  which  a  chastened  imagination  is 
awed  back,  and  Thought  retreats  in  conscious  weakness,  the  Divine 
Nature  is  a  theme  on  which  man  is  little  entitled  to  dogmatize. 
Here  the  philosophic  Intellect  becomes  most  painfully  aware  of  its 
own  insufficiency. 

And  yet  it  is  here  that  man  most  dogmatizes,  classifies  and  de- 
scribes God's  attributes,  makes  out  his  map  of  God's  nature,  and 
his  inventory  of  God's  qualities,  feelings,  impulses,  and  passions : 
and  then  hangs  and  burns  his  brother,  who,  as  dogmatically  as  he, 
makes  out  a  different  map  and  inventory.  The  common  under- 
standing has  no  humility.  Its  God  is  an  incarnate  Divinity.  Im- 
perfection imposes  its  own  limitations  on  the  Illimitable,  and 
clothes  the  Inconceivable  Spirit  of  the  Universe  in  forms  that 
come  within  the  grasp  of  the  senses  and  the'nntellect,  and  are 
derived  from  that  infinite  and  imperfect  nature  which  is  but  God's 


We  are  all  of  us,  though  not  all  equally,  mistaken.  The  cher- 
ished dogmas  of  each  of  us  are  not,  as  we  fondly  suppose,  the  pure 
truth  of  God ;  but  simply  our  own  special  form  of  error,  our 
guesses  at  truth,  the  refracted  and  fragmentary  rays  of  light  that 
have  fallen  upon  our  own  minds.  Our  little  systems  have  their 
day,  and  cease  to  be ;  they  are  but  broken  lights  of  God ;  and  He 
is  more  than  they.  Perfect  truth  is  not  attainable  anywhere.  We 
style  this  Degree  that  of  Perfection ;  and  yet  what  it  teaches  is 
imperfect  and  defective.  Yet  we  are  not  to  relax  in  the  pursuit 
of  truth,  nor  contentedly  acquiesce  in  error.  It  is  our  duty  always 
to  press  forward  in  the  search ;  for  though  absolute  truth  is  unat- 
tainable, yet  the  amount  of  error  in  our  views  is  capable  of  pro- 
gressive and  perpetual  diminution ;  and  thus  Masonry  is  a  con- 
tinual struggle  toward  the  light. 

All  errors  are  not  equally  innocuous.  That  wrhich  is  most  inju- 
rious is  to  entertain  unworthy  conceptions  of  the  nature  and 
attributes  of  God ;  and  it  is  this  that  Masonry  symbolizes  by  igno- 
rance of  the  True  Word.  The  true  word  of  a  Mason  is,  not  the 
entire,  perfect,  absolute  truth  in  regard  to  God;  but  the  highest 
and  noblest  conception  of  Him  that  our  minds  are  capable  of  form- 
ing; and  this  -word  is  Ineffable,  because  one  man  cannot  commu- 
nicate to  another  his  own  conception  of  Deity ;  since  every  man's 
conception  of  God  must  be  proportioned  to  his  mental  cultivation, 
and  intellectual  powers,  and  moral  excellence.  God  is,  as  man 
conceives  Him,  the  reflected  image  of -man  himself. 

For  every  man's  conception  of  God  must  vary  with  his  mental 
cultivation  and  mental  po\vers.  If  any  one  contents  himself  with 
any  lower  image  than  his  intellect  is  capable  of  grasping,  then  he 
contents  himself  with  that  which  is  false  to  him,  as  well  as  false  in 
fact.  If  lower  than  he  can  reach,  he  must  needs  feel  it  to  be  false. 
And  if  we,  of  the  nineteenth  century  after  Christ,  adopt  the  con- 
ceptions of  the  nineteenth  century  before  Him ;  if  our  conceptions 
of  God  are  those  of  the  ignorant,  narrow-minded,  and  vindictive 
Israelite ;  then  we  think  worse  of  God,  and  have  a  lower,  meaner, 
and  more  limited  view  of  His  nature,  than  the  faculties  which  He 
has  bestowed  are  capable  of  grasping.  The  highest  view  we  can 
form  is  nearest  to  the  truth.  If  we  acquiesce  in  any  lower  one, 
we  acquiesce  in  an  untruth.  We  feel  that  it  is  an  affront  and  an 
indignity  to  Him,  to  conceive  of  Him  as  cruel,  short-sighted,  ca- 
pricious, and  unjust ;  as  a  jealous,  an  angry,  a  vindictive  Being. 


When  we  examine  our  conceptions  of  His  character,  if  we  can 
conceive  of  a  loftier,  nobler,  higher,  more  beneficent,  glorious,  and 
magnificent  character,  then  this  latter  is  to  us  the  true  conception 
of  Deity;  for  nothing  can  be  imagined  more  excellent  than  He. 

Religion,  to  obtain  currency  and  influence  with  the  great  mass 
of  mankind,  must  needs  be  alloyed  with  such  an  amount  of  error 
as  to  place  it  far  below  the  standard  attainable  by  the  higher  hu- 
man capacities.  A  religion  as  pure  as  the  loftiest  and  most  culti- 
vated human  reason  could  discern,  would  not  be  comprehended 
by,  or  effective  over,  the  less  educated  portion  of  mankind.  What 
is  Truth  to  the  philosopher,  would  not  be  Truth,  nor  have  the 
effect  of  Truth,  to  the  peasant.  The  religion  of  the  many  must 
necessarily  be  more  incorrect  than  that  of  the  refined  and  reflective 
few,  not  so  much  in  its  essence  as  in  its  forms,  not  so  much  in  the 
spiritual  idea  which  lies  latent  at  the  bottom  of  it,  as  in  the  sym- 
bols and  dogmas  in  which  that  idea  is  embodied.  The  truest 
religion  would,  in  many  points,  not  be  comprehended  by  the  igno- 
rant, nor  consolatory  to  them,  nor  guiding  and  supporting  for 
them.  The  doctrines  of  the  Bible  are  often  not  clothed  in  the 
language  of  strict  truth,  but  in  that  which  was  fittest  to  convey 
to  a  rude  and  ignorant  people  the  practical  essentials  of  the  doc- 
trine. A  perfectly  pure  faith,  free  from  all  extraneous  admixtures, 
a  system  of  noble  theism  and  lofty  morality,  would  find  too  little 
preparation  for  it  in  the  common  mind  and  heart,  to  admit  of 
prompt  reception  by  the  masses  of  mankind;  and  Truth  might 
not  have  reached  us,  if  it  had  not  borrowed  the  wings  of  Error. 

The  Mason  regards  God  as  a  Moral  Governor,  as  well  as  an 
Original  Creator ;  as  a  God  at  hand,  and  not  merely  one  afar  off 
in  the  distance  of  infinite  space,  and  in  the  remoteness  of  Past 
or  Future  Eternity.  He  conceives  of  Him  as  taking  a  watchful 
and  presiding  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  world,  and  as  influenc- 
ing the  hearts  and  actions  of  men. 

To  him,  God  is  the  great  Source  of  the  World  of  Life  and  Mat- 
ter ;  and  man,  with  his  wonderful  corporeal  and  mental  frame, 
His  direct  work.  He  believes  that  God  has  made  men  with  differ- 
ent intellectual  capacities ;  and  enabled  some,  -by  superior  intellect- 
ual power,  to  see  and  originate  truths  which  are  hidden  from  the 
mass  of  men.  He  believes  that  when  it  is  His^  will  that  mankind 
should  make  some  great  step  forward,  or  achieve  some  pregnant 
discovery.  He  calls  into  being  some  intellect  of  more  than  ordi- 


nary  magnitude  and  power,  to  give  birth  to  new  ideas,  and  grander 
conceptions  of  the  Truths  vital  to  Humanity. 

We  hold  that  God  has  so  ordered  matters  in  this  beautiful  and 
harmonious,  but  mysteriously-governed  Universe,  that  one  great 
mind  after  another  will  arise,  from  time  to  time,  as  such  are 
needed,  to  reveal  to  men  the  truths  that  are  wanted,  and  the 
amount  of  truth  that  can  be  borne.  He  so  arranges,  that  nature 
and  the  course  of  events  shall  send  men  into  the  world,  endowed 
with  that  higher  mental  and  moral  organization,  in  which  grand 
truths,  and  sublime  gleams  of  spiritual  light  \vill  spontaneously 
and  inevitably  arise.  These  speak  to  men  by  inspiration. 

Whatever  Hiram  really  was,  he  is  the  type,  perhaps  an  imag- 
inary type,  to  us,  of  humanity  in  its  highest  phase;  an  exemplar 
of  what  man  may  and  should  become,  in  the  course  of  ages,  in  his 
progress  toward  the  realization  of  his  destiny ;  an  individual  gifted 
with  a  glorious  intellect,  a  noble  soul,  a  fine  organization,  and  a 
perfectly  balanced  moral  being ;  an  earnest  of  what  humanity  may 
be,  and  what  we  believe  it  will  hereafter  be  in  God's  good  time ;  the 
possibility  of  the  race  made  real. 

The  Mason  believes  that  God  has  arranged  this  glorious  but  per- 
plexing world  with  a  purpose,  and  on  a  plan.  He  holds  that  every 
man  sent  upon  this  earth,  and  especially  every  man  of  superior 
capacity,  has  a  duty  to  perform,  a  mission  to  fulfill,  a  baptism  to 
be  baptized  with ;  that  every  great  and  good  man  possesses  some 
portion  of  God's  truth,  which  he  must  proclaim  to  the  world,  and 
which  must  bear  fruit  in  his  own  bosom.  In  a  true  and  simple 
sense,  he  believes  all  the  pure,  wise,  and  intellectual  to  be  inspired, 
and  to  be  so  for  the  instruction,  advancement,  and  elevation  of 
mankind.  That  kind  of  inspiration,  like  God's  omnipresence,  is 
not  limited  to  the  few  writers  claimed  by  Jews,  Christians,  or 
Moslems,  but  is  co-extensive  with  the  race.  It  is  the  consequence 
of  a  faithful  use  of  our  faculties.  Each  man  is  its  subject,  God  is 
its  source,  and  Truth  its  only  test.  It  differs  in  degrees,  as  the 
intellectual  endowments,  the  moral  wealth  of  the  soul,  and  the  de- 
gree of  cultivation  of  those  endowments  and  faculties  differ.  It  is 
limited  to  no  sect,  age,  or  nation.  It  is  wide  as  the  world  and 
common  as  God.  It  was  not  given  to  a  few  men,  in  the  infancy 
of  mankind,  to  monopolize  inspiration,  and  bar  God  out  of  the 
soul.  We  are  not  born  in  the  dotage  and  decay  of  the  world.  The 
stars  are  beautiful  as  in  their  prime ;  the  most  ancient  Heavens 


are  fresh  and  strong.  God  is  still  everywhere  in  nature.  Wher- 
ever a  heart  beats  with  love,  wherever  Faith  and  Reason  utter 
their  oracles,  there  is  God,  as  formerly  in  the  hearts  of  seers  and 
prophets.  No  soil  on  earth  is  so  holy  as  the  good  man's  heart ; 
nothing  is  so  full  of  God.  This  inspiration  is  not  given  to  the 
learned  alone,  not  alone  to  the  great  and  wise,  but  to  every  faithful 
child  of  God.  Certain  as  the  open  eye  drinks  in  the  light,  do  the 
pure  in  heart  see  God ;  and  he  who  lives  truly,  feels  Him  as  a  pres- 
ence within  the  soul.  The  conscience  is  the  very  voice  of  Deity. 

Masonry,  around  whose  altars  the  Christian,  the  Hebrew,  the 
Moslem,  the  Brahmin,  the  followers  of  Confucius  and  Zoroaster, 
can  assemble  as  brethren  and  unite  in  prayer  to  the  one  God  who 
is  above  all  the  Baalim,  must  needs  leave  it  to  each  of  its  Initiates 
to  look  for  the  foundation  of  his  faith  and  hope  to  the  written 
scriptures  of  his  own  religion.  For  itself  it  finds  those  truths 
definite  enough,  which  are  written  by  the  finger  of  God  upon  the 
heart  of  man  and  on  the  pages  of  the  book  of  nature.  Views  of 
religion  and  duty,  wrought  out  by  the  meditations  of  the  studious, 
confirmed  by  the  allegiance  of  the  good  and  wise,  stamped  as  ster- 
ling by  the  response  they  find  in  every  uncorrupted  mind,  com- 
mend themselves  to  Masons  of  every  creed,  and  may  well  be  ac- 
cepted by  all. 

The  Mason  does  not  pretend  to  dogmatic  certainty,  nor  vainly 
imagine  such  certainty  attainable.  He  considers  that  if  there 
were  no  written  revelation,  he  could  safely  rest  the  hopes  that  ani- 
mate him  and  the  principles  that  guide  him,  on  the  deductions  of 
reason  and  the  convictions  of  instinct  and  consciousness.  He  can 
find  a  sure  foundation  for  his  religious  belief,  in  these  deductions 
of  the  intellect  and  convictions  of  the  heart.  For  reason  proves 
to  him  the  existence  and  attributes  of  God ;  and  those  spiritual 
instincts  which  he  feels  are  the  voice  of  God  in  his  soul,  infuse 
into  his  mind  a  sense  of  his  relation  to  God,  a  conviction  of  the 
beneficence  of  his  Creator  and  Preserver,  and  a  hope  of  future  ex- 
istence ;  and  his  reason  and  conscience  alike  unerringly  point  to 
virtue  as  the  highest  good,  and  the  destined  aim  and  purpose  of 
man's  life. 

He  studies  the  wonders  of  the  Heavens,  the  frame-work  and 
revolutions  of  the  Earth,  the  mysterious  beauties  and  adaptations 
of  animal  existence,  the  moral  and  material  constitution  of  th^ 
human  creature,  so  fearfully  and  wonderfully  made ;  and  is  satis- 


fied  that  God  IS ;  and  that  a  Wise  and  Good  Being  is  the  author 
of  the  starry  Heavens  above  him,  and  of  the  moral  world  within 
him ;  and  his  mind  finds  an  adequate  foundation  for  its  hopes,  its 
worship,  its  principles  of  action,  in  the  far-stretching  Universe,  in 
the  glorious  firmament,  in  the  deep,  full  soul,  bursting  with  unut- 
terable thoughts. 

These  are  truths  which  every  reflecting  mind  will  unhesitatingly 
receive,  as  not  to  be  surpassed,  nor  capable  of  improvement ;  and 
fitted,  if  obeyed,  to  make  earth  indeed  a  Paradise,  and  man  only  a 
little  lower  than  the  angels.  The  worthlessness  of  ceremonial 
observances,  and  the  necessity  of  active  virtue ;  the  enforcement 
of  purity  of  heart  as  the  security  for  purity  of  life,  and  of  the 
government  of  the  thoughts,  as  the  originators  and  forerunners  of 
action ;  universal  philanthropy,  requiring  us  to  love  all  men,  and 
to  do  unto  others  that  and  that  only  which  we  should  think  it 
right,  just,  and  generous  for  them  to  do  unto  us ;  forgiveness  of 
injuries ;  the  necessity  of  self-sacrifice  in  the  discharge  of  duty ; 
humility ;  genuine  sincerity,  and  being  that  which  we  seem  to  be'; 
all  these  sublime  precepts  need  no  miracle,  no  voice  from  the 
clouds,  to  recommend  them  to  our  allegiance,  or  to  assure  us  of 
their  divine  origin.  They  command  obedience  by  virtue  of  their 
inherent  rectitude  and  beauty;  and  have  been,  and  are,  and  will 
be  the  law  in  every  age  and  every  country  of  the  world.  God 
revealed  them  to  man  in  the  beginning. 

To  the  Mason,  God  is  our  Father  in  Heaven,  to  be  Whose  especial 
children  is  the  sufficient  reward  of  the  peacemakers,  to  see  Whose 
face  the  highest  hope  of  the  pure  in  heart ;  Who  is  ever  at  hand  to 
strengthen  His  true  worshippers  ;  to  Whom  our  most  fervent  love  is 
due,  our  most  humble  and  patient  submission  ;  Whose  most  accept- 
able worship  is  a  pure  and  pitying  heart  and  a  beneficent  life ;  in 
Whose  constant  presence  we  live  and  act,  to  Whose  merciful  dispo- 
sal we  are  resigned  by  that  death  which,  we  hope  and  believe,  is 
but  the  entrance  to  a  better  life ;  and  Whose  wise  decrees  forbid  a 
man  to  lap  his  soul  in  an  elyseum  of  mere  indolent  content. 

As  to  our  feelings  toward  Him  and  our  conduct  toward  man, 
Masonry  teaches  little  about  which  men  can  differ,  and  little  from 
which  they  can  dissent.  He  is  our  Father;  and  we  are  all  breth- 
ren. This  much  lies  open  to  the  most  ignorant  and  busy,  as  fully 
as  to  those  who  have  most  leisure  and  are  most  learned.  This 
needs  no  Priest  to  teach  it,  and  no  authority  to  indorse  it ;  and  if 


every  man  did  that  only  which  is  consistent  with  it,  it  would  exile 
barbarity,  cruelty,  intolerance,  uncharitableness,  perfidy,  treachery, 
revenge,  selfishness,  and  all  their  kindred  vices  and  bad  passions 
beyond  the  confines  of  the  world. 

The  true  Mason,  sincerely  holding  that  a  Supreme  God  created 
and  governs  this  world,  believes  also  that  He  governs  it  by  laws, 
which,  though  wise,  just,  and  beneficent,  are  yet  steady,  unwaver- 
ing, inexorable.  He  believes  that  his  agonies  and  sorrows  are  or- 
dained for  his  chastening,  his  strengthening,  his  elaboration  and 
development ;  because  they  are  the  necessary  results  of  the  opera- 
tion of  laws,  the  best  that  could  be  devised  for  the  happiness  and 
purification  of  the  species,  and  to  give  occasion  and  opportunity 
for  the  practice  of  all  the  virtues,  from  the  homeliest  and  most 
common,  to  the  noblest  and  most  sublime ;  or  perhaps  not  even 
that,  but  the  best  adapted  to  work  out  the  vast,  awful,  glorious, 
eternal  designs  of  the  Great  Spirit  of  the  Universe.  He  believes 
that  the  ordained  operations  of  nature,  which  have  brought  misery 
to  him,  have,  from  the  very  unswerving  tranquillity  of  their  ca- 
reer, showered  blessings  and  sunshine  upon  many  another  path ; 
that  the  unrelenting  chariot  of  Time,  which  has  crushed  or  maimed 
him  in  its  allotted  course,  is  pressing  onward  to  the  accomplish- 
ment of  those  serene  and  mighty  purposes,  to  have  contributed  to 
which,  even  as  a  victim,  is  an  honor  and  a  recompense.  He  takes 
this  view  of  Time  and  Nature  and  God,  and  yet  bears  his  lot  with- 
out murmur  or  distrust ;  because  it  is  a  portion  of  a  system,  the 
best  possible,  because  ordained  by  God.  He  does  not  believe  that 
God  loses  sight  of  him,  while  superintending  the  march  of  the 
great  harmonies  of  the  Universe;  nor  that  it  was  not  foreseen, 
when  the  Universe  was  created,  its  laws  enacted,  and  the  long  suc- 
cession of  its  operations  pre-ordained,  that  in  the  great  march  of 
those  events,  he  would  suffer  pain  and  undergo  calamity.  He  be- 
lieves that  his  individual  good  entered  into  God's  consideration,  as 
well  as  the  great  cardinal  results  to  which  the  course  of  all  things 
is  tending. 

Thus  believing,  he  has  attained  an  eminence  in  virtue,  the  high- 
est, amid  passive  excellence,  which  humanity  can  reach.  He  finds 
his  reward  and  his  support  in  the  reflection  that  he  is  an  unreluc- 
tant  and  self-sacrificing  co-operator  with  the  Creator  of  the  Uni- 
verse ;  and  in  the  noble  consciousness  of  being  worthy  and  capable 
of  so  sublime  a  conception,  yet  so  sad  a  destiny.  He  is  then  truly 


entitled  to  be  called  a  Grand  Elect,  Perfect,  and  Sublime  Mason. 
He  is  content  to  fall  early  in  the  battle,  if  his  body  may  but  form 
a  stepping-stone  for  the  future  conquests  of  humanity. 

It  cannot  be  that  God,  Who,  we  are  certain,  is  perfectly  good,  can 
choose  us  to  suffer  pain,  unless  either  we  are  ourselves  to  receive 
from  it  an  antidote  to  what  is  evil  in  ourselves,  or  else  as  such  pain 
is  a  necessary  part  in  the  scheme  of  the  Universe,  which  as  a  whole 
is  good.  In  either  case,  the  Mason  receives  it  with  submission. 
He  would  not  suffer  unless  it  was  ordered  so.  Whatever  his  creed, 
if  he  believes  that  God  is,  and  that  He  cares  for  His  creatures,  he 
cannot  doubt  that ;  nor  that  it  would  not  have  been  so  ordered, 
unless  it  was  either  better  for  himself^  or  for  some  other  persons, 
or  for  some  things.  To  complain  and  lament  is  to  murmur  against 
God's  will,  and  worse  than  unbelief. 

The  Mason,  whose  mind  is  cast  in  a  nobler  mould  than  those  of 
the  ignorant  and  unreflecting,  and  is  instinct  with  a  diviner  life, — 
who  loves  truth  more  than  rest,  and  the  peace  of  Heaven  rather 
than  the  peace  of  Eden, — to  whom  a  loftier  being  brings  severer 
cares, — who  knows  that  man  does  not  live  by  pleasure  or  content 
alone,  but  by  the  presence  of  the  power  of  God, — must  cast  be- 
hind him  the  hope  of  any  other  repose  or  tranquillity,  than  that 
which  is  the  last  reward  of  long  agonies  of  thought ;  he  must  re- 
linquish all  prospect  of  any  Heaven  save  that  of  which  trouble  is 
the  avenue  and  portal ;  he  must  gird  up  his  loins,  and  trim  his 
lamp,  for  a  work  that  must  be  done,  and  must  not  be  negligently 
done.  If  he  does  not  like  to  live  in  the  furnished  lodgings  of  tra- 
dition, he  must  build  his  own  house,  his  own  system  of  faith  and 
thought,  for  himself. 

The  hope  of  success,  and  not  the  hope  of  reward,  should  be  our 
stimulating  and  sustaining  power.  Our  object,  and  not  ourselves, 
should  be  our  inspiring  thought.  Selfishness  is  a  sin,  when  tem- 
porary, and  for  time.  Spun  out  to  eternity,  it  does  not  become 
celestial  prudence.  We  should  toil  and  die,  not  for  Heaven  or 
Bliss,  but  for  Duty. 

In  the  more  frequent  cases,  where  we  have  to  join  our  efforts  to 
those  of  thousands  of  others,  to  contribute  to  the  carrying  forward 
of  a  great  cati?e :  merely  to  till  the  ground  or  sow  the  seed  for  a 
very  distant  harvest,  or  to  prepare  the  way  for  the  future  advent 
of  some  great  amendment ;  the  amount  which  each  one  contrib- 
utes to  the  achievement  of  ultimate  success,  the  portion  of  the 


price  which  justice  should  assign  to  each  as  his  especial  produc- 
tion, can  never  be  accurately  ascertained.  Perhaps  few  of  those 
who  have  ever  labored,  in  the  patience  of  secrecy  and  silence,  to 
bring  about  some  political  or  social  change,  which  they  felt  con- 
vinced would  ultimately  prove  of  vast  service  to  humanity,  lived 
to  see  the  change  effected,  or  the  anticipated  good  flow  from  it. 
Fewer  still  of  them  were  able  to  pronounce  what  appreciable 
weight  their  several  efforts  contributed  to  the  achievement  of  the 
change  desired.  Many  will  doubt,  whether,  in  truth,  these  exer- 
tions have  any  influence  whatever;  and,  discouraged,  cease  all 
active  effort. 

Not  to  be  thus  discouraged,  the  Mason  must  labor  to  elevate 
and  purify  his  motives,  as  well  as  sedulously  cherish  the  convic- 
tion, assuredly  a  true  one,  that  in  this  world  there  is  no  such  thing 
as  effort  thrown  away ;  that  in  all  labor  there  is  profit ;  that  all 
sincere  exertion,  in  a  righteous  and  unselfish  cause,  is  necessarily 
followed,  in  spite  of  all  appearance  to  the  contrary,  by  an  appro- 
priate and  proportionate  success;  that  no  bread  cast  upon  the 
waters  can  be  wholly  lost ;  that  no  seed  planted  in  the  ground  can 
fail  to  quicken  in  due  time  and  measure;  and  that,  however  we 
may,  in  moments  of  despondency,  be  apt  to  doubt,  not  only 
whether  our  cause  will  triumph,  but  whether,  if  it  does,  we  shall 
have  contributed  to  its  triumph, — there  is  One,  Who  has  not 
only  seen  every  exertion  we  have  made,  but  Who  can  assign 
the  exact  degree  in  which  each  soldier  has  assisted  to  gain  the 
great  victory  over  social  evil.  No  good  work  is  done  wholly  in 

The  Grand  Elect,  Perfect,  and  Sublime  Mason  will  in  nowise 
deserve  that  honorable  title,  if  he  has,  not  that  strength,  that  will, 
that  self-sustaining  energy ;  that  Faith,  that  feeds  upon  no  earthly 
hope,  nor  ever  thinks  of  victory,  but,  content  in  its  own  consum- 
mation, combats  because  it  ought  to  combat,  rejoicing  fights,  and 
still  rejoicing  falls. 

The  Augean  Stables  of  the  World,  the  accumulated  uncleanness 
and  misery  of  centuries,  require  a  mighty  river  to  cleanse  them 
thoroughly  away ;  every  drop  we  contribute  aids  to  swell  that 
river  and  augment  its  force,  in  a  degree  appreciable  by  God, 
though  not  by  man ;  and  he  whose  zeal  is  deep  and  earnest,  will 
not  be  over-anxious  that  his  individual  drops  should  be  distin- 
guishable amid  the  mighty  mass  of  cleansing  and  fertilizing  wa- 


ters ;  far  less  that,  for  the  sake  of  distinction,  it  should  flow  in 
ineffective  singleness  away. 

The  true  Mason  will  not  be  careful  that  his  name  should  be 
inscribed  upon  the  mite  which  he  casts  into  the  treasury  of  God. 
It  suffices  him  to  know  that  if  he  has  labored,  with  purity  of  pur- 
pose, in  any  good  cause,  he  must  have  contributed  to  its  success; 
that  the  degree  in  which  he  has  contributed  is  a  matter  of  infi- 
nitely small  concern ;  and  still  more,  that  the  consciousness  of 
having  so  contributed,  however  obscurely  and  unnoticed,  is  his 
sufficient,  even  if  it  be  his  sole,  reward.  Let  every  Grand  Elect, 
Perfect,  and  Sublime  Mason  cherish  this  faith.  It  is  a  duty.  It 
is  the  brilliant  and  never-dying  light  that  shines  within  and 
through  the  symbolic  pedestal  of  alabaster,  on  which  reposes  the 
perfect  cube  of  agate,  symbol  of  duty,  inscribed  with  the  divine 
name  of  God.  He  who  industriously  sows  and  reaps  is  a  good 
laborer,  and  worthy  of  his  hire.  But  he  who  sows  that  which 
shall  be  reaped  by  others,  by  those  who  will  know  not  of  and  care 
not  for  the  sower,  is  a  laborer  of  a  nobler  order,  and  worthy  of  a 
more  excellent  reward. 

The  Mason  does  not  exhort  others  to  an  ascetic  undervaluing 
of  this  life,  as  an  insignificant  and  unworthy  portion  of  existence ; 
for  that  demands  feelings  which  are  unnatural,  and  which,  there- 
fore, if  attained,  must  be  morbid,  and  if  merely  professed,  insin- 
cere ;  and  teaches  us  to  look  rather  to  a  future  life  for  the  com- 
pensation of  social  evils,  than  to  this  life  for  their  cure;  and  so 
does  injury  to  the  cause  of  virtue  and  to  that  of  social  progress. 
Life  is  real,  and  is  earnest,  and  it  is  full  of  duties  to  be  performed. 
It  is  the  beginning  of  our  immortality.  Those  only  who  feel  a 
deep  interest  and  affection  for  this  world  will  work  resolutely  for 
its  amelioration ;  those  whose  affections  are  transferred  to  Heaven, 
easily  acquiesce  in  the  miseries  of  earth,  deeming  them  hopeless, 
befitting,  and  ordained;  and  console  themselves  with  the  idea  of 
the  amends  which  are  one  day  to  be  theirs.  It  is  a  sad  truth,  that 
those  most  decidedly  given  to  spiritual  contemplation,  and  to 
making  religion  rule  in  their  hearts,  are  often  most  apathetic  tow- 
ard all  improvement  of  this  world's  systems,  and  in  many  cases 
virtual  conservatives  of  evil,  and  hostile  to  political  and  social  re- 
form, as  diverting  men's  energies  from  eternity. 

The  Mason  does  not  war  with  his  own  instincts,  macerate  the 
body  into  weakness  and  disorder,  and  disparage  what  he  sees  to  be 


beautiful,  knows  to  be  wonderful,  and  feels  to  be  unspeakably 
dear  and  fascinating.  He  does  not  put  aside  the  nature  which 
God  has  given  him,  to  struggle  after  one  which  He  has  not  be- 
stowed. He  knows  that  man  is  sent  into  the  world,  not  a  spir- 
itual, but  a  composite  being,  made  up  of  body  and  mind,  the  body 
having,  as  is  fit  and  needful  in  a  material  world,  its  full,  rightful, 
r.nd  allotted  share.  His  life  is  guided  by  a  full  recognition  of  this 
fact.  He  does  not  deny  it  in  bold  words,  and  admit  it  in  weak- 
nesses and  inevitable  failings.  He  believes  that  his  spirituality 
will  come  in  the  next  stage  of  his  being,  when  he  puts  on  the  spir- 
itual body ;  that  his  body  will  be  dropped  at  death ;  and  that,  until 
then,  God  meant  it  to  be  commanded  and  controlled,  but  not  neg- 
lected, despised,  or  ignored  by  the  soul,  under  pain  of  heavy  con- 

Yet  the  Mason  is  not  indifferent  as  to  the  fate  of  the  soul,  after 
its  present  life,  as  to  its  continued  and  eternal  being,  and  the  char- 
acter of  the  scenes  in  which  that  being  will  be  fully  developed. 
These  are  to  him  topics  of  the  profoundest  interest,  and  the  most 
ennobling  and  refining  contemplation.  They  occupy  much  of  his 
leisure ;  and  as  he  becomes  familiar  with  the  sorrows  and  calami- 
ties of  this  life,  as  his  hopes  are  disappointed  and  his  visions  of 
happiness  here  fade  away ;  when  life  has  wearied  him  in  its 
race  of  hours;  when  he  is  harassed  and  toil-worn,  and  the  bur- 
den of  his  years  weighs  heavy  on  him,  the  balance  of  attraction 
gradually  inclines  in  favor  of  another  life;  and  he  clings  to  his 
lofty  speculations  with  a  tenacity  of  interest  which  needs  no  in- 
junction, and  will  listen  to  no  prohibition.  They  are  the  consol- 
ing privilege  of  the  aspiring,  the  wayworn,  the  weary,  and  the  be- 

To  him  the  contemplation  of  the  Future  lets  in  light  upon  the 
Present,  and  develops  the  higher  portions  of  his  nature.  He  en- 
deavors rightly  to  adjust  the  respective  claims  of  Heaven  and  earth 
upon  his  time  and  thought,  so  as  to  give  the  proper  proportions 
thereof  to  performing  the  duties  and  entering  into  the  interests 
of  this  world,  and  to  preparation  for  a  better;  to  the  cultivation 
and  purification  of  his  own  character,  and  to  the  public  service  of 
his  fellow-men. 

The  Mason  does  not  dogmatize,  but  entertainjng  and  uttering 
his  own  convictions,  he  leaves  every  one  else  free'to  do  the  same : 
and  only  hopes  that  the  time  will  come,  even  if  after  the  lapse  of 


ages,  when  all  men  shall  form  one  great  family  of  brethren,  and 
one  law  alone,  the  law  of  love,  shall  govern  God's  whole  Uni- 

Believe  as  you  may,  my  brother ;  if  the  Universe  is  not,  to  you, 
without  a  God,  and  if  man  is  not  like  the  beast  that  perishes,  but 
hath  an  immortal  soul,  we  welcome  you  among  us,  to  wear,  as  we 
wear,  with  humility,  and  conscious  of  your  demerits  and  short- 
comings, the  title  of  Grand  Elect,  Perfect,  and  Sublime  Mason. 

It  was  not  without  a  secret  meaning,  that  twelve  was  the  num- 
ber of  the  Apostles  of  Christ,  and  seventy-two  that  of  his  Disciples : 
that  John  addressed  his  rebukes  and  menaces  to  the  Seven 
churches,  the  number  of  the  Archangels  and  the  Planets.  At 
Babylon  were  the  Seven  Stages  of  Bersippa,  a  pyramid  of  Seven 
stories,  and  at  Ecbatana  Seven  concentric  inclosures,  each  of  a 
different  color.  Thebes  also  had  Seven  gates,  and  the  same  number 
is  repeated  again  and  again  in  the  account  of  the  flood.  The 
Sephiroth,  or  Emanations,  ten  in  number,  three  in  one  class,  and 
seven  in  the  other,  repeat  the  mystic  numbers  of  Pythagoras. 
Seven  Amschaspands  or  planetary  spirits  were  invoked  with 
Ormuzd :  Seven  inferior  Rishis  of  Hindustan  were  saved  with  the 
head  of  their  family  in  an  ark:  and  Seven  ancient  personages 
alone  returned  with  the  British  just  man,  Hu,  from  the  dale  of 
the  grievous  waters.  There  were  Seven  Heliadae,  whose  father 
Helias,  or  the  Sun,  once  crossed  the  sea  in  a  golden  cup;  Seven 
Titans,  children  of  the  older  Titan,  Kronos  or  Saturn ;  Seven 
Corybantes ;  and  Seven  Cabiri,  sons  of  Sydyk ;  Seven  primeval 
Celestial  spirits  of  the  Japanese,  and  Seven  Karfesters  who 
escaped  from  the  deluge  and  began  to  be  the  parents  of  a  new 
race,  on  the  summit  of  Mount  Albordi.  Seven  Cyclopes,  also, 
built  the  walls  of  Tiryus. 

Celsus,  as  quoted  by  Origen,  tells  us  that  the  Persians  repre- 
sented by. symbols  the  two- fold  motion  of  the  stars,  fixed  and 
planetary,  and  the  passage  of  the  Soul  through  their  successive 
spheres.  They  erected  in  their  holy  caves,  in  which  the  mystic 
rites  of  the  Mithriac  Initiations  were  practised,  what  he  denom- 
inates a  high  ladder,  on  the  Seven  steps  of  which  were  Seven 
gates  or  portals,  according  to  the  number  of  the  Seven  principal 
heavenly  bodies.  Through  these  the  aspirants  passed,  until  they 
reached  the  summit  of  the  whole ;  and  this  passage  was  styled  a 
transmigration  through  the  spheres. 


Jacob  saw  in  his  dream  a  ladder  planted  or  set  on  the  earth, 
and  its  top  reaching  to  Heaven,  and  the  Malaki  Alohim  ascending 
and  descending  on  it,  and  above  it  stood  IHUH,  declaring  Himself 
to  be  Ihuh-Alhi  Abraham.  The  word  translated  ladder,  is  D^D 
Salam,  from  ^D,  Salal,  raised,  elevated,  reared  up,  exalted,  piled 
up  into  a  heap,  Aggeravit,  PI^D  Salalah,  means  a  heap,  rampart, 
or  other  accumulation  of  earth  or  stone,  artificially  made;  and 
V^D,  Salaa  or  Sato,  is  a  rock  or  cliff  or  boulder,  and  the  name  of 
the  city  of  Petra.  There  is  no  ancient  Hebrew  word  to  designate 
a  pyramid. 

The  symbolic  mountain  Meru  was  ascended  by  Seven  steps  or 
stages ;  and  all  the  pyramids  and  artificial  tumuli  and  hillocks 
thrown  up  in  flat  countries  were  imitations  of  this  fabulous  and 
mystic  mountain,  for  purposes  of  worship.  These  were  the  "High 
Places"  so  often  mentioned  in  the  Hebrew  books,  on  which  the 
idolaters  sacrificed  to  foreign  gods. 

The  pyramids  were  sometimes  square,  and  sometimes  round. 
The  sacred  Babylonian  tower  [^IJD,  Magdol] ,  dedicated  to  the 
great  Father  Bal,  was  an  artificial  hill,  of  pyramidal  shape,  and 
Seven  stages,  built  of  brick,  and  each  stage  of  a  different  color, 
representing  the  Seven  planetary  spheres  by  the  appropriate  color 
of  each  planet.  Meru  itself  was  said  to  be  a  single  mountain,  ter- 
minating in  three  peaks,  and  thus  a  symbol  of  the  Trimurti.  The 
great  Pagoda  at  Tan j ore  was  of  six  stories,  surmounted  by  a  tem- 
ple as  the  seventh,  and  on  this  three  spires  or  towers.  An  ancient 
pagoda  at  Deogur  was  surmounted  by  a  tower,  sustaining  the 
mystic  egg  and  a  trident.  Herodotus  tells  us  that  the  Temple  of 
Bal  at  Babylon  was  a  tower  composed  of  Seven  towers,  resting  on 
an  eighth  that  served  as  basis,  and  successively  diminishing  in 
size  from  the  bottom  to  the  top ;  and  Strabo  tells  us  it  was  a  pyr- 

Faber  thinks  that  the  Mithriac  ladder  was  really  a  pyramid  with 
Seven  stages,  each  provided  with  a  narrow  door  or  aperture, 
through  each  of  which  doors  the  aspirant  passed,  to  reach  the 
summit,  and  then  descended  through  similar  doors  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  pyramid;  the  ascent  and  descent  of  the  Soul  being 
thus  represented. 

Each  Mithriac  cave  and  all  the  most  ancient  temples  were  in- 
tended to  symbolize  the  Universe,  which  itself  was  habitually 
called  the  Temple  and  habitation  of  Deity.  Every  temple  was 


the  world  in  miniature ;  and  so  the  whole  world  was  one  grand 
temple.  The  most  ancient  temples  were  roofless ;  and  therefore 
the  Persians,  Celts,  and  Scythians  strongly  disliked  artificial  cov- 
ered edifices.  Cicero  says  that  Xerxes  burned  the  Grecian  tem- 
ples, on  the  express  ground  that  the  whole  world  was  the  Magnifi- 
cent Temple  and  Habitation  of  the  Supreme  Deity.  Macrobius 
says  that  the  entire  Universe  was  judiciously  deemed  by  many  the 
Temple  of  God.  Plato  pronounced  the  real  Temple  of  the  Deity 
to  be  the  world ;  and  Heraclitus  declared  that  the  Universe,  varie- 
gated with  animals  and  plants  and  stars  was  the  only  genuine 
Temple  of  the  Divinity. 

How  completely  the  Temple  of  Solomon  was  symbolic,  is 
manifest,  not  only  from  the  continual  reproduction  in  it  of 
t^ie  sacred  numbers  and  of  astrological  symbols  in  the  histor- 
ical descriptions  of  it;  but  also,  and  yet  more,  from  the  de- 
tails of  the  imaginary  reconstructed  edifice,  seen  by  Ezechiel 
in  his  vision.  The  Apocalypse  completes  the  demonstration, 
and  shows  the  kabalistic  meanings  of  the  whole.  The  Sym- 
bola  Architectonica  are  found  on  the  most  ancient  edifices ; 
and  these  mathematical  figures  and  instruments,  adopted  by 
the  Templars,  and  identical  with  those  on  the  gnostic  seals  and 
abraxas,  connect  their  dogma  with  the  Chaldaic,  Syriac,  and 
Egyptian  Oriental  philosophy.  The  secret  Pythagorean  doc- 
trines of  numbers  were  preserved  by  the  monks  of  Thibet,  by 
the  Hierophants  of  Egypt  and  Eleusis,  at  Jerusalem,  and  in 
the  circular  Chapters  of  the  Druids ;  and  they  are  especially 
consecrated  in  that  mysterious  book,  the  Apocalypse  of  Saint 

All  temples  were  surrounded  by  pillars,  recording  the  number 
of  the  constellations,  the  signs  of  the  zodiac,  or  the  cycles  of  the 
planets ;  and  each  was  a  microcosm  or  symbol  of  the  Universe, 
having  for  roof  or  ceiling  the  starred  vault  of  Heaven. 

All  temples  were  originally  open  at  the  top,  having  for  roof  the 
sky.  Twelve  pillars  described  the  belt  of  the  zodiac.  Whatever 
the  number  of  the  pillars,  they  were  mystical  everywhere.  At 
Abury,  the  Druidic  temple  reproduced  all  the  cycles  by  its  col- 
umns. Around  the  temples  of  Chilminar  in  Persia,  of  Baalbec, 
and  of  Tukhti  Schlomoh  in  Tartary,  on  the  frontier  of  China, 
stood  forty  pillars.  On  each  side  of  the  temple  at  Paestum  were 
fourteen,  recording  the  Egyptian  cycle  of  the  dark  and  light  sides 



of  the  moon,  as  described  by  Plutarch ;  the  whole  thirty-eieht 
that  surrounded  them  recording  the  two  meteoric  cycles  so  often 
found  in  the  Druidic  temples. 

The  theatre  built  by  Scaurus,  in  Greece,  was  surrounded  by 
360  columns ;  the  Temple  at  Mecca,  and  that  at  Icna  in  Scotland, 
by  360  stones. 





[Knight  of  the  East,  of  the  Sword,  or  of  the  Eagle.] 

THIS  Degree,  like  all  others  in  Masonry,  is  symbolical.  Based 
upon  historical  truth  and  authentic  tradition,  it  is  still  an  alle- 
gory. The  leading  lesson  of  this  Degree  is  .Fidelity  to  obligation, 
and  Constancy  and  Perseverance  under  difficulties  and  discour- 

Masonry  is  engaged  in  her  crusade, — against  ignorance,  intoler- 
ance, fanaticism,  superstition,  uncharitableness,  and  error.  She 
does  not  sail  with  the  trade-winds,  upon  a  smooth  sea,  with  a 
steady  free  breeze,  fair  for  a  welcoming  harbor ;  but  meets  and 
must  overcome  many  opposing  currents,  baffling  winds,  and  dead 

The  chief  obstacles  to  her  success  are  the  apathy  and  faithless- 
ness of  her  own  selfish  children,  and  the  supine  indifference  of 
the  world.  In  the  roar  and  crush  and  hurry  of  life  and  business, 
and  the  tumult  and  uproar  of  politics,  the  quiet  voice  of  Masonry 
is  unheard  and  unheeded.  The  first  lesson  which  one  learns,  who 
engages  in  any  great  work  of  reform  or  beneficence,  is,  that  men 
are  essentially  careless,  lukewarm,  and  indifferent  as  to  every- 
thing that  does  not  concern  their  own  personal  and  immediate 


-38  '  .  MORALS   AND   DOGMA. 

welfare.  It  is  to  single  men,  and  not  to  the  united  efforts  of 
many,  that  all' the  great  works  of  man,  struggling  toward  perfec- 
tion, are  owing.  The  enthusiast,  who  imagines  that  he  can  in- 
spire with  his  own  enthusiasm  the  multitude  that  eddies  around 
him,  or  even  the  few  who  have  associated  themselves  with  him  as 
co-workers,  is  grievously  mistaken ;  and  most  often  the  conviction 
of  his  own  mistake  is  followed  by  discouragement  and  disgust. 
To  do  all,  to  pay  all,  and  to  suffer  all,  and  then,  when  despite  all 
obstacles  and  hindrances,  success  is  accomplished,  and  a  great 
work  done,  to  see  those  who  opposed  or  looked  coldly  on  it,  claim 
and  reap  all  the  praise  and  reward,  is  the  common  and  almost  uni- 
versal lot  of  the  benefactor  of  his  kind. 

He  who  endeavors  to  serve,  to  benefit,  and  improve  the  world, 
is  like  a  swimmer,  who  struggles  against  a  rapid  current,  in  a  river 
lashed  into  angry  waves  by  the  winds.  Often  they  roar  over  his 
head,  often  they  beat  him  back  and  baffle  him.  Most  men  yield 
to  the  stress  of  the  current,  and  float  with  it  to  the  shore,  or  are 
swept  over  the  rapids;  and  only  here  and  there  the  stout,  strong 
heart  and  vigorous  arms  struggle  on  toward  ultimate  success. 

It  is  the  motionless  and  stationary  that  most  frets  and  impedes 
the  current  of  progress ;  the  solid  rock  or  stupid  dead  tree,  rested 
firmly  on  the  bottom,  and  around  which  the  river  whirls  and 
eddies :  the  Masons  that  doubt  and  hesitate  and  are  discouraged ; 
that  disbelieve  in  the  capability  of  man  to  improve;  that  are  not 
disposed  to  toil  and  labor  for  the  interest  and  well-being  of  gen- 
eral humanity;  that  expect  others  to  do  all,  even  of  that  which 
they  do  not  oppose  or  ridicule;  while  they  sit,  applauding  and 
doing  nothing,  or  perhaps  prognosticating  failure. 

There  were  many  such  at  the  rebuilding  of  the  Temple.  There 
were  prophets  of  evil  and  misfortune — the  lukewarm  and  the  in- 
different and  the  apathetic ;  those  who  stood  by  and  sneered ;  and 
those  who  thought  they  did  God  service  enough  if  they  now  and 
then  faintly  applauded.  There  were  ravens  croaking  ill  omen, 
and  murmurers  who  preached  the  folly  and  futility  of  the  attempt. 
The  world  is  made  up  of  such ;  and  they  w.ere  as  abundant  thei. 
as  they  are  now. 

But  gloomy  and  discouraging  as  was  the  prospect,  with  luke- 
warmness  within  and  bitter  opposition  without,"  our  ancient  breth- 
ren persevered.  Let  us  leave  them  engaged  in  the  good  work, 
and  whenever  to  us,  as  to  them,  success  is  uncertain,  remote,  and 


contingent,  let  us  still  remember  that  the  only  question  for  us  to 
ask,  as  true  men  and  Masons,  is,  what  does  duty  require ;  and  not 
what  will  be  the  result  and  our  reward  if  we  do  our  duty.  Work 
on,  with  the  Sword  in  one  hand,  and  the  Trowel  in  the  other ! 

Masonry  teaches  that  God  is  a  Paternal  Being,  and  has  an  in- 
terest in  his  creatures,  such  as  is  expressed  in  the  title  Father;  an 
interest  unknown  to  all  the  systems  of  Paganism,  untaught  in  all 
the  theories  of  philosophy ;  an  interest  not  only  in  the  glorious 
beings  of  other  spheres,  the  Sons  of  Light,  the  dwellers  in  Heav- 
enly worlds,  but  in  us,  poor,  ignorant,  and  unworthy;  that  He 
has  pity  for  the  erring,  pardon  for  the  guilty,  love  for  the  pure, 
knowledge  for  the  humble,  and  promises  of  immortal  life  for 
those  who  trust  in  and  obey  Him. 

Without  a  belief  in  Him,  life  is  miserable,  the  world  is  dark,  the 
Universe  disrobed  of  its  splendors,  the  intellectual  tie  to  nature 
broken,  the  charm  of  existence  dissolved,  the  great  hope  of  being 
lost;  and  the  mind,  like  a  star  struck  from  its  sphere,  wanders 
through  the  infinite  desert  of  its  conceptions,  without  attraction, 
tendency,  destiny,  or  end. 

Masonry  teaches,  that,  of  all  the  events  and  actions,  that  take 
place  in  the  universe  of  worlds  and  the  eternal  succession  of  ages, 
there  is  not  one,  even  the  minutest,  which  God  did  not  forever 
foresee,  with  all  the  distinctness  of  immediate  vision,  combining 
all,  so  that  man's  free  will  should  be  His  instrument,  like  all  the 
other  forces  of  nature. 

It  teaches  that  the  soul  of  man  is  formed  by  Him  for  a  pur- 
pose; that,  built  up  in  its  proportions,  and  fashioned  in  even,' 
part,  by  infinite  skill,  an  emanation  from  His  spirit,  its  nature, 
necessity,  and  design  are  virtue.  It  is  so  formed,  so  moulded,  so 
fashioned,  so  exactly  balanced,  so  exquisitely  proportioned  in  every 
part,  that  sin  introduced  into  it  is  misery;  that  vicious  thoughts 
fall  upon  it  like  drops  of  poison ;  and  guilty  desires,  breathing  on 
its  delicate  fibres,  make  plague-spots  there,  deadly  as  those  of  pes- 
tilence upon  the  body.  It  is  made  for  virtue,  and  not  for  vice ; 
for  purity,  as  its  end,  rest,  and  happiness.  Not  more  vainly  would 
we  attempt  to  make  the  mountain  sink  to  the  level  of  the  valley, 
the  waves  of  the  angry  sea  turn  back  from  its  shores  and  cease  to 
thunder  upon  the  beach,  the  stars  to  halt  in  their  swift  courses, 
than  to  change  any  one  law  of  our  own  nature.  And  one  of  those 
laws,  uttered  by  God's  voice,  and  speaking  through  every  nerve 


and  fibre,  every  force  and  element,  of  the  moral  constitution  He 
has  given  us,  is  that  we  must  be  upright  and  virtuous ;  that  if 
tempted  we  must  resist;  that  we  must  govern  our  unruly  pas- 
sions, and  hold  in  hand  our  sensual  appetites.  And  this  is  not  the 
dictate  of  an  arbitrary  will,  nor  of  some  stern  and  impracticable 
law;  but  it  is  part  of  the  great  firm  law  of  harmony  that  binds 
the  Universe  together :  not  the  mere  enactment  of  arbitrary  will ; 
but  the  dictate  of  Infinite  Wisdom. 

We  know  that  God  is  good,  and  that  what  He  does  is  right. 
This  known,  the  works  of  creation,  the  changes  of  life,  the  desti- 
nies of  eternity,  are  all  spread  before  us,  as  the  dispensations  and 
counsels  of  infinite  love.  This  known,  we  then  know  that  the 
love  of  God  is  working  to  issues,  like  itself,  beyond  all  thought 
and  imagination  good  and  glorious ;  and  that  the  only  reason 
why  we  do  not  understand  it,  is  that  it  is  too  glorious  for  us  to  un- 
derstand. God's  love  takes  care  for  all,  and  nothing  is  neglected. 
It  watches  over  all,  provides  for  all,  makes  wise  adaptations  for 
all ;  for  age,  for  infancy,  for  maturity,  for  childhood ;  in  every 
scene  of  this  or  another  world ;  for  want,  weakness,  joy,  sorrow, 
and  even  for  sin.  All  is  good  and  well  and  right ;  and  shall  be  so 
forever.  Through  the  eternal  ages  the  light  of  God's  beneficence 
shall  shine  hereafter,  disclosing  all,  consummating  all,  rewarding 
all  that  deserve  reward.  Then  we  shall  see,  what  now  we  can  onlv 
believe.  The  cloud  will  be  lifted  up,  the  gate  of  mystery  be 
passed,  and  the  full  light  shine  forever;  the  light  of  which  that 
of  the  Lodge  is  a  symbol.  Then  that  which  caused  us  trial  shall 
yield  us  triumph ;  and  that  which  made  our  heart  ache  shall  fill 
us  with  gladness ;  and  we  shall  then  feel  that  there,  as  here,  the 
only  true  happiness  is  to  learn,  to  advance,  and  to  improve ;  which 
could  not  happen  unless  we  had  commenced  with  error,  ignorance, 
and  imperfection.  We  must  pass  through  the  darkness,  to  reach 
the  light. 


WE  no  longer  expect  to  rebuild  the  Temple  at  Jerusalem.  To 
us  it  has  become  but  a  symbol.  To  us  the  whole  world  is  God's 
Temple,  as  is  every  upright  heart.  To  establish  all  over  the  world 
the  New  Law  and  Reign  of  Love,  Peace,  Charity,  and  Toleration, 
is  to  build  that  Temple,  most  acceptable  to  God,  in  erecting  which 
Masonry  is  now  engaged.  No  longer  needing  to  repair  to  Jerusa- 
lem to  worship,  nor  to  offer  up  sacrifices  and  shed  blood  to  prop5 
tiate  the  Deity,  man  may  make  the  woods  and  mountains  his 
Churches  and  Temples,  and  worship  God  with  a  devout  gratitude, 
and  with  works  of  charity  and  beneficence  to  his  fellow-men.  Wher- 
ever the  humble  and  contrite  heart  silently  offers  up  its  adoration, 
under  the  overarching  trees,  in  the  open,  level  meadows,  on  the 
hill-side,  in  the  glen,  or  in  the  city's  swarming  streets ;  there  is 
God's  House  and  the  New  Jerusalem. 

The  Princes  of  Jerusalem  no  longer  sit  as  magistrates  to  judge 
between  the  people ;  nor  is  their  number  limited  to  five.  But 
their  duties  still  remain  substantially  the  same,  and  their  insignia 
and  symbols  retain  their  old  significance.  Justice  and  Equity 
are  still  their  characteristics.  To  reconcile  disputes  and  heal  dis- 
sensions, to  restore  amity  and  peace,  to  soothe  dislikes  and  soften 
prejudices,  are  their  peculiar  duties ;  and  they  know  that  the 
peacemakers  are  blessed. 

Their  emblems  have  been  already  explained.  They  are  part  of 
the  language  of  Masonry ;  the  same  now  as  it  ws.s  when  Moses 
learned  it  from  the  Egyptian  Hierophants. 

Still  we  observe  the  spirit  of  the  Divine  law,  as  thus  enunciated 
to  our  ancient  brethren,  when  the  Temple  was  rebuilt,  and  the 
book  of  the  law  again  opened : 

"Execute  true  judgment :  and  show  mercy  and  compassion 
every  man  to  his  brother.  Oppress  not  the  widow  nor  the  father- 
less, tho  ctr?npfcr  nr-r  the  poor:  and  let  none  of  you  imagine  evil 
against  his  brother  in  his  heart.  Speak  ye  every  man  the  truth 



to  his  neighbor;  execute  the  judgment  of  Truth  and  Peace  in 
your  gates ;  and  love  no  false  oath ;  for  all  these  I  hate,  saith  the 

"Let  those  who  have  power  rule  in  righteousness,  and  Princes 
in  judgment.  And  let  him  that  is  a  judge  be  as  an  hiding-place 
from  the  wind,  and  a  covert  from  the  tempest ;  as  rivers  of  water 
in  a  dry  place ;  as  the  shadow  of  a  great  rock  in  a  weary  land. 
Then  the  vile  person  shall  no  more  be  called  liberal ;  nor  the 
churl  bountiful;  and  the  work  of  justice  shall  be  peace;  and  the 
effect  of  justice,  quiet  and  security ;  and  wisdom  and  knowledge 
shall  be  the  stability  of  the  times.  Walk  ye  righteously  and  speak 
uprightly ;  despise  the  gains  of  oppression,  shake  from  your  hands 
the  contamination  of  bribes ;  stop  not  your  ears  against  the  cries 
of  the  oppressed,  nor  shut  your  eyes  that  you  may  not  see  the 
crimes  of  the  great ;  and  you  shall  dwell  on  high,  and  your  place 
of  defence  be  like  munitions  of  rocks." 

Forget  not  these  precepts  of  the  old  Law ;  and  especially  do 
not  forget,  as  you  advance,  that  every  Mason,  however  humble,  is 
your  brother,  and  the  laboring  man  your  peer !  Remember  always 
that  all  Masonry  is  work,  and  that  the  trowel  is  an  emblem  of  the 
Degrees  in  this  Council.  Labor,  when  rightly  understood,  is  both 
noble  and  ennobling,  and  intended  to  develop  man's  moral  and 
spiritual  nature,  and  not  to  be  deemed  a  disgrace  or  a  misfortune. 

Everything  around  us  is,  in  its  bearings  and  influences,  moral. 
The  serene  and  bright  morning,  when  we  recover  our  conscious 
existence  from  the  embraces  of  sleep;  when,  from  that  image  of 
Death  God  calls  us  to  a  new  life,  and  again  gives  us  existence,  and 
His  mercies  visit  us  in  every  bright  ray  and  glad  thought,  and 
call  for  gratitude  and  content ;  the  silence  of  that  early  dawn,  the 
hushed  silence,  as  it  were,  of  expectation ;  the  holy  eventide,  its 
cooling  breeze,  its  lengthening  shadows,  its  falling  shades,  its  still 
and  sober  hour ;  the  sultry  noontide  and  the  stern  and  solemn 
midnight ;  and  Spring-time,  and  chastening  Autumn ;  and  Sum- 
mer, that  unbars  our  gates,  and  carries  us  forth  amidst  the  ever- 
renewed  wonders  of  the  world  ;  and  Winter,  that  gathers  us  around 
the  evening  hearth : — all  these,  as  they  pass,  touch  by  turns  the 
spring-is  of  the  spiritual  life  in  us,  and  are  conducting  that  life  to 
good  ui'  evil.  The  idle  watch-hand  often  -points  to  something 
within  us ;  and  the  shadow  of  the  gnomon  on  the  dial  often  falls 
upon  the  conscience. 


A  life  of  labor  is  not  a  state  of  inferiority  or  degradation.  The 
Almighty  has  not  cast  man's  lot  beneath  the  quiet  shades,  and 
amid  glad  groves  and  lovely  hills,  with  no  task  to  perform ;  with 
nothing  to  do  but  to  rise  up  and  eat,  and  to  lie  down  and  rest. 
He  has  ordained  that  Work  shall  be  done,  in  all  the  dwellings  of 
life,  in  every  productive  field,  in  every  busy  city,  and  on  every 
wave  of  every  ocean.  And  this  He  has  done,  because  it  has 
pleased  Him  to  give  man  a  nature  destined  to  higher  ends  than 
indolent  repose  and  irresponsible  profitless  indulgence;  and  be- 
cause, for  developing  the  energies  of  such  a  nature,  work  was  the 
necessary  and  proper  element.  We  might  as  well  ask  why  He 
could  not  make  two  and  two  be -six,  as  why  He  could  not  develop 
these  energies  without  the  instrumentality  of  work.  They  are 
equally  impossibilities. 

This,  Masonry  teaches,  as  a  great  Truth;  a  great  moral  land- 
mark, that  ought  to  guide  the  course  of  all  mankind.  It  teaches 
its  toiling  children  that  the  scene  of  their  daily  life  is  all  spiritual, 
that  the  very  implements  of  their  toil,  the  fabrics  they  weave,  the 
merchandise  they  barter,  are  designed  for  spiritual  ends ;  that  so 
believing,  their  daily  lot  may  be  to  them  a  sphere  for  the  noblest 
improvement.  That  which  we  do  in  our  intervals  of  relaxation, 
our  church-going,  and  our  book-reading,  are  especially  designed  to 
prepare  our  minds  for  the  action  of  Life.  We  are  to  hear  and  read 
and  meditate,  that  we  may  act  well ;  and  the  action  of  Life  is  itself 
the  great  field  for  spiritual  improvement.  There  is  no  task  of  in- 
dustry or  business,  in  field  or  forest,  on  the  wharf  or  the  ship's 
deck,  in  the  office  or  the  exchange,  but  has  spiritual  ends.  There 
is  no  care  or  cross  of  our  daily  labor,  but  was  especially  ordained 
to  nurture  in  us  patience,  calmness,  resolution,  perseverance,  gen- 
tleness, disinterestedness,  magnanimity.  Nor  is  there  any  tool  or 
implement  of  toil,  but  is  a  part  of  the  great  spiritual  instrumen- 

All  the  relations  of  life,  those  of  parent,  child,  brother,  sister, 
friend,  associate,  lover  and  beloved,  husband,  wife,  are  moral, 
throughout  every  living  tie  and  thrilling  nerve  that  bind  them 
together.  They  cannot  subsist  a  day  nor  an  hour  without  putting 
the  mind  to  a  trial  of  its  truth,  fidelity,  forbearance,  and  disinter- 

A  great  city  is  one  extended  scene  of  moral  action.  There  is 
no  blow  struck  in  it  but  has  a  purpose,  ultimately  good  or  bad, 



and  therefore  moral.  There  is  no  action  performed,  but  has  a 
motive;  and  motives  are  the  special  jurisdiction  of  morality. 
Equipages,  houses,  and  furniture  are  symbols  of  what  is  moral, 
and  they  in  a  thousand  ways  minister  to  right  or  wrong  feeling. 
Everything  that  belongs  to  us,  ministering  to  our  comfort  or  lux- 
ury, awakens  in  us  emotions  of  pride  or  gratitude,  of  selfishness 
or  vanity ;  thoughts  of  self-indulgence,  or  merciful  remembrances 
of  the  needy  and  the  destitute. 

Everything  acts  upon  and  influences  us.  God's  great  law  of 
sympathy  and  harmony  is  potent  and  inflexible  as  His  law  of 
gravitation.  A  sentence  embodying  a  noble  thought  stirs  our 
blood ;  a  noise  made  by  a  child  frets  and  exasperates  us,  and  influ- 
ences our  actions. 

A  world  of  spiritual  objects,  influences,  and  relations  lies  around 
us  all.  We  all  vaguely  deem  it  to  be  so;  but  he  only  lives  a 
charmed  life,  like  that  of  genius  and  poetic  inspiration,  who  com- 
munes with  the  spiritual  scene  around  him,  hears  the  voice  of  the 
spirit  in  every  sound,  sees  its  signs  in  every  passing  form  of  things, 
and  feels  its  impulse  in  all  action,  passion,  and  being.  Very  near 
to  us  lie  the  mines  of  wisdom ;  unsuspected  they  lie  all  around  us. 
There  is  a  secret  in  the  simplest  things,  a  wonder  in  the  plainest, 
a  charm  in  the  dullest. 

We  are  all  naturally  seekers  of  wonders.  We  travel  far  to  see 
the  majesty  of  old  ruins,  the  venerable  forms  of  the  hoary  moun- 
tains, great  w?.ter-falls,  and  galleries  of  art.  And  yet  the  world- 
wonder  is  all  around  us ;  the  wonder  of  setting  suns,  and  evening 
stars,  of  the  magic  spring-time,  the  blossoming  of  the  trees,  the 
strange  transformations  of  the  moth;  the  wonder  of  the  Infinite 
Divinity  and  of  His  boundless  revelation.  There  is  no  splendor 
beyond  that  which  sets  its  morning  throne  in  the  golden  East ;  no 
dome  sublime  as  that  of  Heaven ;  no  beauty  so  fair  as  that  of  the 
verdant,  blossoming  earth ;  no  place,  however  invested  with  the 
sanctities  of  old  time,  like  that  home  which  is  hushed  and  folded 
within  the  embrace  of  the  humblest  wall  and  roof. 

And  all  these  are  but  the  symbols  of  things  far  greater  and 
higher.  All  is  but  the  clothing  of  the  spirit.  In  this  vesture  of 
time  is  wrapped  the  immortal  nature :  in  this  show  of  circum- 
stance and  form  stands  revealed  the  stupendous* -reality.  Let  man 
but  be,  as  he  is,  a  living  soul,  communing  with  himself  and  with 


God,  and  his  vision  becomes  eternity ;  his  abode,  infinity ;  his 
home,  the  bosom  of  all-embracing  love. 

The  great  problem  of  Humanity  is  wrought  out  in  the  humblest 
abodes ;  no  more  than  this  is  done  in  the  highest.  A  human  heart 
throbs  beneath  the  beggar's  gabardine ;  and  that  and  no  more  stirs 
with  its  beating  the  Prince's  mantle.  The  beauty  of  Love,  the 
charm  of  Friendship,  the  sacredness  of  Sorrow,  the  heroism  of 
Patience,  the  noble  Self-sacrifice,  these  and  their  like,  alone,  make 
life  to  be  life  indeed,  and  are  its  grandeur  and  its  power.  They 
are  the  priceless  treasures  and  glory  of  humanity ;  and  they  are 
not  things  of  condition.  All  places  and  all  scenes  are  alike  clothed 
with  the  grandeur  and  charm  of  virtues  such  as  these. 

The  million  occasions  will  come  to  us  all,  in  the  ordinary  paths 
of  our  life,  in  our  homes,  and  by  our  firesides,  wherein  we  may 
act  as  nobly,  as  if,  all  our  life  long,  we  led  armies,  sat  in  senates, 
or  visited  beds  of  sickness  and  pain.  Varying  every  hour,  the 
million  occasions  will  come  in  which  we  may  restrain  our  pas- 
sions, subdue  our  hearts  to  gentleness  and  patience,  resign  our 
own  interest  for  another's  advantage,  speak  words  of  kindness  and 
wisdom,  raise  the  fallen,  cheer  the  fainting  and  sick  in  spirit,  and 
soften  and  assuage  the  weariness  and  bitterness  of  their  mortal  lot. 
To  every  Mason  there  will  be  opportunity  enough  for  these.  They 
cannot  be  written  on  his  tomb ;  but  they  will"be  written  deep  in 
the  hearts  of  men,  of  friends,  of  children,  of  kindred  all  around 
him,  in  the  book  of  the  great  account,  and,  in  their  eternal  influ- 
ences, on  the  great  pages  of  the  Universe. 

To  such  a  destiny,  at  least,  my  Brethren,  let  us  all  aspire !  These 
laws  of  Masonry  let  us  all  strive  to  obey !  And  so  may  our  hearts 
become  true  temples  of  the  Living  God !  And  may  He  encourage 
our  zeal,  sustain  our  hopes,  and  assure  us  of  success  ! 



THIS  is  the  first  of  the  Philosophical  Degrees  of  the  Ancient 
and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite ;  and  the  beginning-  of  a  course  of  in- 
struction which  will  fully  unveil  to  you  the  heart  and  inner  mys- 
teries of  Masonry.  Do  not  despair  because  you  have  .often  seemed 
on  the  point  of  attaining  the  inmost  light,  and  have  as  often  been 
disappointed.  In  all  time,  truth  has  been  hidden  under  symbols, 
and  often  under  a  succession  of  allegories:  where  veil  after  veil 
had  to  be  penetrated  before  the  true  Light  was  reached,  and  the 
essential  truth  stood  revealed.  The  Human  Light  is  but  an  im- 
perfect reflection  of  a  ray  of  the  Infinite  and  Divine. 

We  are  about  to  approach  those  ancient  Religions  which  once 


ruled  the  minds  of  men,  and  whose  ruins  encumber  the  plains  of 
the  great  Past,  as  the  broken  columns  of  Palmyra  and  Tadmor  lie 
bleaching  on  the  sands  of  the  desert.  They  rise  before  us,  those 
old,  strange,  mysterious  creeds  and  faiths,  shrouded  in  the  mists 
of  antiquity,  and  stalk  dimly  and  undefined  along  the  line  which 
divides  Time  from  Eternity ;  and  forms  of  strange,  wild,  startling 
beauty  mingle  in  the  vast  throng  of  figures  with  shapes  monstrous, 
grotesque,  and  hideous. 

The  religion  taught  by  Moses,  which,  like  the  laws  of  Egypt, 
enunciated  the  principle  of  exclusion,  borrowed,  at  every  period 
of  its  existence,  from  all  the  creeds  with  which  it  came  in  contact. 
While,  by  the  studies  of  the  learned  and  wise,  it  enriched  itself 
with  the  most  admirable  principles  of  the  religions  of  Egypt  and 
Asia,  it  was  changed,  in  the  wanderings  of  the  People,  by  every- 
thing that  was  most  impure  or  seductive  in  the  pagan  manners 
and  superstitions.  It  was  one  thing  in  the  times  of  Moses  and 
Aaron,  another  in  those  of  David  and  Solomon,  and  still  another 
in  those  of  Daniel  and  Philo. 

At  the  time  when  John  the  Baptist  made  his  appearance  in  the 
desert,  near  the  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea,  all  the  old  philosophical 
and  religious  systems  were  approximating  toward  each  other.  A 
general  lassitude  inclined  the  minds  of  all  toward  the  quietude  of 
that  amalgamation  of  doctrines  for  which  the  expeditions  of  Alex- 
ander and  the  more  peaceful  occurrences  that  followed,  \vith  the 
establishment  in  Asia  and  Africa  of  many  Grecian  dynasties  and 
a  great  number  of  Grecian  colonies,  had  prepared  the  way.  After 
the  intermingling  of  different  nations,  which  resulted  from  the 
wars  of  Alexander  in  three-quarters  of  the  globe,  the  doctrines  of 
Greece,  of  Egypt,  of  Persia,  and  of  India,  met  and  intermingled 
everywhere.  All  the  barriers  that  had  formerly  kept  the  nations 
apart,  were  thrown  down;  and  while  the  People  of  the  West 
readily  connected  their  faith  with  those  of  the  East,  those  of  the 
Orient  hastened  to  learn  the  traditions  of  Rome  and  the  legends 
of  Athens.  While  the  Philosophers  of  Greece,  all  (except  the  dis- 
ciples of  Epicurus)  more  or  less  Platonists,  seized  eagerly  upon  the 
beliefs  and  doctrines  of  the  East, — the  Jews  and  Egyptians,  be- 
fore then  the  most  exclusive  of  all  peoples,  yielded  to  that  eclecti- 
cism which  prevailed  among  their  masters,  the  Greeks  and  Romans. 
Under  the  same  influences  of  toleration,  even  those  who  em- 
braced Christianity,  mingled  together  the  old  and  the  new,  Chris- 


tianity  and  Philosophy,  the  Apostolic  teachings  and  the  traditions 
of  Mythology.  The  man  of  intellect,  devotee  of  one  system, 
rarely  displaces  it  with  another  in  all  its  purity.  The  people  take 
such  a  creed  as  is  offered  them.  Accordingly,  the  distinction  be- 
tween the  esoteric  and  the  exoteric  doctrine,  immemorial  in  other 
creeds,  easily  gained  a  foothold  among  many  of  the  Christians ; 
and  it  was  held  by  a  vast  number,  even  during  the  preaching  of 
Paul,  that  the  writings  of  the  Apostles  were  incomplete ;  that  they 
contained  only  the  germs  of  another  doctrine,  which  must  receive 
from  the  hands  of  philosophy,  not  only  the  systematic  arrangement 
which  was  wanting,  but  all  the  development  which  lay  concealed 
therein.  The  writings  of  the  Apostles,  they  said,  in  addressing 
themselves  to  mankind  in  general,  enunciated  only  the  articles  of 
the  vulgar  faith ;  but  transmitted  the  mysteries  of  knowledge  to 
superior  minds,  to  the  Elect, — mysteries  handed  down  from  gen- 
eration to  generation  in  esoteric  traditions ;  and  to  this  science  of 
the  mysteries  they  gave  the  name  of  rv<o<ns  [Gnosis]. 

The  Gnostics  derived  their  leading  doctrines  and  ideas  from 
Plato  and  Philo,  the  Zend-avesta  and  the  Kabalah,  and  the  Sacred 
books  of  India  and  Egypt ;  and  thus  introduced  into  the  bosom 
of  Christianity  the  cosmological  and  theosophical  speculations, 
which  had  formed  the  larger  portion  of  the  ancient  religions  of  the 
Orient,  joined  to  those  of  the  Egyptian,  Greek,  and  Jewish  doc- 
trines, which  the  Neo-Platonists  had  equally  adopted  in  the  Occi- 

Emanation  from  the  Deity  of  all  spiritual  beings,  progressive 
degeneration  of  these  beings  from  emanation  to  emanation,  re- 
demption and  return  of  all  to  the  purity  of  the  Creator;  and, 
after  the  re-establishment  of  the  primitive  harmony  of  all,  a  for- 
tunate and  truly  divine  condition  of  all,  in  the  bosom  of  God ; 
such  were  the  fundamental  teachings  of  Gnosticism.  The  genius 
of  the  Orient,  with  its  contemplations,  irradiations,  and  intuitions, 
dictated  its  doctrines.  Its  language  corresponded  to  its  origin. 
Full  of  imagery,  it  had  all  the  magnificence,  the  inconsistencies, 
and  the  mobility  of  the  figurative  style. 

Behold,  it  said,  the  light,  which  emanates  from  an  immense 
centre  of  Light,  that  spreads  everywhere  its  benovolent  rays;  so 
do  the  spirits  of  Light  emanate  from  the  Djvine  Light.  Behold, 
all  the  springs  which  nourish,  embellish,  fertilize,  and  purify  the 
Earth ;  they  emanate  from  one  and  the  same  ocean ;  so  from  the 


bosom  of  the  Divinity  emanate  so  many  streams,  which  form  and 
fill  the  universe  of  intelligences.  Behold  numbers,  which  all 
emanate  from  one  primitive  number,  all  resemble  it,  all  are  com- 
posed of  its  essence,  and  still  vary  infinitely ;  and  utterances,  de- 
composable into  so  many  syllables  and  elements,  all  contained  in 
the  primitive  Word,  and  still  infinitely  various ;  so  the  world  of 
Intelligences  emanated  from  a  Primary  Intelligence,  and  they  all 
resemble  it,  and  yet  display  an  infinite  variety  of  existences. 

It  revived  and  combined  the  old  doctrines  of  the  Orient  and  the 
Occident ;  and  it  found  in  many  passages  of  the  Gospels  and  the 
Pastoral  letters,  a  warrant  for  doing  so.  Christ  himself  spoke  in 
parables  and  allegories,  John  borrowed  the  enigmatical  language 
of  the  Platonists,  and  Paul  often  indulged  in  incomprehensible 
rhapsodies,  the  meaning  of  which  could  have  been  clear  to  the  Ini- 
tiates alone. 

It  is  admitted  that  the  cradle  of  Gnosticism  is  probably  to  be 
looked  for  in  Syria,  and  even  in  Palestine.  Most  of  its  expounders 
wrote  in  that  corrupted  form  of  the  Greek  used  by  the  Hellenistic 
Jews,  and  in  the  Septuagint  and  the  New  Testament ;  and  there 
was  a  striking  analogy  between  their  doctrines  and  those  of  the 
Judaeo-Egyptian  Philo,  of  Alexandria;  itself  the  seat  of  three 
schools,  at  once  philosophic  and  religious — the  Greek,  the  Egyp- 
tian, and  the  Jewish. 

Pythagoras  and  Plato,  the  most  mystical  of  the  Grecian  Philos- 
ophers (the  latter  heir  to  the  doctrines  of  the  former),  and  who 
had  travelled,  the  latter  in  Egypt,  and  the  former  in  Phoenicia, 
India,  and  Persia,  also  taught  the  esoteric  doctrine  and  the  distinc- 
tion between  the  initiated  and  the  profane.  The  dominant  doc- 
trines of  Platonism  were  found  in  Gnosticism.  Emanation  of 
Intelligences  from  the  bosom  of  the  Deity;  the  going  astray  in 
error  and  the  sufferings  of  spirits,  so  long  as  they  are  remote  from 
God,  and  imprisoned  in  matter;  vain  and  long-continued  efforts 
to  arrive  at  the  knowledge  of  the  Truth,  and  re-enter  into  their 
primitive  union  with  the  Supre-me  Being;  alliance  of  a  pure  and 
divine  soul  with  an  irrational  soul,  the  seat  of  evil  desires ;  angels 
or  demons  who  dwell  in  and  govern  the  planets,  having  but  an 
imperfect  knowledge  of  the  ideas  that  presided  at  the  creation; 
regeneration  of  all  beings  by  their  return  to  the  xbauoz  vo^roc, 
[kosmos  noetos],  the  world  of  Intelligences,  and  its  Chief,  the 
Supreme  Being;  sole  possible  mode  of  re-establishing  that  primi- 


tive  harmony  of  the  creation,  of  which  the  music  of  the  spheres 
of  Pythagoras  was  the  image ;  these  were  the  analogies  of  the  two 
systems ;  and  we  discover  in  them  some  of  the  ideas  that  form  a 
part  of  Masonry;  in  which,  in  the  present  mutilated  condition  of 
the  symbolic  Degrees,  they  are  disguised  and  overlaid  with  fiction 
and  absurdity,  or  present  themselves  as  casual  hints  that  are  passed 
by  wholly  unnoticed. 

The  distinction  between  the  esoteric  and  exoteric  doctrines  (a 
distinction  purely  Masonic),  was  always  and  from  the  very  earliest 
times  preserved  among  the  Greeks.  It  remounted  to  the  fabulous 
times  of  Orpheus ;  and  the  mysteries  of  Theosophy  were  found  in 
all  their  traditions  and  myths.  And  after  the  time  of  Alexander, 
they  resorted  for  instruction,  dogmas,  and  mysteries,  to  all  the 
schools,  to  those  of  Egypt  and  Asia,  as  well  as  those  of  Ancient 
Thrace,  Sicily,  Etruria,  and  Attica. 

The  Jewish-Greek  School  of  Alexandria  is  known  only  by  two 
of  its  Chiefs,  Aristobulus  and  Philo,  both  Jews  of  Alexandria  in 
Egypt.  Belonging  to  Asia  by  its  origin,  to  Egypt  by  its  residence, 
to  Greece  by  its  language  and  studies,  it  strove  to  show  that  all 
truths  embedded  in  the  philosophies  of  other  countries  were  trans- 
planted thither  from  Palestine.  Aristobulus  declared  that  all  the 
facts  and  details  of  the  Jewish  Scriptures  were  so  many  allegories, 
concealing  the  most  profound  meanings,  and  that  Plato  had  bor- 
rowed from  them  all  his  finest  ideas.  Philo,  who  lived  a  century 
after  him,  following  the  same  theory,  endeavored  to  show  that  the 
Hebrew  writings,  by  their  system  of  allegories,  were  the  true 
source  of  all  religious  and  philosophical  doctrines.  According  to 
him,  the  literal  meaning  is  for  the  vulgar  alone.  Whoever  has 
meditated  on  philosophy,  purified  himself  by  virtue,  and  raised 
himself  by  contemplation,  to  God  and  the  intellectual  world,  and 
received  their  inspiration,  pierces  trie  gross  envelope  of  the  letter, 
discovers  a  wholly  different  order  of  things,  and  is  initiated  into 
mysteries,  of  which  the  elementary  or  literal  instruction  offers  but 
an  imperfect  image.  A  historical  fact,  a  figure,  a  word,  a  letter,  a 
number,  a  rite,  a  custom,  the  parable  or  vision  of  a  prophet,  veils 
the  most  profound  truths ;  and  he  who  has  the  key  of  science  will 
interpret  all  according  to  the  light  he  possesses. 

Again  we  see  the  symbolism  of  Masonry,  and  the  search  of  the 
Candidate  for  light.  "Let  men  of  narrow  minds  withdraw,"  he 
says,  "with  closed  ears.  We  transmit  the  divine  mysteries  to 


those  who  have  received  the  sacred  initiation,  to  those  who  prac- 
tise true  piety,  and  who  are  not  enslaved  by  the  empty  trappings 
of  words  or  the  preconceived  opinions  of  the  pagans." 

To  Philo,  the  Supreme  Being  was  the  Primitive  Light,  or  the 
Archetype  of  Light,  Source  whence  the  rays  emanate  that  illu- 
minate Souls.  He  was  also  the  Soul  of  the  Universe,  and  as  such 
acted  in  all  its  parts.  He  Himself  fills  and  limits  His  whole  Being. 
His  Powers  and  Virtues  fill  and  penetrate  all.  These  Powers 
[Aura/nets,  dunameis]  are  Spirits  distinct  from  God,  the  "Ideas"  of 
Plato  personified.  He  is  without  beginning,  and  lives  in  the  pro- 
totype of  Time  [auav,  aion] . 

His  image  is  THE  WORD  [Aoyos],  a  form  more  brilliant  than 
fire;  that  not  being  the  pure  light.  This  LOGOS  dwells  in  God; 
for  the  Supreme  Being  makes  to  Himself  within  His  Intelligence 
the  types  or  ideas  of  everything  that  is  to  become  reality  in  this 
World.  The  LOGOS  is  the  vehicle  by  which  God  acts  on  the  Uni- 
verse, and  may  be  compared  to  the  speech  of  man. 

The  LOGOS  being  the  World  of  Ideas  [KOO-^"<-  VOTJTOS],  by  means 
whereof  God  has  created  visible  things,  He  is  the  most  ancient 
God,  in  comparison  with  the  World,  which  is  the  youngest  pro- 
duction. The  LOGOS,  Chief  of  Intelligence,  of  which  He  is  the 
general  representative,  is  named  Archangel,  type  and  representa- 
tive of  all  spirits,  even  those  of  mortals.  He  is  also  styled  the 
man-type  and  primitive  man,  Adam  Kadmon. 

God  only  is  Wise.  The  wisdom  of  man  is  but  the  reflection  and 
image  of  that  of  God.  He  is  the  Father,  and  His  WISDOM  the 
mother  of  creation:  for  He  united  Himself  with  WISDOM  [2o<pia, 
Sophia],  and  communicated  to  it  the  germ  of  creation,  and  it 
brought  forth  the  material  world.  He  created  the  ideal  world 
only,  and  caused  the  material  world  to  be  made  real  after  its  type, 
by  His  LOGOS,  which  is  His  speech,  and  at  the  same  time  the  Idea 
of  Ideas,  the  Intellectual  World.  The  Intellectual  City  was  but 
the  Thought  of  the  Architect,  who  meditated  the  creation,  accord- 
ing to  that  plan  of  the  Material  City. 

The  Word  is  not  only  the  Creator,  but  occupies  the  place  of  the 
Supreme  Being.  Through  Him  all  the  Powers  and  Attributes  of 
God  act.  On  the  other  side,  as  first  representative  of  the  Human 
Family,  He  is  the  Protector  of  men  and  their  Shepherd. 

God  gives  to  man  the  Soul  or  Intelligence,  which  exists  before 
the  body,  and  which  he  unites  with  the  body.  The  reasoning 


Principle  comes  from  God  through  the  Word,  and  communes  with 
God  and  with  the  Word;  but  there  is  also  in  man  an  irrational 
Principle,  that  of  the  inclinations  and  passions  which  produce 
disorder,  emanating  from  inferior  spirits  who  fill  the  air  as 
ministers  of  God.  The  body,  taken  from  the  Earth,  and  the 
irrational  Principle  that  animates  it  concurrently  with  the  ra- 
tional Principle,  are  hated  by  God,  while  the  rational  soul  which 
He  has  given  it,  is,  as  it  were,  captive  in  this  prison,  this  coffin, 
that  encompasses  it.  The  present  condition  of  man  is  not  his 
primitive  condition,  when  he  was  the  image  of  the  Logos.  He 
has  fallen  from  his  first  estate.  But  he  may  raise  himself  again, 
by  following  the  directions  of  WISDOM  [Jfo^w.]  and  of  the  Angels 
which  God  has  commissioned  to  aid  him  in  freeing  himself  from 
the  bonds  of  the  body,  and  combating  Evil,  the  existence  whereof 
God  has  permitted,  to  furnish  him  the  means  of  exercising  his 
liberty.  The  souls  that  are  purified,  not  by  the  Law  but  by  light, 
rise  to  the  Heavenly  regions,  to  enjoy  there  a  perfect  felicity. 
Those  that  persevere  in  evil  go  from  body  to  body,  the  seats  of 
passions  and  evil  desires.  The  familiar  lineaments  of  these  doc- 
trines will  be  recognized  by  all  who  read  the  Epistles  of  St.  Paul, 
who  wrote  after  Philo,  the  latter  living  till  the  reign  of  Caligula, 
and  being  the  contemporary  of  Christ. 

And  the  Mason  is  familiar  with  these  doctrines  of  Philo :  that 
the  Supreme  Being  is  a  centre  of  Light  whose  rays  or  emanations 
pervade  the  Universe ;  for  that  is  the  Light  for  which  all  Masonic 
journeys  are  a  search,  and  of  which  the  sun  and  moon  in  our 
Lodges  are  only  emblems :  that  Light  and  Darkness,  chief  enemies 
from  the  beginning  of  Time,  dispute  with  each  other  the  empire 
of  the  world ;  which  we  symbolize  by  the  candidate  wandering  in 
darkness  and  being  brought  to  light :  that  the  world  was  created, 
not  by  the  Supreme  Being,  but  by  a  secondary  agent,  who  is  but 
His  WORD  [the  Aoyos],  and  by  types  which  are  but  his  ideas, 
aided  by  an  INTELLIGENCE,  or  WISDOM  \_2otf!ta\,  which  gives  one  of 
His  Attributes ;  in  which  we  see  the  occult  meaning  of  the  ne- 
cessity of  recovering  "the  WORD"  ;  and  of  our  two  columns  of 
STRENGTH  and  WISDOM,  which  are  also  the  two  parallel  lines  that 
bound  the  circle  representing  the  Universe :  that  the  visible  world 
is  the  image  of  the  invisible  world ;  that  the  essence  of  the  Human 
Soul  is  the  image  of  God,  and  it  existed  before  the  body ;  that  the 
object  of  its  terrestrial  life  is  to  disengage  itself  of  its  body  or  its 


sepulchre ;  and  that  it  will  ascend  to  the  Heavenly  regions  when- 
ever it  shall  be  purified ;  in  which  we  see  the  meaning,  now  almost 
forgotten  in  our  Lodges,  of  the  mode  of  preparation  of  the  candi- 
date for  apprenticeship,  and  his  tests  and  purifications  in  the  first 
Degree,  according  to  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite. 

Philo  incorporated  in  his  eclecticism  neither  Egyptian  nor  Orien- 
tal elements.  But  there  were  other  Jewish  Teachers  in  Alexandria 
who  did  both.  The  Jews  of  Egypt  were  slightly  jealous  of,  and  a 
little  hostile  to,  those  of  Palestine,  particularly  after  the  erection 
of  the  sanctuary  at  Leontopolis  by  the  High-Priest  Onias;  and 
therefore  they  admired  and  magnified  those  sages,  who,  like  Jere- 
miah, had  resided  in  Egypt.  "The  wisdom  of  Solomon"  was 
written  at  Alexandria,  and,  in  the  time  of  St.  Jerome,  was  attrib- 
uted to  Philo;  but  it  contains  principles  at  variance  with  his. 
It  personifies  Wisdom,  and  draws  between  its  children  and  the 
Profane,  the  same  line  of  demarcation  that  Egypt  had  long  before 
taught  to  the  Jews.  That  distinction  existed  at  the  beginning  of 
the  Mosaic  creed.  Moshah  himself  was  an  Initiate  in  the  mysteries 
of  Egypt,  as  he  was  compelled  to  be,  as  the  adopted  son  of  the 
daughter  of  Pharaoh,  Thouoris,  daughter  of  Sesostris-Ramses; 
who,  as  her  tomb  and  monuments  show,  was,  in  the  right  of  her 
infant  husband,  Regent  of  Lower  Egypt  or  the  Delta  at  the  time 
of  the  Hebrew  Prophet's  birth,  reigning  at  Heliopolis.  She  was 
also,  as  the  reliefs  on  her  tomb  show,  a  Priestess  of  HATHOR  and 
NEITH,  the  two  great  primeval  goddesses.  As  her  adopted  son, 
living  in  her  Palace  and  presence  forty  years,  and  during  that 
time  scarcely  acquainted  with  his  brethren  the  Jews,  the  law  of 
Egypt  compelled  his  initiation :  and  we  find  in  many  of  his  enact- 
ments the  intention  of  preserving,  between  the  common  people 
and  the  Initiates,  the  line  of  separation  which  he  found  in  Egypt. 
Moshah  and  Aharun  his  brother,  the  whole  series  of  High-Priests, 
the  Council  of  the  70  Elders,  Salomoh  and  the  entire  succession 
of  Prophets,  were  in  possession  of  a  higher  science;  and  of  that 
science  Masonry  is,  at  least,  the  lineal  descendant.  It  was  famili- 
arly known  as  THE  KNOWLEDGE  OF  THE  WORD. 

AM  UN,  at  first  the  God  of  Lower  Egypt  only,  where  Moshah  was 
reared  [a  word  that  in  Hebrew  means  Truth],  was  the  Supreme 
God.  He  was  styled  "the  Celestial  Lord,  who  sheds  Light  on 
hidden  things."  He  was  the  source  of  that  divine  life,  of  which 
the  crux  aiisata  is  the  symbol ;  and  the  source  of  all  power.  He 


united  all  the  attributes  that  the  Ancient  Oriental  Theosophy 
assigned  to  the  Supreme  Being.  He  was  the  xtepcofia  (Pleroma), 
or  "Fullness  of  things,"  for  He  comprehended  in  Himself  every- 
thing; and  the  LIGHT;  for  he  was  the  Sun-God.  He  was  un- 
changeable in  the  midst  of  everything  phenomenal  in  his  worlds. 
He  created  nothing ;  but  everything  emanated  from  Him ;  and  of 
Him  all  the  other  Gods  were  but  manifestations. 

The  Ram  was  His  living  symbol ;  which  you  see  reproduced  in 
this  Degree,  lying  on  the  book  with  seven  seals  on  the  tracing- 
board.  He  caused  the  creation  of  the  world  by  the  Primitive 
Thought  [Emna,  Ennoia] ,  or  Spirit  [Ilvev/wi,  Pneuma] ,  that  issued 
from  him  by  means  of  his  Voice  or  the  WORD  ;  and  which  Thought 
or  Spirit  was  personified  as  the  Goddess  NEITH.  She,  too,  was  a 
divinity  of  Light,  and  mother  of  the  Sun;  and  the  Feast  of 
Lamps  was  celebrated  in  her  honor  at  Sais.  The  Creative  Power, 
another  manifestation  of  Deity,  proceeding  to  the  creation  con- 
ceived of  in  her,  the  Divine  Intelligence,  produced  with  its  Word 
the  Universe,  symbolized  by  an  egg  issuing  from  the  mouth  of 
KNEPH  ;  from  which  egg  came  PHTHA,  image  of  the  Supreme 
Intelligence  as  realized  in  the  world,  and  the  type  of  that  mani- 
fested in  man ;  the  principal  agent,  also,  of  Nature,  or  the  creative 
and  productive  Fire.  PHRE  or  RE,  the  Sun,  or  Celestial  Light, 
whose  symbol  was  O,  the  point  within  a  circle,  was  the  son  of 
PHTHA  ;  and  TIPHE,  his  wife,  or  the  celestial  firmament,  with  the 
seven  celestial  bodies,  animated  by  spirits  of  genii  that  govern 
them,  was  represented  on  many  of  the  monuments,  clad  in  blue 
or  yellow,  her  garments  sprinkled  with  stars,  and  accompanied  by 
the  sun,  moon,  and  five  planets ;  and  she  was  the  type  of  Wisdom, 
and  they  of  the  Seven  Planetary  Spirits  of  the  Gnostics,  that  with 
her  presided  over  and  governed  the  sublunary  world. 

In  this  Degree,  unknown  for  a  hundred  years  to  those  who  have 
practised  it,  these  emblems  reproduced  refer  to  these  old  doctrines. 
The  lamb,  the  yellow  hangings  strewed  with  stars,  the  seven 
columns,  candlesticks,  and  seals  all  recall  them  to  us. 

The  Lion  was  the  symbol  of  ATHOM-RE,  the  Great  God  of  Up- 
per Egypt;  the  Hawk,  of  RA  or  PHRE;  fhe  Eagle,  of  MEXDES; 
the  Bull,  of  APIS  ;  and  three  of  these  are  seen  under  the  platform 
on  which  our  altar  stands. 

The  first  HERMES  was  the  INTELLIGENCE  or  WORD  of  God. 
Moved  with  compassion  for  a  race  living  without  law,  and  wishing 


to  teach  them  that  they  sprang  from  His  bosom,  and  to  point  out 
to  them  the  way  that  they  should  go  [the  books  which  the  first 
Hermes,  the  same  with  Enoch,  had  written  on  the  mysteries  of 
divine  science,  in  the  sacred  characters,  being  unknown  to  those 
who  lived  after  the  flood],  God  sent  to  man  OSIRIS  and  Isis,  ac- 
companied by  THOTH,  the  incarnation  or  terrestrial  repetition  of 
the  first  HERMES;  who  taught  men  the  arts,  science,  and  the  cer- 
emonies of  religion;  and  then  ascended  to  Heaven  or  the  Moon. 
OSIRIS  was  the  Principle  of  Good.  TYPHON,  like  AHRIMAN,  was 
the  principle  and  source  of  all  that  is  evil  in  the  moral  and  phys- 
ical order.  Like  the  Satan  of  Gnosticism,  he  was  confounded 
with  Matter. 

From  Egypt  or  Persia  the  new  Platonists  borrowed  the  idea,  and 
the  Gnostics  received  it  from  them,  that  man,  in  his  terrestrial 
career,  is  successively  under  the  influence  of  the  Moon,  of  Mer- 
cury, of  Venus,  of  the  Sun,  of  Mars,  of  Jupiter,  and  of  Saturn, 
until  he  finally  reaches  the  Elysian  Fields ;  an  idea  again  symbol- 
ized in  the  Seven  Seals. 

The  Jews  of  Syria  and  Judea  were  the  direct  precursors  of  Gnos- 
ticism ;  and  in  their  doctrines  were  ample  oriental  elements. 
These  Jews  had  had  with  the  Orient,  at  two  different  periods,  inti- 
mate relations,  familiarizing  them  with  the  doctrines  of  Asia,  and 
especially  of  Chaldea  and  Persia ; — their  forced  residence  in  Cen- 
tral Asia  under  the  Assyrians  and  Persians;  and  their  voluntary 
dispersion  over  the  whole  East,  when  subjects  of  the  Seleucidae 
and  the  Romans.  Living  near  two-thirds  of  a  century,  and  many 
of  them  long  afterward,  in  Mesopotamia,  the  cradle  of  their  race ; 
speaking  the  same  language,  and  their  children  reared  with  those 
of  the  Chaldeans,  Assyrians,  Medes,  and  Persians,  and  receiving 
from  them  their  names  (as  the  case  of  Danayal,  who  was  called 
Bseltasatsar,  proves),  they  necessarily  adopted  many  of  the  doc- 
trines of  their  conquerors.  Their  descendants,  as  Azra  and  Na- 
hamaiah  show  us,  hardly  desired  to  leave  Persia,  when  they  were 
allowed  to  do  so.  They  had  a  special  jurisdiction,  and  governors 
and  judges  taken  from  their  own  people;  many  of  them  held  high 
office,  and  their  children  were  educated  with  those  of  the  highest 
nobles.  Danayal  was  the  friend  and  minister  of  the  King,  and 
the  Chief  of  the  College  of  the  Magi  at  Babylon ;  if  we  may  be- 
lieve the  book  which  bears  his  name,  and  trust  to  the  incidents 
related  in  its  highly  figurative  and  imaginative  style.  Mordecai, 


too,  occupied  a  high  station,  no  less  than  that  of  Prime  Minister, 
and  Esther  or  Astar,  his  cousin,  was  the  Monarch's  wife. 

The  Magi  of  Babylon  were  expounders  of  figurative  writings, 
interpreters  of  nature,  and  of  dreams, — astronomers  and  divines ; 
and  from  their  influences  arose  among  the  Jews,  after  their  rescue 
from  captivity,  a  number  of  sects,  and  a  new  exposition,  the  mys- 
tical interpretation,  with  all  its  wild  fancies  and  infinite  caprices. 
The  Aions  of  the  Gnostics,  the  Ideas  of  Plato,  the  Angels  of  the 
Jews,  and  the  Demons  of  the  Greeks,  all  correspond  to  the 
Ferouers  of  Zoroaster. 

A  great  number  of  Jewish  families  remained  permanently  in 
their  new  country ;  and  one  of  the  most  celebrated  of  their  schools 
was  at  Babylon.  They  were  soon  familiarized  with  the  doctrine 
of  Zoroaster,  which  itself  was  more  ancient  than  Kuros.  From 
the  system  of  the  Zend-Avesta  they  borrowed,  and  subsequently 
gave  large  development  to,  everything  that  could  be  reconciled 
with  their  own  faith ;  and  these  additions  to  the  old  doctrine  were 
soon  spread,  by  the  constant  intercourse  of  commerce,  into  Syria 
and  Palestine. 

In  the  Zend-Avesta,  God  is  Illimitable  Time.  No  origin  can  be 
assigned  to  Him:  He  is  so  entirely  enveloped  in  His  glory,  His 
nature  and  attributes  are  so  inaccessible  to  human  Intelligence, 
that  He  can  be  only  the  object  of  a  silent  Veneration.  Creation 
took  place  by  emanation  from  Him.  The  first  emanation  was  the 
primitive  Light,  and  from  that  the  King  of  Light,  ORMUZD.  By 
the  "WORD/'  Ormuzd  created  the  world  pure.  He  is  its  pre- 
server and  judge;  a  Being  Holy  and  Heavenly;  Intelligence  and 
Knowledge ;  the  First-born  of  Time  without  limits ;  and  invested 
with  all  the  Powers  of  the  Supreme  Being. 

Still  he  is,  strictly  speaking,  the  Fourth  Being.  He  had  a 
Ferouer,  a  pre-existing  Soul  [in  the  language  of  Plato,  a  type  or 
ideal]  ;  and  it  is  said  of  Him,  that  He  existed  from  the  beginning, 
in  the  primitive  Light.  But,  that  Light  being  but  an  element, 
and  His  Ferouer  a  type,  he  is,  in  ordinary  language,  the  First-born 
of  ZEROUANE-AKHERENE.  Behold,  again,  "THE  WORD" 
of  Masonry ;  the  Man,  on  the  Tracing-Board  of  this  Degree ;  the 
LIGHT  toward  which  all  Masons  travel. 

He  created  after  his  own  image,  six  Genii  "called  Amshaspands, 
who  surround  his  Throne,  are  his  organs  of  communication  wkh 
inferior  spirits  and  men,  transmit  to  Him  their  prayers,  solicit  for 


them  His  favors,  and  serve  them  as  models  of  purity  and  perfec- 
tion. Thus  we  have  the  Demiourgos  of  Gnosticism,  and  the  six 
Genii  that  assist  him.  These  are  the  Hebrew  Archangels  of  the 

The  names  of  these  Amshaspands  are  Bahman,  Ardibehest, 
Schariver,  Sapandomad,  Khordad,  and  Amerdad. 

The  fourth,  the  Holy  SAPANDOMAD,  created  the  first  man  and 

Then  ORMUZD  created  28  Izeds,  of  whom  MITHRAS  is  the  chief. 
They  watch,  with  Ormusd  and  the  Amshaspands,  over  the  happi- 
ness, purity,  and  preservation  of  the  world,  which  is  under  their 
government;  and  they  are  also  models  for  mankind  and  interpre- 
ters of  men's  prayers.  With  Mithras  and  Ormuzd,  they  make  a 
pleroma  [or  complete  number]  of  30,  corresponding  to  the  thirty 
Aions  of  the  Gnostics,  and  to  the  ogdoade,  dodecade,  and  decade  of 
the  Egyptians.  Mithras  was  the  Sun-God,  invoked  with,  and 
soon  confounded  with  him,  becoming  the  object  of  a  special  wor- 
ship, and  eclipsing  Ormusd  himself. 

The  third  order  of  pure  spirits  is  more  numerous.  They  are 
the  Ferouers,  the  THOUGHTS  of  Ormuzd,  or  the  IDEAS  which  he 
conceived  before  proceeding  to  the  creation  of  -things.  They  too 
are  superior  to  men.  They  protect  them  during  their  life  on 
earth ;  they  will  purify  them  from  evil  at  their  resurrection.  They 
are  their  tutelary  genii,  from  the  fall  to  the  complete  regeneration. 

AHRIMAN,  second-born  of  the  Primitive  Light,  emanated  from 
it,  pure  like  ORMUZD;  but,  proud  and  ambitious,  yielded  to  jeal- 
ousy of  the  First-born.  For  his  hatred  and  pride,  the  Eternal 
condemned  him  to  dwell,  for  12,000  years,  in  that  part  of  space 
where  no  ray  of  light  reaches ;  the  black  empire  of  darkness.  In 
that  period  the  struggle  between  Light  and  Darkness,  Good  and 
Evil,  will  be  terminated. 

AHRIMAN  scorned  to  submit,  and  took  the  field  against  OR- 
MUZD. To  the  good  spirits  created  by  his  Brother,  he  opposed  an 
innumerable  army  of  Evil  Ones.  To  the  seven  Amshaspands  he 
opposed  seven  Archdevs,  attached  to  the  seven  Planets ;  to  the 
Izeds  and  Ferouers  an  equal  number  of  Devs,  which  brought  upon 
the  world  all  moral  and  physical  evils.  Hence  Poverty,  Maladies, 
Impurity,  Envy,  Chagrin,  Drunkenness,  Falsehood,  Calumny,  and 
their  horrible  array. 

The  image  of  Ahriman  was  the  Dragon,  confounded  by  the 


Jews  with  Satan  and  the  Serpent-Tempter.  After  a  reign  of  3000 
years,  Ormuzd  had  created  the  Material  World,  in  six  periods, 
calling  successively  into  existence  the  Light,  Water,  Earth,  plants, 
animals,  and  Man.  But  Ahriman  concurred  in  creating  the  earth 
and  water;  for  darkness  was  already  an  element,  and  Ormuzd 
could  not  exclude  its  Master.  So  also  the  two  concurred  in  pro- 
ducing Man.  Ormuzd  produced,  by  his  Will  and  Word,  a  Being 
that  was  the  type  and  source  of  universal  life  for  everything  that 
exists  under  Heaven.  He  placed  in  man  a  pure  principle,  or  Life, 
proceeding  from  the  Supreme  Being.  But  Ahriman  destroyed 
that  pure  principle,  in  the  form"  wherewith  it  was  clothed ;  and 
when  Ormuzd  had  made,  of  its  recovered  and  purified  essence,  the 
first  man  and  woman,  Ahriman  seduced  and  tempted  them  with 
wine  and  fruits ;  the  woman  yielding  first. 

Often,  during  the  three  latter  periods  of  3000  years  each,  Ahri- 
man and  Darkness  are,  and  are  to  be,  triumphant.  But  the  pure 
souls  are  assisted  by  the  Good  Spirits;  the  Triumph  of  Good  is 
decreed  by  the  Supreme  Being,  and  the  period  of  that  triumph 
will  infallibly  arrive.  When  the  world  shall  be  most  afflicted  with 
the  evils  poured  out  upon  it  by  the  spirits  of  perdition,  three 
Prophets  will  come  to  bring  relief  to  mortals.  SOSIOSCH,  the 
principal  of  the  Three,  will  regenerate  the  earth,  and  restore  to  it 
its  primitive  beauty,  strength,  and  purity.  He  will  judge  the  good 
and  the  wicked.  After  the  universal  resurrection  of  the  good,  he 
will  conduct  them  to  a  home  of  everlasting  happiness.  Ahriman, 
his  evil  demons,  and  all  wicked  men,  will  also  be  purified  in  a  tor- 
rent of  melted  metal.  The  law  of  Ormuzd  will  reign  everywhere ; 
all  men  will  be  happy ;  all,  enjoying  unalterable  bliss,  will  sing 
with  Sosiosch  the  praises  of  the  Supreme  Being. 

These  doctrines,  the  details  of  which  were  sparingly  borrowed 
by  the  Pharisaic  Jews,  were  much  more  fully  adopted  by  the 
Gnostics ;  who  taught  the  restoration  of  all  things,  their  return  to 
their  original  pure  condition,  the  happiness  of  those  to  be  saved, 
and  their  admission  to  the  feast  of  Heavenly  Wisdom. 

The  doctrines  of  Zoroaster  came  originally  from  Bactria,  an 
Indian  Province  of  Persia.  Naturally,  therefore,  it  would  include 
Hindu  or  Buddhist  elements,  as  it  did.  The  fundamental  idea  of 
Buddhism  was,  matter  subjugating  the  intelligence,  and  intelli- 
gence freeing  itself  from  that  slavery.  Perhaps  something  came 
to  Gnosticism  from  China.  "Before  the  chaos  which  preceded 


the  birth  of  Heaven  and  Earth,"  says  Lao-Tseu,  "a  single  Being 
existed,  immense  and  silent,  immovable  and  ever  active — the 
mother  of  the  Universe.  I  know  not  its  name :  but  I  designate  it 
by  the  word  Reason.  Man  has  his  type  and  model  in  the  Earth ; 
Earth  in  Heaven ;  Heaven  in  Reason ;  and  Reason  in  Itself." 
Here  again  are  the  Ferouers,  the  Ideas,  the  Aions — the  REASON 
or  INTELLIGENCE  [Ewwo],  SILENCE  [-^Y^],  WORD  [JofocJ,  and 
WISDOM  \_Io<pta\  of  the  Gnostics. 

The  dominant  system  among  the  Jews  after  their  captivity  was 
that  of  the  Pharoschim  or  Pharisees.  Whether  their  name  was 
derived  from  that  of  the  Parsees,or  followers  of  Zoroaster,  or  from 
some  other  source,  it  is  certain  that  they  had  borrowed  much  of 
their  doctrine  from  the  Persians.  Like  them  they  claimed  to  have 
the  exclusive  and  mysterious  knowledge,  unknown  to  the  mass. 
Like  them  they  taught  that  a  constant  ,war  was  waged  between 
the  Empire  of  Good  and  that  of  Evil.  Like  them  they  attributed 
the  sin  and  fall  of  man  to  the  demons  and  their  chief;  and  like 
them  they  admitted  a  special  protection  of  the  righteous  by  in- 
ferior beings,  agents  of  Jehovah.  All  their  doctrines  on  these  sub- 
jects were  at  bottom  those  of  the  Holy  Books;  but  singularly 
developed;  and  the  Orient  was  evidently  the  source  from  which 
those  developments  came. 

They  styled  themselves  Interpreters;  a  name  indicating  their 
claim  to  the  exclusive  possession  of  the  true  meaning  of  the  Holy 
Writings,  by  virtue  of  the  oral  tradition  which  Moses  had  received 
on  Mount  Sinai,  and  which  successive  generations  of  Initiates  had 
transmitted,  as  they  claimed,  unaltered,  unto  them.  Their  very 
costume,  their  belief  in  the  influences  of  the  stars,  and  in  the  im- 
mortality and  transmigration  of  souls,  their  system  of  angels  and 
their  astronomy,  were  all  foreign. 

Sadduceeism  arose  merely  from  an  opposition  essentially  Jewish, 
to  these  foreign  teachings,  and  that  mixture  of  doctrines,  adopted 
by  the  Pharisees,  and  which  constituted  the  popular  creed. 

We  come  at  last  to  the  Essenes  and  Therapeuts,  with  whom  this 
Degree  is  particularly  concerned.  That  intermingling  of  oriental 
and  occidental  rites,  of  Persian  and  Pythagorean  opinions,  which 
we  have  pointed  out  in  the  doctrines  of  Philo,  is  unmistakable  in 
the  creeds  of  these  two  sects. 

They  were  less  distinguished  by  metaphysical  speculations  than 
by  simple  meditations  and  moral  practices.  But  the  latter  always 


partook  of  the  Zoroastrian  principle,  that  it  was  necessary  to  free 
the  soul  from  the  trammels  and  influences  of  matter;  which  led 
to  a  system  of  abstinence  and  maceration  entirely  opposed  to  the 
ancient  Hebraic  ideas,  favorable  as  they  were  to  physical  pleasures. 

In  general,  the  life  and  manners  of  these  mystical  associa- 
tions, as  Philo  and  Josephus  describe  them,  and  particularly  their 
prayers  at  sunrise,  seem  the  image  of  what  the  Zend-Avesta  pre- 
scribes to  the  faithful  adorer  or  Ormuzd;  and  some  of  their 
observances  cannot  otherwise  be  explained. 

The  Therapeuts  resided  in  Egypt,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Alex- 
andria; and  the  Essenes  in  Palestine,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Dead 
Sea.  But  there  was  nevertheless  a  striking  coincidence  in  their 
ideas,  readily  explained  by  attributing  it  to  a  foreign  influence. 
The  Jews  of  Egypt,  under  the  influence  of  the  School  of  Alexan- 
dria, endeavored  in  general  to  make  their  doctrines  harmonize 
with  the  traditions  of  Greece;  and  thence  came,  in  the  doctrines 
of  the  Therapeuts,  as  stated  by  Philo,  the  many  analogies  between 
the  Pythagorean  and  Orphic  ideas,  on  one  side,  and  those  of  Ju- 
daism on  the  other :  while  the  Jews  of  Palestine,  having  less  com- 
munication with  Greece,  or  contemning  its  teachings,  rather  im- 
bibed the  Oriental  doctrines,  which  they  drank  in  at  the  source, 
and  with  which  their  relations  with  Persia  made  them  familiar. 
This  attachment  was  particularly  shown  in  the  Kabalah,  which 
belonged  rather  to  Palestine  than  to  Egypt,  though  extensively 
known  in  the  latter;  and  furnished  the  Gnostics  with  some  of 
their  most  striking  theories. 

It  is  a  significant  fact,  that  while  Christ  spoke  often  of  the 
Pharisees  and  Sadducees,  He  never  once  mentioned  the  Essenes, 
bet  ween  whose  doctrines  and  His  there  was  so  great  a  resemblance, 
and,  in  many  points,  so  perfect  an  identity.  Indeed,  they  are  not 
named,  nor  even  distinctly  alluded  to,  anywhere  in  the  New  Tes- 

John,  the  son  of  a  Priest  who  ministered  in  the  Temple  at 
Jerusalem,  and  whose  mother  was  of  the  family  of  Aharun,  was  in 
the  deserts  until  the  day  of  his  showing  unto  Israel.  He  drank 
neither  wine  nor  strong  drink.  Clad  in  hair-cloth,  and  with  a 
girdle  of  leather. and  feeding  upon  such  food  as  the  desert  afforded, 
he  preached,  in  the  country  about  Jordan,  the  baptism  of  repent- 
ance, for  the  remission  of  sins ;  that  is,  the  necessity  of  repent- 
ance proven  by  reformation.  He  taught  the  people  charity  and 


liberality;  the  publicans,  justice,  equity,  and  fair  dealing;  the 
soldiery,  peace,  truth,  and  contentment;  to  do  violence  to  none, 
accuse  none  falsely,  and  be  content  with  their  pay.  He  incul- 
cated the  necessity  of  a  virtuous  life,  and  the  folly  of  trusting  to 
their  descent  from  Abraham. 

He  denounced  both  Pharisees  and  Sadducees  as  a  generation  of 
vipers,  threatened  with  the  anger  of  God.  He  baptized  those  who 
confessed  their  sins.  He  preached  in  the  desert ;  and  therefore  in 
the  country  where  the  Essenes  lived,  professing  the  same  doctrines. 
He  was  imprisoned  before  Christ  began  to  preach.  Matthew  men- 
tions him  without  preface  or  explanation;  as  if,  apparently,  his 
history  was  too  well  known  to  need  any.  "In  those  days,"  he 
says,  "came  John  the  Baptist,  preaching  in  the  wilderness  of 
Judea."  His  disciples  frequently  fasted;  for  we  find  them  with 
the  Pharisees  coming  to  Jesus  to  inquire  why  His  Disciples  did 
not  fast  as  often  as  they ;  and  He  did  not  denounce  them,  as  His 
habit  was  to  denounce  the  Pharisees;  but  answered  them  kindly 
and  gently. 

From  his  prison,  John  sent  two  of  his  disciples  to  inquire  of 
Christ :  "Art  thou  he  that  is  to  come,  or  do  we  look  for  another  ?" 
Christ  referred  them  to  his  miracles  as  an  answer;  and  declared 
to  the  people  that  John  was  a  prophet,  and  more  than  a  prophet, 
and  that  no  greater  man  had  ever  been  born ;  but  that  the  hum- 
blest Christian  was  his  superior.  He  declared  him  to  be  Elias,  who 
was  to  come. 

John  had  denounced  to  Herod  his  marriage  with  his  brother's 
wife  as  unlawful ;  and  for  this  he  was  imprisoned,  and  finally  exe- 
cuted to  gratify  her.  His  disciples  buried  him;  and  Herod  and 
others  thought  he  had  risen  from  the  dead  and  appeared  again  in 
the  person  of  Christ.  The  people  all  regarded  John  as  a  prophet ; 
and  Christ  silenced  the  Priests  and  Elders  by  asking  them  whether 
he  was  inspired.  They  feared  to  excite  the  anger  of  the  people  by 
saying  that  he  was  not.  Christ  declared  that  he  came  "in  the  way 
of  righteousness" ;  and  that  the  lower  classes  believed  him,  though 
the  Priests  and  Pharisees  did  not. 

Thus  John,  who  was  often  consulted  by  Herod,  and  to  whom 
that  monarch  showed  great  deference,  and  was  often  governed  by 
his  advice ;  whose  doctrine  prevailed  very  extensively  among  the 
people  and  the  publicans,  taught  some  creed  older  than  Chris- 
tianity. That  is  plain :  and  it  is  equally  plain,  that  the  very  large 


body  of  the  Jews  that  adopted  his  doctrines,  were  neither  Phari- 
sees nor  Sadducees,  but  the  humble,  common  people.  They  must, 
therefore,  have  been  Essenes.  It  is  plain,  too,  that  Christ  applied 
for  baptism  as  a  sacred  rite,  well  known  and  long  practised.  It 
was  becoming  to  him,  he  said,  to  fulfill  all  righteousness. 

In  the  i8th  chapter  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  we  read  thus: 
"And  a  certain  Jew,  named  Apollos,  born  at  Alexandria,  an  elo- 
quent man,  and  mighty  in  the  Scriptures,  came  to  Ephesus.  This 
man  zvas  instructed  in  the  way  of  the  Lord,  and,  being  fervent  in 
spirit,  he  spake  and  taught  diligently  the  things  of  the  Lord,  know- 
ing only  the  baptism  of  John;  and  he  began  to  speak  boldly  in 
the  synagogue ;  whom,  when  Aquila  and  Priscilla  had  heard,  they 
took  him  unto  them,  and  expounded  unto  him  the  way  of  God 
more  perfectly." 

Translating  this  from  the  symbolic  and  figurative  language 
into  the  true  ordinary  sense  of  the  Greek  text,  it  reads  thus :  "And 
a  certain  Jew,  named  Apollos,  an  Alexandrian  by  birth,  an  eloquent 
man,  and  of  extensive  learning,  came  to  Ephesus.  He  had  learned 
in  the  mysteries  the  true  doctrine  in  regard  to  God ;  and,  being  a 
zealous  enthusiast,  he  spoke  and  taught  diligently  the  truths  in 
regard  to  the  Deity,  having  received  no  other  baptism  than  that 
of  John."  He  knew  nothing  in  regard  to  Christianity;  for  he 
had  resided  in  Alexandria,  and  had  just  then  come  to  Ephesus; 
being,  probably,  a  disciple  of  Philo,  and  a  Therapeut. 

"That,  in  all  times,"  says  St.  Augustine,  "is  the  Christian  reli- 
gion, which  to  kn~w  and  follow  is  the  most  sure  and  certain 
health,  called  according  to  that  name,  but  not  according  to  the 
thing  itself,  of  which  it  is  the  name ;  for  the  thing  itself,  which 
is  now  called  the  Christian  religion,  really  zvas  known  to  the  An- 
cients, nor  was  wanting  at  any  time  from  the  beginning  of  the 
human  race,  until  the  time  when  Christ  came  in  the  flesh;  from 
whence  the  true  religion,  which  had  previously  existed,  began  to 
be  called  Christian ;  and  this  in  0ur  days  is  the  Christian  religion, 
not  as  having  been  wanting  in  former  times,  but  as  having,  in 
later  times,  received  this  name."  The  disciples  were  first  called 
"Christians,"  at  Antioch,  when  Barnabas  and  Paul  began  to 
preach  there. 

The  Wandering  or  Itinerant  Jews  or  Exorcists," who  assumed  to 
employ  the  Sacred  Name  in  exorcising  evil  spirits,  were  no  doubt 
Therapeutae  or  Essenes. 


"And  it  came  to  pass,"  we  read  in  the  igih  chapter  of  the  Acts, 
verses  I  to  4,  "that  while  A^ollos  was  at  Corinth,  Paul,  having 
passed  through  the  upper  pai  ts  of  Asia  Minor,  came  to  Ephesus ; 
and  finding  certain  disciples,  he  said  to  them,  'Have  ye  received 
the  Holy  Ghost  since  ye  became  Believers?'  And  they  said  unto 
him,  'We  have  not  so  mucn  as  heard  that  there  is  any  Holy 
Ghost.'  And  he  said  to  them,  'In  what,  then,  were  you  baptized  ?' 
And  they  said  'In  John's  Baptism.'  Then  said  Paul,  'John  in- 
deed baptized  with  the  baptism  of  repentence,  saying  to  the  people 
that  they  should  believe  in  Him  who  was  to  come  after  him,  that 
is,  in  Jesus  Christ.'  When  they  heard  this,  they  were  baptized  in 
the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus." 

This  faith,  taught  by  John,  and  so  nearly  Christianity,  could 
have  been  nothing  but  the  doctrine  of  the  Essenes ;  and  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  John  belonged  to  that  sect.  The  place  where  he 
preached,  his  macerations  and  frugal  diet,  the  doctrines  he  taught, 
all  prove  it  conclusively.  There  was  no  other  sect  to  which  he 
could  have  belonged;  certainly  none  so  numerous  as  his,  except 
the  Essenes. 

We  find,  from  the  two  letters  written  by  Paul  to  the  brethren  at 
Corinth,  that  City  of  Luxury  and  Corruption,  that  there  were 
contentions  among  them.  Rival  sects  had  already,  about  the  57th 
year  of  our  era,  reared  their  banners  there,  as  followers,  some  of 
Paul,  some  of  Apollos,  and  some  of  Cephas.  Some  of  them  de- 
nied the  resurrection.  Paul  urged  them  to  adhere  to  the  doctrines 
taught  by  himself,  and  had  sent  Timothy  to  them  to  bring  them 
afresh  to  their  recollection. 

According  to  Paul,  Christ  was  to  come  again.  He  was  to  put 
an  end  to  all  other  Principles  and  Powers,  and  finally  to  Death, 
and  then  be  Himself  once  more  merged  in  God ;  who  should  then 
be  all  in  all. 

The  forms  and  ceremonies  of  the  Essenes  were  symbolical. 
They  had,  according  to  Philo  the  Jew,  four  Degrees ;  the  members 
being  divided  into  two  Orders,  the  Practiei  and  Therapeutici; 
the  latter  being  the  contemplative  and  medical  Brethren ;  and  the 
former  the  active,  practical,  business  men.  They  were  Jews  by 
birth;  and  had  a  greater  affection  for  each  other  than  the  mem- 
bers of  any  other  sect.  Their  brotherly  love  was  intense.  They 
fulfilled  the  Christian  law,  "Love  one  another."  They  despised 
riches.  No  one  was  to  be  found  among  them,  having  more  than 


another.  The  possessions  of  one  were  intermingled  with  those  of 
the  others ;  so  that  they  all  had  but  one  patrimony,  and  were 
brethren.  Their  piety  toward  God  was  extraordinary.  Before 
sunrise  they  never  spake  a  word  about  profane  matters;  but  put 
up  certain  prayers  which  they  had  received  from  their  forefathers. 
At  dawn  of  day,  and  before  it  was  light,  their  prayers  and  hymns 
ascended  to  Heaven.  They  were  eminently  faithful  and  true,  and 
the  Ministers  of  Peace.  They  had  mysterious  ceremonies,  and 
initiations  into  their  mysteries;  and  the  Candidate  promised  that 
he  would  ever  practise  fidelity  to  all  men,  and  especially  to  those 
in  authority,  "because  no  one  obtains  the  government  without 
God's  assistance." 

Whatever  they  said,  was  firmer  than  an  oath ;  but  they  avoided 
swearing,  and  esteemed  it  worse  than  perjury.  They  were  simple 
in  their  diet  and  mode  of  living,  bore  torture  with  fortitude,  and 
despised  death.  They  cultivated  the  science  of  medicine  and  were 
very  skillful.  They  deemed  it  a  good  omen  to  dress  in  white  robes. 
They  had  their  own  courts,  and  passed  righteous  judgments.  They 
kept  the  Sabbath  more  rigorously  than  the  Jews. 

Their  chief  towns  were  Engaddi,  near  the  Dead  Sea,  and 
Hebron.  Engaddi  was  about  30  miles  southeast  from  Jerusalem, 
and  Hebron  about  20  miles  south  of  that  city.  Josephus  and 
Eusebius  speak  of  them  as  an  ancient  sect;  and  they  were  no 
doubt  the  first  among  the  Jews  to  embrace  Christianity:  with 
whose  faith  and  doctrine  their  own  tenets  had  so  many  points  of 
resemblance,  and  were  indeed  in  a  great  measure  the  same.  Pliny 
regarded  them  as  a  very  ancient  people. 

In  their  devotions  they  turned  toward  the  rising  sun;  as  the 
Jews  generally  did  toward  the  Temple.  But  they  were  no  idola- 
ters ;  for  they  observed  the  law  of  Moses  with  scrupulous  fidelity. 
They  held  all  things  in  common,  and  despised  riches,  their  wants 
being  supplied  by  the  administration  of  Curators  or  Stewards. 
The  Tetractys,  composed  of  round  dots  instead  of  j«ds,  was  re- 
vered among  them.  This  being  a  Pythagorean  symbol,  evidently 
shows  their  connection  with  the  school  of  Pythagoras;  but  their 
peculiar  tenets  more  resemble  those  of  Confucius  and  Zoroaster; 
and  probably  were  adopted  while  they  were  prisoners  in  Persia; 
which  explains  their  turning  toward  the  Sun  in  prayer. 

Their  demeanor  was  sober  and  chaste.  They  submitted  to  the 
superintendence  of  governors  whom  they  appointed  over  them- 


selves.  The  whole  of  their  time  was  spent  in  labor,  meditation, 
and  prayer ;  and  they  were  most  sedulously  attentive  to  every  call 
of  justice  and  humanity,  and  every  moral  duty.  They  believed 
in  the  unity  of  God.  They  supposed  the  souls  of  men  to  have 
fallen,  by  a  disastrous  fate,  from  the  regions  of  purity  and  light, 
into  the  bodies  which  they  occupy ;  during  their  continuance  in 
which  they  considered  them  confined  as  in  a  prison.  Therefore 
they  did  not  believe  in  the  resurrection  of  the  body;  but  in  that 
of  the  soul  only.  They  believed  in  a  future  state  of  rewards  and 
punishments;  and  they  disregarded  the  ceremonies  or  external 
forms  enjoined  in  the  law  of  Moses  to  be  observed  in  the  worship 
of  God ;  holding  that  the  words  of  that  lawgiver  were  to  be  un- 
derstood in  a  mysterious  and  recondite  sense,  and  not  according  to 
their  literal  meaning.  They  offered  no  sacrifices,  except  at  home ; 
and  by  meditation  they  endeavored,  as  far  as  possible,  to  isolate 
the  soul  from  the  body,  and  carry  it  back  to  God. 

Eusebius  broadly  admits  "that  the  ancient  Therapeutse  were 
Christians ;  and  that  their  ancient  writings  were  our  Gospels  and 

The  ESSENES  were  of  the  Eclectic  Sect  of  Philosophers,  and 
held  PLATO  in  the  highest  esteem ;  they  believed  that  true  philos- 
ophy, the  greatest  and  most  salutary  gift  of  God  to  mortals,  was 
scattered,  in  various  portion?,  through  all  the  different  Sects ;  and 
that  it  was,  consequently,  the  duty  of  every  wise  man  to  gather  it 
from  the  several  quarters  where  it  lay  dispersed,  and  to  employ 
it,  thus  reunited,  in  destroying  the  dominion  of  impiety  and 

The  great  festivals  of  the  Solstices  were  observed  in  a  distin- 
guished manner  by  the  Essenes ;  as  would  naturally  be  supposed, 
from  the  fact  that  they  reverenced  the  Sun,  not  as  a  god,  but  as  a 
symbol  of  light  and  fire ;  the  fountain  of  which,  the  Orientals 
supposed  God  to  be.  They  lived  in  continence  and  abstinence, 
and  had  establishments  similar  to  the  monasteries  of  the  early 

The  writings  of  the  Essenes  were  full  of  mysticism,  parables, 
enigmas,  and  allegories.  They  believed  in  the  esoteric  and  exote- 
ric meanings  of  the  Scriptures ;  and,  as  we  have  already  said,  they 
had  a  warrant  for  that  in  the  Scriptures  themselves.  They  found 
it  in  the  Old  Testament,  as  the  Gnostics  found  it  in  the  New. 
The  Christian  writers,  and  even  Christ  himself,  recognized  it  as  a 


truth,  that  all  Scripture  had  an  inner  and  an  outer  meaning.  Thus 
we  find  it  said  as  follows,  in  one  of  the  Gospels : 

"Unto  you  it  is  given  to  know  the  mystery  of  the  Kingdom  of 
God ;  but  unto  men  that  are  without,  all  these  things  are  done  in 
parables ;  that  seeing,  they  may  see  and  not  perceive,  and  hearing 
they  may  hear  and  not  understand.  .  .  .  And  the  disciples  came 
and  said  unto  him,  'Why  speakest  Thou  the  truth  in  parables  ?'- 
He  answered  and  said  unto  them,  'Because  it  is  given  unto  you  to 
know  the  mysteries  of  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven,  but  to  them  it  is 
not  given.'  " 

Paul,  in  the  4th  chapter  of  his  Epistle  to  the  Galatians,  speak- 
ing of  the  simplest  facts  of  the  Old  Testament,  asserts  that  they 
are  an  allegory.  In  the  3d  chapter  of  the  second  letter  to  the 
Corinthians,  he  declares  himself  a  minister  of  the  New  Testament, 
appointed  by  God;  "Not  of  the  letter,  but  of  the  spirit;  for  the 
letter  killeth."  Origen  and  St.  Gregory  held  that  the  Gospels 
were  not  to  be  taken  in  their  literal  sense;  and  Athanasius  ad- 
monishes us  that  "Should  we  understand  sacred  writ  according  to 
the  letter,  we  should  fall  into  the  most  enormous  blasphemies." 

Eusebius  said,  "Those  who  preside  over  the  Holy  Sepulchres, 
philosophize  over  them,  and  expound  their  literal  sense  by  alle- 

The  sources  of  our  knowledge  of  the  Kabalistic  doctrines,  are 
the  books  of  Jezirah  and  Sohar,  the  former  drawn  up  in  the  second 
century,  and  the  latter  a  little  later;  but  containing  materials 
much  older  than  themselves.  In  their  most  characteristic  ele- 
ments, they  go  back  to  the  time  of  the  exile.  In  them,  as  in  the 
teachings  of  Zoroaster,  everything  that  exists  emanated  from  a 
source  of  infinite  LIGHT.  Before  everything,  existed  THE  AN- 
CIENT OF  DAYS,  the  KING  OF  LIGHT;  a  title  often  given  to  the 
Creator  in  the  Zend-Avesta  and  the  code  of  the  Sabceans.  With 
the  idea  so  expressed  is  connected  the  pantheism  of  India.  THE 
KING  OF  LIGHT,  THE  ANCIENT,  is  ALL  THAT  is.  He  is  not  only 
the  real  cause  of  all  Existences;  he  is  Infinite  [AINSOPH].  He  is 
HIMSELF  :  there  is  nothing  in  Him  that  We  can  call  Thou. 

In  the  Indian  doctrine,  not  only  is  the  Supreme  Being  the  real 
cause  of  all,  but  he  is  the  only  real  Existence:  all  the  rest  is  illu- 
sion. In  the  Kabalah,  as  in  the  Persian  and.  Gnostic  doctrines, 
He  is  the  Supreme  Being  unknown  to  all,  the  "Unknown  Father." 
The  world  is  his  revelation,  and  subsists  only  in  Him.  His  attri- 


butes  are  reproduced  there,  with  different  modifications,  and  in 
different  degrees,  so  that  the  Universe  is  His  Holy  Splendor :  it 
is  but  His  Mantle ;  but  it  must  be  revered  in  silence.  All  beings 
have  emanated  from  the  Supreme  Being :  The  nearer  a  being  is  to 
Him,  the  more  perfect  it  is ;  the  more  remote  in  the  scale,  the  less 
its  purity. 

A  ray  of  Light,  shot  from  the  Deity,  is  the  cause  and  principle 
of  all  that  exists.  It  is  at  once  Father  and  Mother  of  All,  in  the 
sublimest  sense.  It  penetrates  everything ;  and  without  it  nothing 
can  exist  an  instant.  From  this  double  FORCE,  designated  by  the 
two  parts  of  the  word  I.'.  H.'.  U.'.  H.'.  emanated  the  FIRST-BORN 
of  God,  the  Universal  FORM,  in  which  are  contained  all  beings ; 
the  Persian  and  Platonic  Archetype  of  things,  united  with  the 
Infinite  by  the  primitive  ray  of  Light. 

This  First-Born  is  the  Creative  Agent,  Conservator,  and  ani- 
mating Principle  of  the  Universe.  It  is  THE  LIGHT  OF  LIGHT.  It 
possesses  the  three  Primitive  Forces  of  the  Divinity,  LIGHT,  SPIRIT, 
and  LIFE  [<I>a)s,  Hvevfid,  and  Z<mj\.  As  it  has  received  what  it 
gives,  Light  and  Life,  it  is  equally  considered  as  the  generative 
and  conceptive  Principle,  the  Primitive  Man,  ADAM  KADMON. 
As  such,  it  has  revealed  itself  in  ten  emanations  or  Sephiroth, 
which  are  not  ten  different  beings,  nor  even  beings  at  all ;  but 
sources  of  life,  vessels  of  Omnipotence,  and  types  of  Creation. 
They  are  Sovereignty  or  Will,  Wisdom,  Intelligence,  Benignity, 
Severity,  Beauty,  Victory,  Glory,  Permanency,  and  Empire.  These 
are  attributes  of  God ;  and  this  idea,  that  God  reveals  Himself  by 
His  attributes,  and  that  the  human  mind  cannot  perceive  or  dis- 
cern God  Himself,  in  his  works,  but  only  his  mode  of  manifesting 
Himself,  is  a  profound  Truth.  We  know  of  the  Invisible  only 
what  the  Visible  reveals. 

Wisdom  was  called  Nous  and  LOGOS  [Noiis  and  Ao^o^},  INTEL- 
LECT or  the  WORD.  Intelligence,  source  of  the  oil  of  anointing, 
responds  to  the  Holy  Ghost  of  the  Christian  Faith. 

Beauty  is  represented  by  green  and  yellow.  Victory  is  YA- 
HOVAH-TsABAOTH,  the  column  on  the  right  hand,  the  column 
Jachin:  Glory  is  the  column  Boas,  on  the  left  hand.  And  thus 
our  symbols  appear  again  in  the  Kabalah.  And  again  the  LIGHT, 
the  object  of  our  labors,  appears  as  the  creative  power  of  Deity. 
The  circle,  also,  was  the  special  symbol  of  the  first  Sephirah,  Ke- 
ther,  or  the  Crown. 


We  do  not  further  follow  the  Kabalah  in  its  four  Worlds  of 
Spirits,  Aziluth,  Briah,  Yesirah,  and  Asiah,  or  of  emanation,  crea- 
tion, formation,  and  fabrication,  one  inferior  to  and  one  emerging 
from  the  other,  the  superior  always  enveloping  the  inferior;  its 
doctrine  that,  in  all  that  exists,  there  is  nothing  purely  material ; 
that  all  comes  from  God,  and  in  all  He  proceeds  by  irradiation ; 
that  everything  subsists  by  the  Divine  ray  that  penetrates  crea- 
tion ;  and  all  is  united  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  which  is  the  life  of 
life ;  so  that  all  is  God ;  the  Existences  that  inhabit  the  four 
worlds,  inferior  to  each  other  in  proportion  to  their  distance  from 
the  Great  King  of  Light:  the  contest  between  the  good  and  evil 
Angels  and  Principles,  to  endure  until  the  Eternal  Himself  comes 
to  end  it  and  re-establish  the  primitive  harmony ;  the  four  distinct 
parts  of  the  Soul  of  Man ;  and  the  migrations  of  impure  souls, 
until  they  are  sufficiently  purified  to  share  with  the  Spirits  of 
Light  the  contemplation  of  the  Supreme  Being  whose  Splendor 
fills  the  LTniverse. 

The  WORD  was  also  found  in  the  Phoenician  Creed.  As  in  all 
those  of  Asia,  a  WORD  of  God,  written  in  starry  characters,  by  the 
planetary  Divinities,  and  communicated  by  the  Demi-Gods,  as  a 
profound  mystery,  to  the  higher  classes  of  the  human  race,  to  be 
communicated  by  them  to  mankind,  created  the  world.  The  faith 
of  the  Phoenicians  was  an  emanation  from  that  ancient  worship  of 
the  Stars,  which  in  the  creed  of  Zoroaster  alone,  is  connected  with 
a  faith  in  one  God.  Light  and  Fire  are  the  most  important  agents 
in  the  Phoenician  faith.  There  is  a  race  of  children  of  the  Light. 
They  adored  the  Heaven  with  its  Lights,  deeming  it  the  Supreme 

Everything  emanates  from  a  Single  Principle,  and  a  Primitive 
Love,  which  is  the  Moving  Power  of  All  and  governs  all.  Light, 
by  its  union  with  Spirit,  whereof  it  is  but  the  vehicle  or  symbol, 
is  the  Life  of  everything,  and  penetrates  everything.  It  should 
therefore  be  respected  and  honored  everywhere;  for  everywhere 
it  governs  and  controls. 

The  Chaldaic  and  Jerusalem  Paraphrasts  endeavored  to  render 
the  phrase,  DEBAR- YAHOVAH  [mrf  *O"l] ,  the  "Word  of  God,  a  per- 
sonalty, wherever  they  met  with  it.  The  phrase,  "And  God 
created  man,"  is,  in  the  Jerusalem  Targum,  "And  the  Word  of 
IHUH  created  man." 

So,  in  xxviii.  Gen.  20,  21,  where  Jacob  says:    If  God  [Dv6tf 


IHIH  ALHIM]  will  be  with  me  ...  then  shall  IHUH  be  my  ALHIM 
[DT^N^  *h  mrP  nVH;  UHIH  IHUH  Li  LALHIM]  ;  and  this  stone  shall 
be  God's  House  [CM^«  JT3  nTP  .  .  IHIH  BITH  ALHIM]  :  Onkelos 
paraphrases  it,  "If  the  word  of  IHUH  will  be  my  help  ....  then 
the  Word  of  IHUH  shall  be  my  God." 

So,  in  iii.  Gen.  8,  for  "The  Voice  of  the  Lord  God"  [DT6«  niPP, 
IHUH  ALHIM],  we  have,  "The  Voice  of  the  Word  of  IHUH." 

In  ix.  Wisdom,  i,  "O  God  of  my  Fathers  and  Lord  of  Mercy ! 
who  hast  made  all  things  with  thy  word.  .  iv  \6yov  0o>j." 

And  in  xviii.  Wisdom,  15,  "Thine  Almighty  Word  [Aoyos]  leaped 
down  from  Heaven." 

Philo  speaks  of  the  Word  as  being  the  same  with  God.  So  in  sev- 
eral places  he  calls  it  "Sevrcpos  ®etos  Aoyos,"  the  Second  Divinity ; 
''lexa>u  TOD  6eout"  the  Image  of  God:  the  Divine  Word  that  made 
all  things :  "the  mrapx°s/'  substitute,  of  God ;  and  the  like. 

Thus,  when  John  commenced  to  preach,  had  been  for  ages 
agitated,  by  the  Priests  and  Philosophers  of  the  East  and  West, 
the  great  questions  concerning  the  eternity  or  creation  of  matter : 
immediate  or  intermediate  creation  of  the  Universe  by  the  Su- 
preme God;  the  Origin,  object,  and  final  extinction  of  evil;  the 
relations  between  the  intellectual  and  •  material  worlds,  and  be- 
tween God  and  man;  and  the  creation,  fall,  redemption,  and 
restoration  to  his  first  estate,  of  man. 

The  Jewish  doctrine,  differing  in  this  from  all  the  other  Oriental 
creeds,  and  even  from  the  Alohayistic  legend  with  which  the  book 
of  Genesis  commences,  attributed  the  creation  to  the  immediate 
action  of  the  Supreme  Being.  The  Theosophists  of  the  other 
Eastern  Peoples  interposed  more  than  one  intermediary  between 
God  and  the  world.  To  place  between  them  but  a  single  Being, 
to  suppose  for  the  production  ofMhe  world  but  a  single  interme- 
diary, was,  in  their  eyes,  to  lower  the  Supreme  Majesty.  The 
interval  between  God,  who  is  perfect  Purity,  and  matter,  which  is 
base  and  foul,  was  too  great  for  them  to  clear  it  at  a  single  step. 
Even  in  the  Occident,  neither  Plato  nor  Philo  could  thus  im- 
poverish the  Intellectual  World. 

Thus,  Cerinthus  of  Ephesus,  with  most  of  the  Gnostics,  Philo, 
the  Kabalah,  the  Zend-Avesta,  the  Puranas,  and  all  the  Orient, 
deemed  the  distance  and  antipathy  between  the  Supreme  Being 
and  the  material  world  too  great,  to  attribute  to  the  former  the 
creation  of  the  latter.  Below,  and  emanating  from,  or  created 


by,  the  Ancient  of  Days,  the  Central  Light,  the  Beginning,  or 
First  Principle  [ApxTj],  one>  two,  or  more  Principles,  Existences,  or 
Intellectual  Beings  were  imagined,  to  some  one  or  more  of  whom 
[without  any  immediate  creative  act  on  the  part  of  the  Great 
Immovable,  Silent  Deity],  the  immediate  creation  of  the  material 
and  mental  universe  was  due. 

We  have  already  spoken  of  many  of  the  speculations  on  this 
point.  To  some,  the  world  was  created  by  the  LOGOS  or  WORD, 
first  manifestation  of,  or  emanation  from,  the  Deity.  To  others, 
the  beginning  of  creation  was  by  the  emanation  of  a  ray  of 
LIGHT,  creating  the  principle  of  Light  and  Life.  The  Primitive 
THOUGHT,  creating  the  inferior  Deities,  a  succession  of  INTELLI- 
GENCES, the  lynges  of  Zoroaster,  his  Amshaspands,  Izeds,  and 
Ferouers,  the  Ideas  of  Plato,  the  Aions  of  the  Gnostics,  the 
Angels  of  the  Jews,  the  Nous,  the  Demiourgos,  the  DIVINE  REA- 
SON, the  Powers  or  Forces  of  Philo,  and  the  Alohayim,  Forces  or 
Superior  Gods  of  the  ancient  legend  with  which  Genesis  begins, — 
to  these  and  other  intermediaries  the  creation  was  owing.  No  re- 
straints were  laid  on  the  Fancy  and  the  Imagination.  The  veriest 
Abstractions  became  Existences  and  Realities.  The  attributes  of 
God,  personified,  became  Powers,  Spirits,  Intelligences. 

God  was  the  Light  of  Light,  Divine  Fire,  the  Abstract  Intellec- 
tuality, the  Root  or  Germ  of  the  Universe.  Simon  Magus,  founder 
of  the  Gnostic  faith,  and  many  of  the  early  Judaizing  Christians, 
admitted  that  the  manifestations  of  the  Supreme  Being,  as  FATHER, 
or  JEHOVAH,  SON  or  CHRIST,  and  HOLY  SPIRIT,  were  only  so  many 
different  modes  of  Existence,  or  Forces  [Sum/teis]  of  the  same  God. 
To  others  they  were,  as  were  the  multitude  of  Subordinate  Intelli- 
gences, real  and  distinct  beings. 

The  Oriental  imagination  revelled  in  the  creation  of  these  Infe- 
rior Intelligences,  Powers  of  Good  and  Evil,  and  Angels.  We 
have  spoken  of  those  imagined  by  the  Persians  and  the  Kabalists. 
In  the  Talmud,  every  star,  every  country,  every  town,  and  almost 
every  tongue  has  a  Prince  of  Heaven  as  its  Protector.  JEHUEL  is 
the  guardian  of  fire,  and  MICHAEL  of  water.  Seven  spirits  assist 
each;  those  of  fire  being  Seraphiel,  Gabriel, '-Nitriel,  Tammael, 
Tchimschiel,  Hadarniel,  and  Sarniel.  These  seven  are  represented 
by  the  square  columns  of  this  Degree,  while  the-polumns  JACHIN 
and  BOAZ  represent  the  angels  of  fire  and  water.  But  the  col- 
umns are  not  representatives  of  these  alone. 


To  Basilides,  God  was  without  name,  uncreated,  at  first  contain- 
ing and  concealing  in  Himself  the  Plenitude  of  His  Perfections ; 
and  when  these  are  by  Him  displayed  and  manifested,  there  result 
as  many  particular  Existences,  all  analogous  to  Him,  and  still  and 
always  Him.  To  the  Essenes  and  the  Gnostics,  the  East  and  the 
West  both  devised  this  faith;  that  the  Ideas,  Conceptions,  or 
Manifestations  of  the  Deity  were  so  many  Creations,  so  many  Be- 
ings, all  God,  nothing  without  Him,  but  more  than  what  we  now 
understand  by  the  word  ideas.  They  emanated  from  and  were 
again  merged  in  God.  They  had  a  kind  of  middle  existence  be- 
tween our  modern  ideas,  and  the  intelligences  or  ideas,  elevated  to 
the  rank  of  genii,  of  the  Oriental  mythology. 

These  personified  attributes  of  Deity,  in  the  theory  of  Basilides, 
were  the  UpwTOfovoz  or  First-born,  Nous  [Nous  or  Mind]  :  from  it 
emanates  Aoyos  [Logos,  or  THE  WORD]  from  it  ^pdvT/cns  :  [Phro- 
nesis, Intellect}  :  from  it  Eoyia  [Sophia,  Wisdom]  :  from  it  Avva/u? 
[Dunamis,  Power]  :  and  from  it  Aixaiooi;^  [Dikaiosune,  Right- 
eousness] :  to  which  latter  the  Jews  gave  the  name  of  Etp^n; 
[Eirene,  Peace,  or  Calm],  the  essential  characteristic  of  Divinity, 
and  harmonious  effect  of  all  His  perfections.  The  whole  number 
of  successive  emanations  was  365,  expressed  by  the  Gnostics,  in 
Greek  letters,  by  the  mystic  word  ABPAHA-  [Abraxas]  ;  desig- 
nating God  as  manifested,  or  the  aggregate  of  his  manifestations ; 
but  not  the  Supreme  and  Secret  God  Himself.  These  three  hun- 
dred and  sixty-five  Intelligences  compose  altogether  the  Fullness 
or  Plenitude  [UXrjpwfia]  of  the  Divine  Emanations. 

With  the  Ophites,  a  sect  of  the  Gnostics,  there  were  seven  infe- 
rior spirits  [inferior  to  laldabaoth,  the  Demiourgos  or  Actual  Cre- 
ator] :  Michael,  Suriel,  Raphael,  Gabriel,  Thauthabaoth,  Erataoth, 
and  Athaniel,  the  genii  of  the  stars  called  the  Bull,  the  Dog,  the 
Lion,  the  Bear,  the  Serpent,  the  Eagle,  and  the  Ass  that  formerly 
figured  in  the  constellation  Cancer,  and  symbolized  respectively 
by  those  animals ;  as  laldabaoth,  loo,  Adonal,  Elot,  Oral,  and  As- 
taphai  were  the  genii  of  Saturn,  the  Moon,  the  Sun,  Jupiter, 
Venus,  and  Mercury. 

The  WORD  appears  in  all  these  creeds.  It  is  the  Ormuzd  of 
Zoroaster,  the  Ainsoph  of  the  Kabalah,  the  Notts  of  Platonism 
and  Philonism,  and  the  Sophia  or  Demiourgos  of  the  Gnostics. 

And  all  these  creeds,  while  admitting  these  different  manifesta- 
tions of  the  Supreme  Being,  held  that  His  identity  was  immutable 


and  permanent.  That  was  Plato's  distinction  between  the  Being 
always  the  same  [TO  ou]  and  the  perpetual  flow  of  things  inces- 
santly changing,  the  Genesis. 

The  belief  in  dualism  in  some  shape,  was  universal.  Those 
who  held  that  everything  emanated  from  God,  aspired  to  God,  and 
re-entered  into  God,  believed  that,  among  those  emanations  were 
two  adverse  Principles,  of  Light  and  Darkness,  Good  and  Evil. 
This  prevailed  in  Central  Asia  and  in  Syria;  while  in  Egypt  it 
assumed  the  form  of  Greek  speculation.  In  the  former,  a  second 
Intellectual  Principle  was  admitted,  active  in  its  Empire  of  Dark- 
ness, audacious  against  the  Empire  of  Light.  So  the  Persians  and 
Sabeans  understood  it.  In  Egypt,  this  second  Principle  was  Mat- 
ter, as  the  word  was  used  by  the  Platonic  School,  with  its  sad  at- 
tributes, Vacuity,  Darkness,  and  Death.  In  their  theory,  matter 
could  be  animated  only  by  the  low  communication  of  a  principle 
of  divine  life.  It  resists  the  influences  that  would  spiritualize  it. 
That  resisting  Power  is  Satan,  the  rebellious  Matter,  Matter  that 
does  not  partake  of  God. 

To  many  there  were  two  Principles;  the  Unknown  Father,  or 
Supreme  and  Eternal  God,  living  in  the  centre  of  the  Light, 
happy  in  the  perfect  purity  of  His  being;  the  other,  eternal  Mat- 
ter, that  inert,  shapeless,  darksome  mass,  which  they  considered  as 
the  source  of  all  evils,  the  mother  and  dwelling-place  of  Satan. 

To  Philo  and  the  Platonists,  there  was  a  Soul  of  the  world,  cre- 
ating visible  things,  and  active  in  them,  as  agent  of  the  Supreme 
Intelligence ;  realizing  therein  the  ideas  communicated  to  Him  by 
that  Intelligence,  and  which  sometimes  excel  His  conceptions,  but 
which  He  executes  without  comprehending  them. 

The  Apocalypse  or  Revelations,  by  whomever  written,  belongs 
to  the  Orient  and  to  extreme  antiquity.  It  reproduces  what  is  far 
older  than  itself.  It  paints,  with  the  strongest  colors  that  the  Ori- 
ental genius  ever  employed,  the  closing  scenes  of  the  great  strug- 
gle of  Light,  and  Truth,  and  Good,  against  Darkness,  Error,  and 
Evil ;  personified  in  that  between  the  New  Religion  on  one  side, 
and  Paganism  and  Judaism  on  the  other.  It  is  a  particular  appli- 
cation of  the  ancient  myth  of  Ormuzd  and  his  .Genii  against.  Ahri- 
man  and  his  Devs ;  and  it  celebrates  the  final  triumph  of  Truth 
against  the  combined  powers  of  men  and  demons.  The  ideas  and 
imagery  are  borrowed  from  every  quarter ;  and  allusions  are  found 
in  it  to  the  doctrines  of  all  ages.  We  are  continually  reminded 


of  the  Zend-Avesta,  the  Jewish  Codes,  Philo,  and  the  Gnosis. 
The  Seven  Spirits  surrounding  the  Throne  of  the  Eternal,  at  the 
opening  of  the  Grand  Drama,  and  acting  so  important  a  part 
throughout,  everywhere  the  first  instruments  of  the  Divine  Will 
and  Vengeance,  are  the  Seven  Amshaspands  of  Parsism ;  as  the 
Twenty-four  Ancients,  offering  to  the  Supreme  Being  the  first 
supplications  and  the  first  homage,  remind  us  of  the  Mysterious 
Chiefs  of  Judaism,  foreshadow  the  Eons  of  Gnosticism,  and  repro- 
duce the  twenty-four  Good  Spirits  created  by  Ormuzd  and  in- 
closed in  an  egg. 

The  Christ  of  the  Apocalypse,  First-born  of  Creation  and  of  the 
Resurrection,  is  invested  with  the  characteristics  of  the  Ormuzd 
and  Sosiosch  of  the  Zend-Avesta,  the  Ainsoph  of  the  Kabalah 
and  the  Carpistes  [KapTrtor^?]  of  the  Gnostics.  The  idea  that  the 
true  Initiates  and  Faithful  become  Kings  and  Priests,  is  at  once 
Persian,  Jewish,  Christian,  and  Gnostic.  •  And  the  definition  of 
the  Supreme  Being,  that  He  is  at  once  Alpha  and  Omega,  the  be- 
ginning and  the  end — He  that  was,  and  is,  and  is  to  come, 
i.  e.,  Time  illimitable,  is  Zoroaster's  definition  of  Zerouane-Ak- 

The  depths  of  Satan  which  no  man  can  measure ;  his  triumph 
for  a  time  by  fraud  and  violence ;  his  being  chained  by  an  angel ; 
his  reprobation  and  his  precipitation  into  a  sea  of  metal ;  his 
names  of  the  Serpent  and  the  Dragon ;  the  whole  conflict  of  the 
*  Good  Spirits  or  celestial  armies  against  the  bad.;  are  so  many 
ideas  and  designations  found  alike  in  the  Zend-Avesta,  the  Ka- 
balah, and  the  Gnosis. 

We  even  find  in  the  Apocalypse  that  singular  Persian  idea, 
which  regards  some  of  the  lower  animals  as  so  many  Devs  or  ve- 
hicles of  Devs. 

The  guardianship  of  the  earth  by  a  good  angel,  the  renewing  of 
the  earth  and  heavens,  and  the  final  triumph  of  pure  and  holy 
men,  are  the  same  victory  of  Good  over  Evil,  for  which  the  whole 
Orient  looked. 

The  gold,  and  white  raiments,  of  the  twenty-four  Elders  are,  as 
in-  the  Persian  faith,  the  signs  of  a  lofty  perfection  and  divine 

Thus  the  Human  mind  labored  and  struggled  and  tortured  itself 
for  ages,  to  explain  to  itself  what  it  felt,  without  confessing  it,  to 
be  inexplicable.  A  vast  crowd  of  indistinct  abstractions,  hovering 

274  MORAL^   AND   DOGMA. 

in  the  imagination,  a  train  of  words  embodying  no  tangible  mean- 
ing, an  inextricable  labyrinth  of  subtleties,  was  the  result. 

But  one  grand  idea  ever  emerged  and  stood  prominent  and  un- 
changeable over  the  weltering  chaos  of  confusion.  God  is  great, 
and  good,  and  wise.  Evil  and  pain  and  sorrow  are  temporary, 
and  for  wise  and  beneficent  purposes.  They  must  be  consistent 
with  God's  goodness,  purity,  and  infinite  perfection ;  and  there 
must  be  a  mode  of  explaining  them,  if  we  could  but  find  it  out; 
as,  in  all  ways  we  will  endeavor  to  do.  Ultimately,  Good  will  pre- 
vail, and  Evil  be  overthrown.  -God  alone  can  do  this,  and  He  will 
do  it,  by  an  Emanation  from  Himself,  assuming  the  Human  form 
and  redeeming  the  world. 

Behold  the  object,  the  end,  the  result,  of  the  great  speculations 
and  logomachies  of  antiquity;  the  ultimate  annihilation  of  evil, 
and  restoration  of  Man  to  his  first  estate,  by  a  Redeemer,  a  Ma- 
sayah,  a  Christos,  the  incarnate  Word,  Reason,  or  Power  of  Deity. 

This  Redeemer  is  the  Word  or  Logos,  the  Ormuzd  of  Zoroaster, 
the  Ainsoph  of  the  Kabalah,  the  .Nous  of  Platonism  and  Philon- 
ism ;  He  that  was  in  the  Begirming  with  God,  and  was  God,  and 
by  Whom  everything  was  made.  That  He  was  looked  for  by  all 
the  People  of  the  East  is  abundantly  shown  by  the  Gospel  of  John 
and  the  Letters  of  Paul ;  wherein  scarcely  anything  seemed  neces- 
sary to  be  said  in  proof  that  such  a  Redeemer  was  to  come ;  but 
all  the  energies  of  the  writers  are  devoted  to  showing  that  Jesus 
was  that  Christos  whom  all  the  nations  were  expecting ;  the 
"Word,"  the  Masayah,  the  Anointed  or  Consecrated  One. 

In  this  Degree  the  great  contest  between  good  and  evil,  in  antici- 
pation of  the  appearance  and  advent  of  the  Word  or  Redeemer  is 
symbolized ;  and  the  mysterious  esoteric  teachings  of  the  Essenes 
and  the  Cabalists.  Of  the  practices  of  the  former  we  gain  but 
glimpses  in  the  ancient  writers;  but  we  know  that,  as  their  doc- 
trines were  taught  by  John  the  Baptist,  they  greatly  resembled 
those  of  greater  purity  and  more  nearly  perfect,  taught  by  Jesus ; 
and  that  not  only  Palestine  was  full  of  John's  disciples,  so  that  the 
Priests  and  Pharisees  did  not  dare  to  deny  John's  inspiration ;  but 
his  doctrine  had  extended  to  Asia  Minor,  and -had  made  converts 
in  luxurious  Ephesus,  as  it  also  had  in  Alexandria  in  Egypt ;  and 
that  they  readily  embraced  the  Christian  faith,  o.f  which  they  had 
before  not  even  heard. 

These  old  controversies  have  died  away,  and  the  old  faiths  have 


faded  into  oblivion.  But  Masonry  still  survives,  vigorous  and 
strong,  as  when  philosophy  was  taught  in  the  schools  of  Alexan- 
dria and  under  the  Portico;  teaching  the  same  old  truths  as  the 
Essenes  taught  by  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea,  and  as  John  the 
Baptist  preached  in  the  Desert:  truths  imperishable  as  the  Deity, 
and  undeniable  as  Light.  Those  truths  were  gathered  by  the 
Essenes  from  the  doctrines  of  the  Orient  and  the  Occident,  from 
the  Zend-Avesta  and  the  Vedas,  from  Plato  and  Pythagoras,  from 
India,  Persia.  Phoenicia,  and  Syria,  from  Greece  and  Egypt,  and 
from  the  Holy  Books  of  the  Jews.  Hence  we  are  called  Knights 
of  the  East  and  West,  because  their  doctrines  came  from  both. 
And  these  doctrines,  the  wheat  sifted  from  the  chaff,  the  Truth 
separated  from  Error,  Masonry  has  garnered  up  in  her  heart  of 
hearts,  and  through  the  fires  of  persecution,  and  the  storms  of 
calamity,  has  brought  them  and  delivered  them  unto  us.  That 
God  is  One,  immutable,  unchangeable,  infinitely  just  and  good ; 
that  Light  will  finally  overcome  Darkness, — Good  conquer  Evil, 
and  Truth  be  victor  over  Error; — these,  rejecting  all  the  wild  and 
useless  speculations  of  the  Zend-Avesta,  theKabalah,  the  Gnostics, 
and  the  Schools,  are  the  religion  and  Philosophy  of  Masonry. 

Those  speculations  and  fancies  it  is  useful  to  study ;  that  know- 
ing in  what  worthless  and  unfruitful  investigations  the  mind  may 
engage,  you  may  the  more  value  and  appreciate  the  plain,  simple, 
sublime,  universally-acknowledged  truths,  which  have  in  all  ages 
been  the  Light  by  which  Masons  have  been  guided  on  their  way ; 
the  Wisdom  and  Strength  that  like  imperishable  columns  have 
sustained  and  will  continue  to  sustain  its  glorious  and  magnificent 


[Prince  Rose  Croix.] 

EACH  of  us  makes  such  applications  to  his  own  faith  and  creed, 
of  the  symbols  and  ceremonies  of  this  Degree,  as  seems  to  him 
proper.  With  these  special  interpretations  we  have  here  nothing 
to  do.  Like  the  legend  of  the  Master  Khurum,  in  which  some 
see  figured  the  condemnation  and  sufferings  of  Christ ;  others 
those  of  the  unfortunate  Grand  Master  of  the  Templars ;  others 
those  of  the  first  Charles,  King  of  England;  and  others  still  the 
annual  descent  of  the  Sun  at  the  winter  Solstice  to  the  regions  of 
darkness,  the  basis  of  many  an  ancient  legend ;  so  the  ceremonies 
of  this  Degree  receive  different  explanations ;  each  interpreting 
them  for  himself,  and  being  offended  at  the  interpretation  of  no 

In  no  other  way  could  Masonry  possess  its  character  of  Univer- 
sality ;  that  character  which  has  ever  been  peculiar  to  it  from  its 
origin ;  and  which  enables  two  Kings,  worshippers  of  different 
Deities,  to  sit  together  as  Masters,  while  the  walls  of  the  first  tem- 
ple arose ;  and  the  men  of  Gebal,  bowing  down  to  the  Phoenician 
Gods,  to  work  by  the  side  of  the  Hebrews  to  whom  those  Gods 
were  abomination;  and  to  sit  with  them  in  trie  same  Lodge  as 


You  have  already  learned  that  these  ceremonies  have  one  gen- 
eral significance,  to  every  one,  of  every  faith,  who  believes  in  God, 
and  the  soul's  immortality. 

The  primitive  men  met  in  no  Temples  made  with  human  hands. 
"God,"  said  Stephen,  the  first  Martyr,  "dwelleth  not  in  Temples 
made  with  hands."  In  the  open  air,  under  the  overarching  mys- 
terious sky,  in  the  great  World-Temple,  they  uttered  their  vows 
and  thanksgivings,  and  adored  the  God  of  Light ;  of  that  Light 
that  was  to  them  the  type  of  Good,  as  darkness  was  the  type  of 

All  antiquity  solved  the  enigma  of  the  existence  of  Evil,  by 
supposing  the  existence  of  a  Principle  of  Evil,  of  Demons,  fallen 
Angels,  an  Ahriman,  a  Typhon,  a  Siva,  a  Lok,  or  a  Satan,  that, 
first  falling  themselves,  and  plunged  in  misery  and  darkness, 
tempted  man  to  his  fall,  and  brought  sin  into  the  world.  All  be- 
lieved in  a  future  life,  to  be  attained  by  purification  and  trials ;  in 
a  state  or  successive  states  of  reward  and  punishment ;  and  in  a 
•Mediator  or  Redeemer,  by  whom  the  Evil  Principle  was  to  be 
overcome,  and  the  Supreme  Deity  reconciled  to  His  creatures. 
The  belief  was  general,  that  He  was  to  be  born  of  a  Virgin,  and 
suffer  a  painful  death.  The  Indians  called  him  Chrishna :  the 
Chinese,  Kioun-tse ;  the  Persians,  Sosiosch ;  the  Chaldeans,  Dhou- 
vanai ;  the  Egyptians,  Har-Oeri ;  Plato,  Love ;  and  the  Scandina- 
vians, Balder. 

Chrishna,  the  Hindoo  Redeemer,  was  cradled  and  educated 
among  Shepherds.  A  Tyrant,  at  the  time  of  his  birth,  ordered 
all  the  male  children  to  be  slain.  He  performed  miracles,  say  his 
legends,  even  raising  the  dead.  He  washed  the  feet  of  the  Brah- 
mins, and  was  meek  and  lowly  of  spirit.  He  was  born  of  a  Vir- 
gin; descended  to  Hell,  rose  again,  ascended  to  Heaven,  charged 
his  disciples  to  teach  his  doctrines,  and  gave  them  the  gift  of  mir- 

The  first  Masonic  Legislator  whose  memory  is  preserved  to  us 
by  history,  was  Buddha,  who,  about  a  thousand  years  before  the 
Christian  era,  reformed  the  religion  of  Manous.  He  called  to  the 
Priesthood  all  men,  without  distinction  of  caste,  who  felt  them- 
selves inspired  by  God  to  instruct  men.  Those  who  so  associated 
themselves  formed  a  Society  of  Prophets  under  the  name  of  Sa- 
maneans.  They  recognized  the  existence  of  a  single  uncreated 
God,  in  whose  bosom  everything:  grows,  is  developed  and  trans- 


formed.  The  worship  of  this  God  reposed  upon  the  obedience  of 
all  the  beings  He  created.  His  feasts  were  those  of  the  Solstices. 
The  doctrines  of  Buddha  pervaded  India,  China,  and  Japan.  The 
Priests  of  Brahma,  professing  a  dark  and  bloody  creed,  brutalized 
by  Superstition,  united  together  against  Buddhism,  and  with  the 
aid  of  Despotism,  exterminated  its  followers.  But  their  blood 
fertilized  the  new  doctrine,  which  produced  a  new  Society  under 
the  name  of  Gymnosophists ;  and  a  large  number,  fleeing  to 
Ireland,  planted  their  doctrines  there,  and  there  erected  the  round 
towers,  some  of  which  still  stand,  solid  and  unshaken  as  at  first, 
visible  monuments  of  the  remotest  ages. 

The  Phoenician  Cosmogony,  like  all  others  in  Asia,  was  the 
Word  of  God,  written  in  astral  characters,  by  the  planetary  Divin- 
ities, and  communicated  by  the  Demi-gods,  as  a  profound  mystery, 
to  the  brighter  intelligences  of  Humanity,  to  be  propagated  by 
them  among  men.  Their  doctrines  resembled  the  Ancient  Sabe- 
ism,  and  being  the  faith  of  Hiram  the  King  and  his  namesake  the 
Artist,  are  of  interest  to  all  Masons.  With  them,  the  First  Prin- 
ciple was  half  material,  half  spiritual,  a  dark  air,  animated  and 
impregnated  by  the  spirit ;  and  a  disordered  chaos,  covered  with 
thick  darkness.  From  this  came  the  WORD,  and  thence  creation 
and  generation ;  and  thence  a  race  of  men,  children  of  light,  who 
adored  Heaven  and  its  Stars  as  the  Supreme  Being;  and  whose 
different  gods  were  but  incarnations  of  the  Sun,  the  Moon,  the 
Stars,  and  the  Ether.  Chrysor  was  the  great  igneous  power  of 
Nature,  and  Baal  and  Malakarth  representations  of  the  Sun  and 
Moon,  the  latter  word,  in  Hebrew,  meaning  Queen. 

Man  had  fallen,  but  not  by  the  tempting  of  the  serpent.  For, 
with  the  Phoenicians,  the  serpent  was  deemed  to  partake  of  the 
Divine  Nature,  and  was  sacred,  as  he  was  in  Egypt.  He  was 
deemed  to  be  immortal,  unless  slain  by  violence,  becoming  young 
again  in  his  old  age,  by  entering  into  and  consuming  himself. 
Hence  the  Serpent  in  a  circle,  holding  his  tail  in  his  mouth,  was 
an  emblem  of  eternity.  With  the  head  of  a  hawk  he  was  of  a 
Divine  Nature,  and  a  symbol  of  the  sun.  Hence  one  Sect  of  the 
Gnostics  took  him  for  their  good  genius,  and  hence  the  brazen  ser- 
pent reared  by  Moses  in  the  Desert,  on  which  the  Israelites  looked 
and  lived.  . 

"Before  the  chaos,  that  preceded  the  birth  of  Heaven  and 
Earth,"  said  the  Chinese  Lao-Tseu,  "a  single  Being  existed,  im- 


mense  and  silent,  immutable  and  always  acting;  the  mother  of 
the  Universe.  I  know  not  the  name  of  that  Being,  but  I  designate 
it  by  the  word  Reason.  Man  has  his  model  in  the  earth,  the 
earth  in  Heaven,  Heaven  in  Reason,  and  Reason  in  itself." 

"I  am,"  says  Isis,  "Nature ;  parent  of  all  things,  the  sovereign 
of  the  Elements,  the  primitive  progeny  of  Time,  the  most  exalted 
of  the  Deities,  the  first  of  the  Heavenly  Gods  and  Goddesses,  the 
Queen  of  the  Shades,  the  uniform  countenance;  who  dispose 
with  my  rod  the  numerous  lights  of  Heaven,  the  salubrious  breezes 
of  the  sea,  and  the  mournful  silence  of  the  dead ;  whose  single 
Divinity  the  whole  world  venerates  in  many  forms,  with  various 
rites  and  by  many  names.  The  Egyptians,  skilled  in  ancient  lore, 
worship  me  with  proper  ceremonies,  and  call  me  by  my  true  name, 
Isis  the  Queen." 

The  Hindu  Vedas  thus  define  the  Deity: 

"He  who  surpasses  speech,  and  through  whose  power  speech  is 
expressed,  know  thou  that  He  is  Brahma ;  and  not  these  perish- 
able things  that  man  adores. 

"He  whom  Intelligence  cannot  comprehend,  and  He  alone,  say 
the  sages,  through  whose  Power  the  nature  of  Intelligence  can  be 
understood,  know  thou  that  He  is  .Brahma ;  and  not  these  perish- 
able things  that  man  adores. 

"He  who  cannot  be  seen  by  the  organ  of  sight,  and  through 
whose  power  the  organ  of  seeing  sees,  know  thou  that  He  is 
Brahma ;  and  not  these  perishable  things  that  man  adores. 

"He  who  cannot  be  heard  by  the  organ  of  hearing,  and  through 
whose  power  the  organ  of  hearing  hears,  know  thou  that  He  is 
Brahma ;  and  not  these  perishable  things  that  man  adores. 

"He  who  cannot  be  perceived  by  the  organ  of  smelling,  and 
through  whose  power  the  organ  of  smelling  smells,  know  thou  that 
He  is  Brahma ;  and  not  these  perishable  things  that  man  adores." 

"When  God  resolved  to  create  the  human  race,"  said  Arius, 
"He  made  a  Being  that  He  called  The  WORD,  The  Son,  Wisdom, 
to  the  end  that  this  Being  might  give  existence  to  men."  This 
WORD  is  the  Ormuzd  of  Zoroaster,  the  Ainsoph  of  the  Kabalah, 
the  Nous  of  Plato  and  Philo,  the  Wisdom  or  Demionrgos  of  the 

That  is  the  True  Word,  the  knowledge  of  which  our  ancient 
brethren  sought  as  the  priceless  reward  of  their  labors  on  the 
Holy  Temple:  the  Word  of  Life,  the  Divine  Reason,  "in  whom 


was  Life,  and  that  Life  the  Light  of  men" ;  "which  long  shone  in 
darkness,  and  the  darkness  comprehended  it  not ;"  the  Infinite 
Reason  that  is  the  Soul  of  Nature,  immortal,  of  which  the  Word 
of  this  Degree  reminds  us ;  and  to  believe  wherein  and  revere  it,  is 
the  peculiar  duty  of  every  Mason. 

"In  the  beginning,"  says  the  extract  from  some  older  work, 
with  which  John  commences  his  Gospel,  "was  the  Word,  and  the 
Word  was  near  to  God,  and  the  Word  was  God.  All  things  were 
made  by  Him,  and  without  Him  was  not  anything  made  that  was 
made.  In  Him  was  Life,  and  the  life  was  the  Light  of  man ;  and 
the  light  shineth  in  darkness,  and  the  darkness  did  not  contain  it." 

It  is  an  old  tradition  that  this  passage  was  from  an  older  work. 
And  Philostorgius  and  Nieephorus  state,  that  when  the  Emperor 
Julian  undertook  to  rebuild  the  Temple,  a  stone  was  taken  up, 
that  covered  the  mouth  of  a  deep  square  cave,  into  which  one  of 
the  laborers,  being  let  down  by  a  rope,  found  in  the  centre  of 
the  floor  a  cubical  pillar,  on  which  lay  a  roll  or  book,  wrapped  in 
a  fine  linen  cloth,  in  which,  in  capital  letters,  was  the  foregoing 

However  this  may  have  been,  it  is  plain  that  John's  Gospel  is  a 
polemic  against  the  Gnostics  ;  and,  stating  at  the  outset  the  current 
doctrine  in  regard  to  the  creation  by  the  Word,  he  then  addresses 
himself  to  show  and  urge  that  this  Word  was  Jesus  Christ. 

And  the  first  sentence,  fully  rendered  into  our  language,  would 
read  thus :  "When  the  process  of  emanation,  of  creation  or  evolu- 
tion of  existences  inferior  to  the  Supreme  God  began,  the  Word 
came  into  existence  and  was :  and  this  word  was  [rpos  rov  &eov] 
near  to  God ;  /.  e.  the  immediate  or  first  emanation  from  God :  and 
it  was  God  Himself,  developed  or  manifested  in  that  particular 
mode,  and  in  action.  And  by  that  Word  everything  that  is  was 
created." — And  thus  Tertullian  says  that  God  made  the  World  out 
of  nothing,  by  means  of  His  Word,  Wisdom,  or  Power. 

To  Philo  the  Jew,  as  to  the  Gnostics,  the  Supreme  Being  was 
the  Primitive  Light,  or  Archetype  of  Light, — Source  whence  the 
rays  emanate  that  illuminate  Souls.  He  is  the  Soul  of  the  World, 
and  as  such  acts  everywhere.  He  himself  fills  and  bounds  his 
whole  existence,  and  his  forces  fill  and  penetrate  everything.  His 
linage  is  the  WORD  [Logos],  a  form  more  brilliant  than  fire,  which 
is  not  pure  light.  This  WORD  dwells  in  God ;  for  it  is  within  His 
Intelligence  that  the  Supreme  Being  frame?  for  Himself  the 


Types  of  Ideas  of  all  that  is  to  assume  reality  in  the  Universe. 
The  WORD  is  the  Vehicle  by  which  God  acts  on  the  Universe ;  the 
World  of  Ideas  by  means  whereof  God  has  created  visible  things ; 
the  more  Ancient  God.  as  compared  with  the  Material  World ; 
Chief  and  General  Representative  of  all  Intelligences ;  the  Arch- 
angel, type  and  representative  of  all  spirits,  even  those  of  Mortals ; 
the  type  of  Man ;  the  primitive  man  himself.  These  ideas  are 
borrowed  from  Plato.  And  this  WORD  is  not  only  .the  Creator  ["by 
Him  was  everything  made  that  was  made"],but  acts  in  the  place  of 
God ;  and  through  him  act  all  the  Powers  and  Attributes  of  God. 
And  also,  as  first  representative  of  the  human  race,  he  is  the  pro- 
tector of  Men  and  their  Shepherd,  the  "Ben  H'Adam,"  or  Son  of 

The  actual  condition  of  Man  is  not  his  primitive  condition,  that 
in  which  he  was  the  image  of  the  Word.  His  unruly  passions 
have  caused  him  to  fall  from  his  original  lofty  estate.  But  he  may 
rise  again,  by  following  the  teachings  of  Heavenly  Wisdom,  and 
the  Angels  whom  God  commissions  to  aid  him  in  escaping  from 
the  entanglements  of  the  body ;  and  by  fighting  bravely  against 
Evil,  the  existence  of  which  God  has  allowed  solely  to  furnish  him 
with  the  means  of  exercising  his  free  will. 

The  Supreme  Being  of  the  Egyptians  was  Amun,  a  secret  and 
concealed  God,  the  Unknown  Father  of  the  Gnostics,  the  Source 
of  Divine  Life,  and  of  all  force,  the  Plenitude  of  all,  comprehend- 
ing all  things  in  Himself,  the  original  Light.  He  creates  nothing ; 
but  everything  emanates  from  Him :  and  all  other  Gods  are  but 
his  manifestations.  FVom  Him,  by  the  utterance  of  a  Word,  ema- 
nated Neith,  the  Divine  Mother  of  all  things,  the  Primitive 
THOUGHT,  the  FORCE  that  puts  everything  in  movement,  the 
SPIRIT  everywhere  extended,  the  Deity  of  Light  and  Mother  of  the 

Of  this  Supreme  Being,  Osiris  was  the  image,  Source  of  all 
Good  in  the  moral  and  physical  world,  and  constant  foe  of  Typhon, 
the  Genius  of  Evil,  the  Satan  of  Gnosticism,  brute  matter,  deemed 
to  be  always  at  feud  with  the  spirit  that  flowed  from  the  Deity; 
and  over  whom  Har-Oeri,  the  Redeemer,  Son  of  Isis  and  Osiris, 
is  finally  to  prevail. 

In  the  Zend-Avesta  of  the  Persians  the  Supreme  Being  is 
Time  irithout  limit,  ZERUANE  AKHERENE. — No  origin  could  be 
r-?si^ned  to  Him ;  for  He  was  enveloped  in  His  own  Glory,  and 


His  Nature  and  Attributes  were  so  inaccessible  to  human  Intelli- 
gence, that  He  was  but  the  object  of  a  silent  veneration.  The  com- 
mencement of  Creation  was  by  emanation  from  Him.  The  first 
emanation  was  the  Primitive  Light,  and  from  this  Light  emerged 
Ormuzd,  the  King  of  Light,  who,  by  the  WORD,  created  the  World 
in  its  purity,  is  its  Preserver  and  Judge,  a  Holy  and  Sacred  Be- 
ing, Intelligence  and  Knowledge,  Himself  Time  without  limit, 
and  wielding  all  the  powers  of  the  Supreme  Being. 

In  this  Persian  faith,  as  taught  many  centuries  before  our  era, 
and  embodied  in  the  Zend-Avesta,  there  was  in  man  a  pure  Prin- 
ciple, proceeding  from  the  Supreme  Being,  produced  by  the  Will 
and  Word  of  Ormuzd.  To  that  was  united  an  impure  principle, 
proceeding  from  a  foreign  influence,  that  of  Ahriman,  the  Dragon, 
or  principle  of  Evil.  Tempted  by  Ahriman,  the  first  man  and  wo- 
man had  fallen ;  and  for  twelve  thousand  years  there  was  to  be 
war  between  Ormuzd  and  the  Good  Spirits  created  by  him,  and 
Ahriman  and  the  Evil  ones  whom  he  had  called  into  existence. 

But  pure  souls  are  assisted  by  the  Good  Spirits,  the  Triumph  of 
the  Good  Principle  is  determined  upon  in  the  decrees  of  the  Su- 
preme Being,  and  the  period  of  that  triumph  will  infallibly  arrive. 
At  the  moment  when  the  earth  shall  be  most  afflicted  with  the 
evils  brought  upon  it  by  the  Spirits  of  perdition,  three  Prophets 
will  appear  to  bring  assistance  to  mortals.  Sosiosch,  Chief  of  the 
Three,  will  regenerate  the  world,  and  restore  to  it  its  primitive 
Beauty,  Strength,  and  Purity.  He  will  judge  the  good  and  the 
wicked.  After  the  universal  resurrection  of  the  Good,  the  pure 
Spirits  will  conduct  them  to  an  abode  of  eternal  happiness.  Ahri- 
man, his  evil  Demons,  and  all  the  world,  will  be  purified  in  a  tor- 
rent of  liquid  burning  metal.  The  Law  of  Ormuzd  will  rule 
everywhere :  all  men  will  be  happy :  all,  enjoying  an  unalterable 
bliss,  will  unite  with  Sosiosch  in  singing  the  praises  of  the  Su- 
pieme  Being. 

These  doctrines,  with  some  modifications,  were  adopted  by  the 
Kabalists  and  afterward  by  the  Gnostics. 

Apollonius  of  Tyana  says :  "We  shall  render  the  most  appropri- 
ate worship  to  the  Deity,  when  to  that  God"  whom  we  call  the 
First,  who  is  One,  and  separate  from  all,  and  after  whom  we  recog- 
nize the  others,  we  present  no  offerings  whatever,  kindle  to  Him 
no  fire,  dedicate  to  Him  no  sensible  thing;  for  he  needs  nothing, 
even  of  all  that  natures  more  exalted  than  ours  could  give.  The 


earth  produces  no  plant,  the  air  nourishes  no  animal,  there  is  in 
short  nothing,  which  would  not  be  impure  in  his  sight.  In  address- 
ing ourselves  to  Him,  we  must  use  only  the  higher  word,  that,  I 
mean,  which  is  not  expressed  by  the  mouth, — the  silent  inner  word 

of  the  spirit From  the  most  Glorious  of  all  Beings,  we  must 

seek  for  blessings,  by  that  which  is  most  glorious  in  ourselves ;  and 
that  is  the  spirit,  which  needs  no  organ." 

Strabo  says :  "This  one  Supreme  Essence  is  that  which  embraces 
us  all,  the  water  and  the  land,  that  which  we  call  the  Heavens, 
the  \Yorld,  the  Nature  of  things.  This  Highest  Being  should  be 
worshipped,  without  any  visible  image,  in  sacred  groves.  In  such 
retreats  the  devout  should  lay  themselves  down  to  sleep,  and 
expect  signs  from  God  in  .dreams." 

Aristotle  says :  "It  has  been  handed  down  in  a  mythical  form, 
from  the  earliest  times  to  posterity,  that  there  are  Gods,  and  that 
The  Divine  compasses  entire  nature.  All  besides  this  has  been 
added,  after  the  mythical  style,  for  the  purpose  of  persuading  the 
multitude,  and  for  the  interest  of  the  laws  and  the  advantage  of 
the  State.  Thus  men  have  given  to  the  Gods  human  forms,  and 
have  even  represented  them  under  the  figure  of  other  beings,  in 
the  train  of  which  fictions  followed  many  more  of  the  same  sort. 
But  if,  from  all  this,  we  separate  the  original  principle,  and  con- 
sider it  alone,  namely,  that  the  first  Essences  are  Gods,  we  shall 
find  that  this  has  been  divinely  said ;  and  since  it  is  probable  that 
philosophy  and  the  arts  have  been  several  times,  so  far  as  that  is 
possible,  found  and  lost,  such  doctrines  may  have  been  preserved 
to  our  times  as  the  remains  of  ancient  wisdom." 

Porphyry  says :  ''By  images  addressed  to  sense,  the  ancients 
represented  God  and  his  powers — by  the  visible  they  typified  the 
invisible  for  those  who  had  learned  to  read,  in  these  types,  as  in 
a  book,  a  treatise  on  the  Gods.  \Ye  need  not  wonder  if  the  ignorant 
consider  the  images  to  be  nothing  more  than  wood  or  stone;  for 
just  so.  they  who  are  ignorant  of  writing  see  nothing  in  monu- 
ments but  stone,  nothing  in  tablets  but  wood,  and  in  books  but  a 
tissue  of  papyrus." 

Apollonius  of  Tyana  held,  that  birth  and  death  are  only  in  ap- 
pearance ;  that  which  separates  itself  from  the  one  substance  (the 
one  Divine  essence),  and  is  caught  up  by  matter,  seems  to  be  born ; 
that,  again,  which  releases  itself  from  the  bonds  of  matter,  and  is 
reunited  with  the  one  Divine  Essence,  seems  to  die.  There  is,  at 


most,  an  alteration  between  becoming  visible  and  becoming  in- 
visfble.  In  all  there  is,  properly  speaking,  but  the  one  essence, 
which  alone  acts  and  suffers,  by  becoming  all  things  to  all;  the 
Eternal  God,  whom  men  wrong,  when  they  deprive  Him  of  what 
properly  can  be  attributed  to  Him  only,  and  transfer  it  to  other 
names  and  persons. 

The  New  Platonists  substituted  the  idea  of  the  Absolute,  for 
the  Supreme  Essence  itself ; — as  the  first,  simplest  principle,  ante- 
rior to  all  existence ;  of  which  nothing  determinate  can  be  predi- 
cated ;  to  which  no  consciousness,  no  self-contemplation  can  be 
ascribed ;  inasmuch  as  to  do  so,  would  immediately  imply  a  qual- 
ity, a  distinction  of  subject  and  object.  This  Supreme  Entity  can 
be  known  only  by  an  intellectual  intuition  of  the  Spirit,  trans- 
scending  itself,  and  emancipating  itself  from  its  own  limits. 

This  mere  logical  tendency,  by  means  of  which  men  thought  to 
arrive  at  the  conception  of  such  an  absolute,  the  o'v,  was  united 
with  a  certain  mysticism,  which,  by  a  transcendent  state  of  feel- 
ing, communicated,  as  it  were,  to  this  abstraction  what  the  mind 
would  receive  as  a  reality.  The  absorption  of  the  Spirit  into  that 
superexistence  (rd  ixixetva  r^c  ofow'oc),  so  as  to  be  entirely 
identified  with  it,  or  such  a  revelation  of  the  latter  to  the  spirit 
raised  above  itself,  was  regarded  as  the  highest  end  which  the  spir- 
itual life  could  reach. 

The  New  Platonists'  idea  of  God,  was  that  of  One  Simple  Origi- 
nal Essence,  exalted  above  all  plurality  and  all  becoming;  the 
only  true  Being;  unchangeable,  eternal  [£?c  &v  &vi  TtfJ  wv  rb 
dee  Ttsirhjpcaxe  xac  fj.6vov  I<TTC  TO  XCLTU  TOUTOV  ovrwc  «^]: 
from  whom  all  Existence  in  its  several  gradations  has  emanated — 
the  world  of  Gods,  as  nearest  akin  to  Himself,  being  first,  and  at 
the  head  of  all.  In  these  Gods,  that  perfection,  which  in  the 
Supreme  Essence  was  inclosed  and  unevolved,  is  expanded  and 
becomes  knowable.  They  serve  to  exhibit  in  different  forms  the 
image  of  that  Supreme  Essence,  to  which  no  soul  can  rise,  except 
by  the  loftiest  flight  of  contemplation ;  and  after  it  has  rid  itself 
from  all  that  pertains  to  sense — from  all  manifoldness.  They  are 
the  mediators  between  man  (amazed  and  -stupefied  by  manifold- 
ness)  and  the  Supreme  Unity. 

Philo  says :  "He  who  disbelieves  the  miraculous,  simply  as  the 
miraculous,  neither  knows  God,  nor  has  he  ever  sought  after  Him ; 
for  otherwise  he  would  have  understood,  by  looking  at  that  truly 


great  and  awe-inspiring  sight,  the  miracle  of  the  Universe,  that  these 
miracles  (in  God's  providential  guidance  o£  His  people)  are  but 
child's  play  for  the  Divine  Power.  But  the  truly  miraculous  has 
become  despised  through  familiarity.  The  universal,  on  the  con- 
trary, although  in  itself  insignificant,  yet,  through  our  love  of 
novelty,  transports  us  with  amazement." 

In  opposition  to  the  anthropopathism  of  the  Jewish  Scriptures, 
the  Alexandrian  Jews  endeavored  to  purify  the  idea  of  God  from 
all  admixture  of  the  Human.  By  the  exclusion  of  every  human 
passion,  it  was  sublimated  to  a  something  devoid  of  all  attributes, 
and  wholly  transcendental ;  and  the  mere  Being  [oi>]}  the  Good, 
in  and  by  itself,  the  Absolute  of  Platonism,  was  substituted  for 
the  personal  Deity  [ml"!"1]  of  the  Old  Testament.  By  soaring  up- 
ward, beyond  all  created  existence,  the  mind,  disengaging  itself 
from  the  Sensible,  attains  to  the  intellectual  intuition  of  this  Ab- 
solute Being;  of  whom,  however,  it  can  predicate  nothing  but 
existence,  and  sets  aside  all  other  determinations  as  not  answering 
to  the  exalted  nature  of  the  Supreme  Essence. 

Thus  Philo  makes  a  distinction  between  those  who  are  in  the 
proper  sense  Sons  of  God,  having  by  means  of  contemplation 
raised  themselves  to  the  highest  Being,  or  attained  to  a  knowledge 
of  Him,  in  His  immediate  self-manifestation,  and  those  who  know 
God  only  in  his-  mediate  revelation  through  his  operation — such  as 
He  declares  Himself  in  creation — in  the  revelation  still  veiled  in 
the  letter  of  Scripture — those,  in  short,  who  attach  themselves 
simply  to  the  Logos,  and  consider  this  to  be  the  Supreme  God; 
who  are  the  sons  of  the  Logos,  rather  than  of  the  True  Being,  (ov). 

"God,"  says  Pythagoras,  "is  neither  the  object  of  sense,  nor 
subject  to  passion,  but  invisible,  only  intelligible,  and  supremely 
intelligent.  In  His  body  He  is  like  the  light,  and  in  His  soul  He  re- 
sembles truth.  He  is  the  universal  spirit  that  pervades  and  dif- 
fuseth  itself  over  all  nature.  All  beings  receive  their  life  from 
Him.  There  is  but  one  only  God.  who  is  not,  as  some  are  apt  to 
imagine,  seated  above  the  world,  beyond  the  orb  of  the  Universe ; 
but  being  Himself  all  in  all,  He  sees  all  the  beings  that  fill  His 
immensity;  the  only  Principle,  the  Light  of  Heaven,  the  Father 
of  all.  He  produces  everything;  He  orders  and  disposes  every- 
thing ;  He  is  the  REASON,  the  LIFE,  and  the  MOTION  of  all  being." 

"I  am  the  LIGHT  of  the  world ;  he  that  followeth  Me  shall  not 
walk  in  DARKNESS,  but  shall  have  the  LIGHT  OF  LIFE."  So  said 


the  Founder  of  the  Christian  Religion,  as  His  words  are  reported 
by  John  the  Apostle. 

God,  say  the  sacred  writings  of  the  Jews,  appeared  to  Moses  in 
a  FLAME  OF  FIRE,  in  the  midst  of  a  bush,  which  was  not  consumed. 
He  descended  upon  Mount  Sinai,  as  the  smoke  of  a  furnace;  He 
went  before  the  children  of  Israel,  by  day,  in  a  pillar  of  cloud,  and, 
by  night,  in  a  pillar  of  fire,  to  give  them  light.  ''Call  you  on  the 
name  of  your  Gods,"  said  Elijah  the  Prophet  to  the  Priests  of 
Baal,  "and  I  will  call  upon  the  name  of  ADONAI;  and  the  God 
that  answereth  by  fire,  let  him  be  God." 

According  to  the  Kabalah,  as  according  to  the  doctrines  of 
Zoroaster,  everything  that  exists  has  emanated  from  a  source  of 
infinite  light.  Before  all  things,  existed  the  Primitive  Being,  THE 
ANCIEXT  OF  DAYS,  the  Ancient  King  of  Light;  a  title  the  more 
remarkable,  because  it  is  frequently  given  to  the  Creator  in  the 
Zend-Avesta,  and  in  the  Code  of  the  Sabeans,  and  occurs  in  the 
Jewish  Scriptures. 

The  world  was  His  Revelation,  God  revealed;  and  subsisted 
only  in  Him.  His  attributes  were  there  reproduced  with  various 
modifications  and  in  different  degrees;  so  that  the  Universe  was 
His  Holy  Splendor,  His  Mantle.  He  was  to  be  adored  in  silence ; 
and  perfection  consisted  in  a  nearer  approach  to  Him. 

Before  the  creation  of  worlds,  the  PRIMITIVE  LIGHT  filled  all 
space,  so  that  there  was  no  void.  When  the  Supreme  Being,  ex- 
isting in  this  Light,  resolved  to  display  His  perfections,  or  mani- 
fest them  in  worlds,  He  withdrew  within  Himself,  formed  around 
Him  avoid  space, and  shot  forth  His  first  emanation, a  ray  of  light ; 
the  cause  and  principle  of  everything  that  exists,  uniting  both  the 
generative  and  conceptive  power,  which  penetrates  everything, 
and  without  which  nothing  could  subsist  for  an  instant. 

Man  fell,  seduced  by  the  Evil  Spirits  most  remote  from  the 
Great  King  of  Light ;  those  of  the  fourth  world  of  spirits,  Asiah, 
whose  chief  was  Belial.  They  wage  incessant  war  against  the 
pure  Intelligences  of  the  other  worlds,  who,  like  the  Amshaspands, 
Izeds,  and  Ferouers  of  the  Persians  are  the  tutelary  guardians  of 
man.  In  the  beginning,  all  was  unison  and  harmony ;  full  of  the 
same  divine  light  and  perfect  purity.  The  Seven  Kings  of  Evil 
fell,  and  the  Universe  was  troubled.  Then  the  Creator  took  from 
the  Seven  Kings  the  principles  of  Good  and  o'f  Light,  and  divided 
them  among  the  four  worlds  of  Spirits,  giving  to  the  first  three 


the  Pure  Intelligences,  united  in  love  and  harmony,  while  to  the 
fourth  were  vouchsafed  only  some  feeble  glimmerings  of  light. 

When  the  strife  between  these  and  the  good  angels  shall  have 
continued  the  appointed  time,  and  these  Spirits  enveloped  in  dark- 
ness shall  long  and  in  vain  have  endeavored  to  absorb  the  Divine 
light  and  life,  then  will  the  Eternal  Himself  come  to  correct  them. 
He  will  deliver  them  from  the  gross  envelopes  of  matter  that  hold 
them  captive,  will  re-animate  and  strengthen  the  ray  of  light  or 
spiritual  nature  which  they  have  preserved,  and  re-establish 
throughout  the  Universe  that  primitive  Harmony  which  was  its 

Marcion,  the  Gnostic,  said,  "The  Soul  of  the  True  Christian, 
adopted  as  a  child  by  the  Supreme  Being,  to  whom  it  has  long 
been  a  stranger,  receives  from  Him  the  Spirit  and  Divine  Life.  It 
is  led  and  confirmed,  by  this  gift,  in  a  pure  and  holy  life,  like  that  of 
God ;  and  if  it  so  completes  its  earthly  career,  in  charity,  chastity, 
and  sanctity,  it  will  one  day  be  disengaged  from  its  material  en- 
velope, as  the  ripe  grain  is  detached  from  the  straw,  and  as  the 
young  bird  escapes  from  its  shell.  Like  the  angels,  it  will  share 
in  the  bliss  of  the  Good  and  Perfect  Father,  re-clothed  in  an  aerial 
body  or  organ,  and  made  like  unto  the  Angels  in  Heaven." 

You  see,  my  brother,  what  is  the  meaning  of  Masonic  "Light." 
You  see  why  the  EAST  of  the  Lodge,  where  the  initial  letter  of  the 
Name  of  the  Deity  overhangs  the  Master,  is  the  place  of  Light. 
Light,  as  contradistinguished  from  darkness,  is  Good,  as  contradis- 
tinguished from  Evil :  and  it  is  that  Light,  the  true  knowledge  of 
Deity,  the  Eternal  Good,  for  which  Masons  in  all  ages  have  sought. 
Still  Masonry  marches  steadily  onward  toward  that  Light  that 
shines  in  the  great  distance,  the  Light  of  that  day  when  Evil, 
overcome  and  vanquished,  shall  fade  away  and  disappear  forever, 
and  Life  and  Light  be  the  one  law  of  the  Universe,  and  its  eternal 

The  Degree  of  Rose  ^  teaches  three  things ; — the  unity,  im- 
mutability and  goodness  of  God ;  the  immortality  of  the  Soul ; 
and  the  ultimate  defeat  and  extinction  of  evil  and  wrong  and  sor- 
row, by  a  Redeemer  or  Messiah,  yet  to  come,  if  he  has  not  already 

It  replaces  the  three  pillars  of  the  old  Temple,  with  three  that 
have  already  been  explained  to  you, — Faith  [in  God,  mankind,  and 
man's  self],  Hope  [in  the  victory  over  evil,  the  advancement  of 



Humanity,  and  a  hereafter],  and  Charity  [relieving  the  wants, 
and  tolerant  of  the  errors  and  faults  of  others] .  To  be  trustful,  to 
be  hopeful,  to  be  indulgent;  these,  in  an  age  of  selfishness,  of  ill 
opinion  of  human  nature,  of  harsh  and  bitter  judgment,  are  the 
most  important  Masonic  Virtues,  and  the  true  supports  of  every 
Masonic  Temple.  And  they  are  the  old  pillars  of  the  Temple 
under  different  names.  For  he  only  is  wise  who  judges  others 
charitably ;  he  only  is  strong  who  is  hopeful ;  and  there  is  no 
beauty  like  a  firm  faith  in  God,  our  fellows  and  ourself. 

The  second  apartment,  clothed  in  mourning,  the  columns  of 
the  Temple  shattered  and  prostrate,  and  the  brethren  bowed  down 
in  the  deepest  dejection,  represents  the  world  under  the  tyranny  of 
the  Principle  of  Evil ;  where  virtue  is  persecuted  and  vice  reward- 
ed;  where  the  righteous  starve  for  bread,  and  the  wicked  live  sump- 
tously  and  dress  in  purple  and  fine  linen ;  where  insolent  ignorance 
rules,  and  learning  and  genius  serve ;  where  King  and  Priest 
trample  on  liberty  and  the  rights  of  conscience;  where  freedom 
hides  in  caves  and  mountains,  and  sycophancy  and  servility  fawn 
and  thrive ;  where  the  cry  of  the  widow  and  the  orphan  starving 
for  want  of  food, and  shiveringwith  cold, rises  evertoHeaven  from 
a  million  miserable  hovels ;  where  men,  willing  to  labor,  and 
starving,  they  and  their  children  and  the  wives  of  their  bosoms,  beg 
plaintively  for  work,  when  the  pampered  capitalist  stops  his  mills ; 
where  the  law  punishes  her  who,  starving,  steals  a  loaf,  and  lets 
the  seducer  go  free ;  where  the  success  of  a  party  justifies  murder, 
and  violence  and  rapine  go  unpunished ;  and  where  he  who  with 
many  .years' cheating  and  grinding  the  faces  of  the  poor  grows  rich, 
receives  office  and  honor  in  life,  and  after  death  brave  funeral  and 
a  splendid  mausoleum  :*— this  world,  where,  since  its  making,  war 
has  never  ceased,  nor  man  paused  in  the  sad  task  of  torturing  and 
murdering  his  brother;  and  of  which  ambition,  avarice,  envy, 
hatred,  lust,  and  tlie  rest  of  Ahriman's  and  Typhon's  army  make 
a  Pandemonium :  this  world,  sunk  in  sin,  reeking  with  baseness, 
clamorous  with  sorrow  and  misery.  If  any  see  in  it  also  a  type  of 
the  sorrow  of  the  Craft  for  the  death  of  Hiram,  the  grief  of  the 
Jews  at  the  fall  of  Jerusalem,  the  misery  of  the  Templars  at  the 
ruin  of  their  order  and  the  death  of  DeMolay,  or  the  world's  agony 
and  pangs  of  woe  at  the  death  of  the  Redeemer,  it  is  the  right  of 
each  to  do  so. 

The  third  apartment  represents  the  consequences  of  sin  and 


vice,  and  the  hell  made  of  the  human  heart,  by  its  fiery  passions. 
If  any  see  in  it  also  a  type  of  the  Hades  of  the  Greeks,  the  Gehenna 
of  the  Hebrews,  the  Tartarus  of  the  Romans,  or  the  Hell  of  the 
Christians,  or  only  of  the  agonies  of  remorse  and  the  tortures  of 
an  upbraiding  conscience,  it  is  the  right  of  each  to  do  so. 

The  fourth  apartment  represents  the  Universe,  freed  from  the 
insolent  dominion  and  tyranny  of  the  Principle  of  Evil,  and  bril- 
liant with  the  true  Light  that  flows  from  the -Supreme  Deity; 
when  sin  and  wrong,  and  pain  and  sorrow,  remorse  and  misery 
shall  be  no  more  forever ;  when  the  great  plans  of  Infinite  Eternal 
Wisdom  shall  be  fully  developed ;  and  all  God's  creatures,  seeing 
that  all  apparent  evil  and  individual  suffering  and  wrong  were 
but  the  drops  that  went  to  swell  the  great  river  of  infinite  good- 
ness, shall  know  that  vast  as  is  the  power  of  Deity,  His  goodness 
and  beneficence  are  infinite  as  His  power.  If  any"  see  in  it  a  type 
of  the  peculiar  mysteries  of  any  faith  or  creed,  or  an  allusion  to  any 
past  occurrence,  it  is  their  right  to  do  so.  Let  each  apply  its  sym- 
bols as  he  pleases.  To  all  of  us  they  typify  the  universal  rule  of 
Masonry, — of  its  three  chief  virtues,  Faith,  Hope  and  Charity; 
of  brotherly  love  and  universal  benevolence.  We  labor  here  to 
no  other  end.  These  symbols  need  no  other  interpretation. 

The  obligations  of  our  Ancient  Brethren  of  the  Rose  >J<  were  to 
fulfill  all  the  duties  of  friendship,  cheerfulness,  charity,  peace,  lib- 
erality, temperance  and  chastity :  and  scrupulously  to  avoid  im- 
purity, haughtiness,  hatred,  anger,  and  every  other  kind  of  vice. 
They  took  their  philosophy  from  the  old  Theology  of  the  Egyp- 
tians, as  Moses  and  Solomon  had  done,  and  borrowed  its  hiero- 
glyphics and  the  ciphers  of  the  Hebrews.  Their  principal  rules 
were,  to  exercise  the  profession  of  medicine  charitably  and  without 
fee,  to  advance  the  cause  of  virtue,  enlarge  the  sciences,  and  induce 
men  to  live  as  in  the  primitive  times  of  the  world. 

When  this  Degree  had  its  origin,  it  is  not  important  to  inquire ; 
nor  with  what  different  rites  it  has  been  practised  in  different 
countries  and  at  various  times.  It  is  of  very  high  antiquity.  Its 
ceremonies  differ  with  the  degrees  of  latitude  and  longitude,  and 
it  receives  variant  interpretations.  If  we  were  to  examine  all  the 
different  ceremonials,  their  emblems,  and  their  formulas,  we  should 
see  that  all  that  belongs  to  the  primitive  and  essential  elements 
of  the  order,  is  respected  in  every  sanctuary.  All  alike  practise 
virtue,  that  it  may  produce  fruit.  All  labor,  like  us,  for  the  ex- 


tirpation  of  vice,  the  purification  of  man,  the  development  of  the 
arts  and  sciences,  and  the  relief  of  humanity. 

None  admit  an  adept  to  their  lofty  philosophical  knowledge,  and 
mysterious  sciences,  until  he  has  been  purified  at  the  altar  of  the 
symbolic  Degrees.  Of  what  importance  are  differences  of  opinion 
as  to  the  age  and  genealogy  of  the  Degree,  or  variance  in  the  prac- 
tice, ceremonial  and  liturgy,  or  the  shade  of  color  of  the  banner 
under  which  each  tribe  of  Israel  marched,  if  all  revere  the  Holy 
Arch  of  the  symbolic  Degrees,  first  and  unalterable  source  of  Free- 
Masonry  ;  if  all  revere  our  conservative  principles,  and  are  with  us 
in  the  great  purposes  of  our  organization  ? 

If,  anywhere,  brethren  of  a  particular  religious  belief  have  been 
excluded  from  this  Degree,  it  merely  shows  how  gravely  the  pur- 
poses and  plan  of  Masonry  may  be  misunderstood.  For  whenever 
the  door  of  any  Degree  is  closed  against  him  who  believes  in  one 
God  and  the  soul's  immortality,  on  account  of  the  other  tenets  of 
his  faith,  that  Degree  is  Masonry  no  longer.  No  Mason  has  the 
right  to  interpret  the  symbols  of  this  Degree  for  another,  or  to  re- 
fuse him  its  mysteries,  if  he  will  not  take  them  with  the  explana- 
tion and  commentary  superadded. 

Listen,  my  brother,  to  our  explanation  of  the  symbols  of  the  De- 
gree, and  then  give  them  such  further  interpretation  as  you  think 

The  Cross  has  been  a  sacred  symbol  from  the  earliest  Antiquity. 
It  is  found  upon  all  the  enduring  monuments  of  the  world,  in 
Egypt,  in  Assyria,  in  Hindostan,  in  Persia,  and  on  the  Buddhist 
towers  of  Ireland.  Buddha  was  said  to  have  died  upon  it.  The 
Druids  cut  an  oak  into  its  shape  and  held  it  sacred,  and  built  their 
temples  in  that  form.  Pointing  to  the  four  quarters  of  the  world, 
it  was  the  symbol  of  universal  nature.  It  was  on  a  cruciform  tree, 
that  Chrishna  was  said  to  have  expired,  pierced  with  arrows.  It 
was  revered  in  Mexico. 

But  its  peculiar  meaning  in  this  Degree,  is  that  given  to  it  by 
the  Ancient  Egyptians.  Thoth  or  Phtha  is  represented  on  the  old- 
est monuments  carrying  in  his  hand  the  Crux  Ansata,  or  Ankh. 
[a  Tau  cross,  with  a  ring  or  circle  over  it]-..  He  is  so  seen  on  the 
double  tablet  of  Shufu  and  Noh  Shufu,  builders  of  the  greatest  of 
the  Pyramids,  at  Wady  Meghara,  in  the  peninsula  of  Sinai.  It  was 
the  hieroglyphic  for  life,  and  with  a  triangle  prefixed  meant  life- 
giving.  To  us  therefore  it  is  the  symbol  of  Life — of  that  life 


that  emanated  from  the  Deity,  and  of  that  Eternal  Life  for  which 
we  all  hope ;  through  our  faith  in  God's  infinite  goodness. 

The  ROSE  was  anciently  sacred  to  Aurora  and  the  Sun.  It  is 
a  symbol  of  Dawn,  of  the  resurrection  of  Light  and  the  renewal 
of  life,  and  therefore  of  the  dawn  of  the  first  day,  and  more  par- 
ticularly of  the  resurrection :  and  the  Cross  and  Rose  together 
are  therefore  hieroglyphically  to  be  read,  the  Daivn  of  Eternal 
Life  which  all  Nations  have  hoped  for  by  the  advent  of  a  Re- 

The  Pelican  feeding  her  young  is  an  emblem  of  the  large  and 
bountiful  beneficence  of  Nature,  of  the  Redeemer  of  fallen  man, 
and  of  that  humanity  and  charity  that  ought  to  distinguish  a 
Knight  of  this  Degree. 

The  Eagle  was  the  living  Symbol  of  the  Egyptian  God  Mendes 
or  Menthra,  whom  Sesostris-Ramses  made  .one  with  Amun-Re, 
the  God  of  Thebes  and  Upper  Egypt,  and  the  representative  of  the 
Sun,  the  word  RE  meaning  Sun  or  King. 

The  Compass  surmounted  with  a  cro-vun  signifies  that  notwith- 
standing the  high  rank  attained  in  Masonry  by  a  Knight  of  the 
Rose  Croix,  equity  and  impartiality  are  invariably  to  govern  his 

To  the  wordJhfRi^jnscribed  on  the  Crux  Ansata  over  the 
Master's  Seat,  many  meanings  have  been  assigned.  The  Christian 
Initiate  reverentially  sees  in  it  the  initials  of  the  inscription  upon 
the  cross  on  which  Christ  suffered — lestts  Nazarenus  Rex  ludte- 
orum.  The  sages  of  Antiquity  connected  it  with  one  of  the  great- 
est secrets  of  Nature,  that  of  universal  regeneration.  They  inter- 
preted it  thus,  Igne  Natura  renovatur  Integra;  [entire  nature  is 
renovated  by  fire]  :  The  Alchemical  or  Hermetic  Masons  framed 
for  it  this  aphorism,  Igne  nitruni  roris  invenitur.  And  the  Jes- 
uits are  charged  with  having'applied  to  it  this  odious  axiom,} ustu in 
necare  reges  impios.  The  four  letters  are  the  initials  of  the  Hebrew 
words  that  represent  the  four  elements — Iamtnim,the  seas  or  water; 
Nonr,  fire ;  Rouach,  the  air,  and  lebeschah,  the  dry  earth.  How 
we  read  it,  I  need  not  repeat  to  you. 

The  CROSS,  )(>  was  the  Sign  of  the  Creative  Wisdom  or  Logos, 
the  Son  of  God.  Plato  says,  "He  expressed  him  upon  the  Uni- 
verse in  the  figure  of  the  letter  X.  The  next  Power  to  the  Su- 
preme God  was  decussated  or  figured  in  the  shape  of  a  Cross  on 
the  Universe."  Mithras  signed  his  soldiers  on  the  forehead  with  a 


Cross.    )(    is  the  mark  of  600,  the  mysterious  cycle  of  the  Incar- 
nations. ~T-y 

We  constantly  see  the  Tau  and  the  Resh  united  thus  -f- .  These 
two  letters,  in  the  old  Samaritan,  as  found  in  Arius,  stand,  the 
first  for  400,  the  second  for  200=600.  This  is  the  Staff  of  Osiris, 
also,  and  his  monogram,  and  was  adopted  by  the  Christians  as  a 
Sign.  On  a  medal  *p  of  Constantius  is  this  inscription,  "In  hoc 
signo  ^nctor  cris  7^  ."  An  inscription  in  the  Duomo  at  Milan 
reads,  "^.  •  <?/  p.  Christi  •  Nomina  •  Sancta  •  Tcne'i." 

The  Egyptians  used  as  a  Sign  of  their  God  Canobus,  a  "|"  or  a 
^  indifferently.  The  Vaishnavas  of  India  have  also  the  same 
Sacred  Tau,  which  they  also  mark  with  Crosses,  thus  ^  and  with 
triangles,  thus,  VV ,  The  vestments  of  the  priests  of  Horus  were 
covered  with  these  Crosses  >Ji.  So  was  the  dress  of  the  Lama  of 
Thibet.  The  Sectarian  marks  of  the  Jains  are  r-^-1.^  The  distinc- 
tive badge  of  the  Sect  of  Xac  Japonicus  is  JJ^LJ-  ^  '1S  tne  Sig11 
of  Fo,  identical  with  the  Cross  of  Christ.  ^  *~* 

On  the  ruins  of  Mandore,  in  India,  among  other  mystic    yfc« 
emblems,  are  the  mystic  triangle,  and  the  interlaced  triangle,  Ar^  • 
This  is  also  found  on  ancient  coins  and  medals,  excavated  from  the 
ruins  of  Oojein  and  other  ancient  cities  of  India. 

You  entered  here  amid  gloom  and  into  shadow,  and  are  clad  in 
the  apparel  of  sorrow.  Lament,  with  us,  the  sad  condition  of  the 
Human  race,  in  this  vale  of  tears !  the  calamities  of  men  and  the 
agonies  of  nations !  the  darkness  of  the  bewildered  soul,  oppressed 
by  doubt  and  apprehension  ! 

There  is  no  human  soul  that  is  not  sad  at  times.  There  is  no 
thoughtful  soul  that  does  not  at  times  despair.  There  is  perhaps 
none,  of  all  that  think  at  all  of  anything  beyond  the  needs  and  in- 
terests of  the  body,  that  is  not  at  times  startled  and  terrified,  by  the 
awful  questions  which,  feeling  as  though  it  were  a  guilty  thing  for 
doing  so,  it  whispers  to  itself  in  its  inmost  depths.  Some  Demon 
seems  to  torture  it  with  doubts,  and  to  crush  it  with  despair,  ask- 
ing whether,  after  all,  it  is  certain  that -its  convictions  are  true, 
and  its  faith  well  founded :  whether  it  is  indeed  sure  that  a  God  of 
Infinite  Love  and  Beneficence  rules  the  Universe,  or  only  some  great 
remorseless  Fate  and  iron  Necessity,  hid  in  impenetrable  gloom, 
And  to  which  men  and  their  sufferings  and  sorrows^  their  hopes  and 
joys,  their  ambitions  and  deeds,  are  of  no  more  interest  or  im- 
portance than  the  motes  that  dance  in  the  sunshine ;  or  a  Being 


that  amuses  Himself  with  the  incredible  vanity  and  folly,  the  wri- 
things  and  contortions  of  the  insignificant  insects  that  compose 
Humanity,  and  idly  imagine  that  they  resemble  the  Omnipotent. 
"What  are  we,"  the  Tempter  asks,  "but  puppets  in  a  show -box? 
O  Omnipotent  destiny,  pull  our  strings  gently !  Dance  us  merci- 
fully off  our  miserable  little  stage !" 

"Is  it  not,"  the  Demon  whispers,  "merely  the  inordinate  vanity  of 
man  that  causes  him  now  to  pretend  to  himself  that  he  is  like  unto 
God  in  intellect,  sympathies  and  passions,  as  it  was  that  which,  at 
the  beginning,  made  him  believe  that  he  was,  in  his  bodily  shape 
and  organs,  the  very  image  of  the  Deity  ?  Is  not  his  God  merely 
his  own  shadow,  projected  in  gigantic  outlines  upon  the  clouds? 
Does  he  not  create  for  himself  a  God  out  of  himself,  by  merely 
adding  indefinite  extension  to  his  own  faculties,  powers,  and 
passions  ?" 

"Who,"  the  Voice  that  will  not  be  always  silent  whispers,  "has 
ever  thoroughly  satisfied  himself  with  his  own  arguments  in  re- 
spect to  his  own  nature  ?  Who  ever  demonstrated  to  himself,  with 
a  conclusiveness  that  elevated  the  belief  to  certainty,  that  he  was  an 
immortal  spirit,  dwelling  only  temporarily  in  the  house  and  envel- 
ope of  the  body,  and  to  live  on  forever  after  that  shall  have  decay- 
ed? W7ho  ever  has  demonstrated  or  ever  can  demonstrate  that  the 
intellect  of  Man  differs  from  that  of  the  wiser  animals,  otherwise 
than  in  degree  ?  Who  has  ever  done  more  than  to  utter  nonsense 
and  incoherencies  in  regard  to  the  difference  between  the  instincts 
of  the  dog  and  the  reason  of  Man?  The  horse,  the  dog,  the  ele- 
phant, are  as  conscious  of  their  identity  as  we  are.  They  think, 
dream,  remember,  argue  with  themselves,  devise,  plan,  and  reason. 
What  is  the  intellect  and  intelligence  of  the  man  but  the  intel- 
lect of  the  animal  in  a  higher  degree  or  larger  quantity  ?"  In  the 
real  explanation  of  a  single  thought  of  a  dog,  all  metaphysics  will 
be  condensed. 

And  with  still  more  terrible  significance,  the  Voice  asks,  in  what 
respect  the  masses  of  men,  the  vast  swarms  of  the  human  race, 
have  proven  themselves  either  wiser  or  better  than  the  animals  in 
whose  eyes  a  higher  intelligence  shines  than  in  their  dull,  unintel- 
lectual  orbs ;  in  what  respect  they  have  proven  themselves  wor- 
thy of  or  suited  for  an  immortal  life.  Would  that  be  a  prize  of  any 
value  to  the  vast  majority?  Do  they  show,  here  upon  earth,  any 
capacity  to  improve,  any  fitness  for  a  state  of  existence  in  which 


they  could  not  crouch  to  power,  like  hounds  dreading  the  lash,  or 
tyrannize  over  defenceless  weakness  ;  in  which  they  could  not  hate, 
and  persecute,  and  torture,  and  exterminate ;  in  which  they  could 
not  trade,  and  speculate,  and  over-reach,  and  entrap  the  unwary  and 
cheat  the  confiding,  and  gamble  and  thrive,  and  sniff  with  self- 
righteousness  at  the  short-comings  of  others,  and  thank  God  that 
they  were  not  like  other  men?  What,  to  immense  numbers  of 
men,  would  be  the  value  of  a  Heaven  where  they  could  not  lie  and 
libel,  and  ply  base  avocations  for  profitable  returns? 

Sadly  we  look  around  us,  and  read  the  gloomy  and  dreary  rec- 
ords of  the  old  dead  and  rotten  ages.  More  than  eighteen  centuries 
have  staggered  away  into  the  spectral  realm  of  the  Past,  since 
Christ,  teaching  the  Religion  of  Love,  was  crucified,  that  it  might 
become  a  Religion  of  Hate ;  and  His  Doctrines  are  not  yet  even 
nominally  accepted  as  true  by  a  fourth  of  mankind.  Since  His 
death,  what  incalculable  swarms  of  human  beings  have  lived  and 
died  in  total  unbelief  of  all  that  we  deem  essential  to  Salvation ! 
What  multitudinous  myriads  of  souls,  since  the  darkness  of  idola- 
trous superstition  settled  down,  thick  and  impenetrable,  upon  the 
earth,  have  flocked  up  toward  the  eternal  Throne  of  God,  to 
receive  His  judgment? 

The  Religion  of  Love  proved  to  be,  for  seventeen  long  cen- 
turies, as  much  the  Religion  of  Hate,  and  infinitely  more  the  Re- 
ligion of  Persecution,  than  Mahometanism,  its  unconquerable  rival. 
Heresies  grew  up  before  the  Apostles  died;  and  God  hated  the 
Nicolaltans,  while  John,  at  Patmos,  proclaimed  His  coming 
wrath.  Sects  wrangled,  and  each,  as  it  gained  the  power,  persecuted 
the  other,  until  the  soil  of  the  whole  Christian  world  was  watered 
with  the  blood,  and  fattened  on  the  flesh,  and  whitened  with  the 
bones,  of  martyrs,  and  human  ingenuity  was  taxed  to  its  utmost 
to  invent  new  modes  by  which  tortures  and  agonies  could  be  pro- 
longed and  made  more  exquisite. 

"By  what  right,"  whispers  the  Voice,  "does  this  savage,  merciless, 
persecuting  animal,  to  which  the  sufferings  and  writhings  of  others 
of  its  wretched  kind  furnish  the  most  pleasurable  sensations,  and 
the  mass  of  which  care  only  to  eat,  sleep,  be  clothed,  and  wallow  in 
sensual  pleasures,  and  the  best  of  which  wrangle,  hate,  envy,  and, 
with  few  exceptions,  regard  their  own  interests  alone, — with  what 
right  does  it  endeavor  to  delude  itself  into  the  conviction  that  it  is 
not  an  animal,  as  the  wolf,  the  hyena,  and  the  tiger  are,  but  a 


somewhat  nobler,  a  spirit  destined  to  be  immortal,  a  spark  of  the 
essential  Light,  Fire  and  Reason,  which  are  God?  What  other 
immortality  than  one  of  selfishness  could  this  creature  enjoy?  Of 
what  other  is  it  capable?  Must  not  immortality  commence  here 
and  is  not  life  a  part  of  it?  How  shall  death  change  the  base  na- 
ture of  the  base  soul?  Why  have  not  those  other  animals  that 
only  faintly  imitate  the  wanton,  savage,  human  cruelty  and  thirst 
for  blood,  the  same  right  as  man  has,  to  expect  a  resurrection  and 
an  Eternity  of  existence,  or  a  Heaven  of  Love? 

The  ivorld  improves.  Man  ceases  to  persecute, — when  the  per- 
secuted become  too  numerous  and  strong,  longer  to  submit  to  it. 
That  source  of  pleasure  closed,  men  exercise  the  ingenuities  of 
their  cruelty  on  the  animals  and  other  livings  things  below  them. 
To  deprive  other  creatures  of  the  life  which  God  gave  them,  and 
this  not  only  that  we  may  eat  their  flesh  for  food,  but  out  of  .mere 
savage  wantonness,  is  the  agreeable  employment  and  amusement  of 
man,  who  prides  himself  on  being  the  Lord  of  Creation,  and  a  lit- 
tle lower  than  the  Angels.  If  he  can  no  longer  use  the  rack,  the 
gibbet,  the  pincers,  and  the  stake,  he  can  hate,  and  slander, 
and  delight  in  the  thought  that  he  will,  hereafter,  luxuriously 
enjoying  the  sensual  beatitudes  of  Heaven,  see  with  pleasure  the 
writhing  agonies  of  those  justly  damned  for  daring  to  hold  opin- 
ions contrary  to  his  own,  upon  subjects  totally  beyond  the  compre- 
hension both  of  them  and  him. 

Where  the  armies  of  the  despots  cease  to  slay  and  ravage,  the 
armies  of  "Freedom"  take  their  place,  and,  the  black  and  white 
commingled,  slaughter  and  burn  and  ravish.  Each  age  re-enacts 
the  crimes  as  well  as  the  follies  of  its  predecessors,  and  still  war 
licenses  outrage  and  turns  fruitful  lands  into  deserts,  and  God  is 
thanked  in  the  Churches  for  bloody  butcheries,  and  the  remorse- 
less devastators,  even  when  swollen  by  plunder,  are  crowned  with 
laurels  and  receive  ovations. 

Of  the  whole  of  mankind,  not  one  in  ten  thousand  has  any  aspi- 
rations beyond  the  daily  needs  of  the  gross  animal  life.  In  thic 
age  and  in  all  others,  all  men  except  a  few,  in  most  countries,  are 
born  to  be  mere  beasts  of  burden,  co-laborers  with  the  horse  and 
the  ox.  Profoundly  ignorant,  even  in  "civilized"  lands,  they  think 
and  reason  like  the  animals  by  the  side  of  which  they  toil.  For 
them,  God,  Soul,  Spirit,  Immortality,  are  mere  words,  without  any 
real  meaning.  The  God  of  nineteen-twentieths  of  the  Christian 



world  is  only  Bel,  Moloch,  Zeus,  or  at  best  Osiris,  Mithras,  or 
Adonai,  under  another  name,  worshipped  with  the  old  Pagan  cere- 
monies and  ritualistic  formulas.  It  is  the  Statue  of  Olympian  Jove, 
worshipped  as  the  Father,  in  the  Christian  Church  that  was  a 
Pagan  Temple ;  it  is  the  Statue  of  Venus,  become  the  Virgin  Mary. 
For  the  most  part,  men  do  not  in  their  hearts  believe  that  God  is 
either  just  or  merciful.  They  fear  and  shrink  from  His  lightnings 
and  dread  His  wrath.  For  the  most  part,  they  only  think  they 
believe  that  there  is  another  life,  a  judgment,  and  a  punishment 
for  sin.  Yet  they  will  none  the  less  persecute  as  Infidels  and  Athe- 
ists those  who  do  not  believe  what  they  themselves  imagine  they 
believe,  and  which  yet  they  do  not  believe,  because  it  is  incompre- 
hensible to  them  in  their  ignorance  and  want  of  intellect.  To  the 
vast  majority  of  mankind,  God  is  but  the  reflected  image,  in  infi- 
nite space,  of  the  earthly  Tyrant  on  his  Throne,  only  more  power- 
ful, more  inscrutable,  and  more  implacable.  To  curse  Humanity, 
the  Despot  need  only  be,  what  the  popular  mind  has,  in  every  age, 
imagined  God. 

In  the  great  cities,  the  lower  strata  of  the  populace  are  equally 
without  faith  and  without  hope.  The  others  have,  for  the  most 
part,  a  mere  blind  faith,  imposed  by  education  and  circumstances, 
and  not  as  productive  of  moral  excellence  or  even  common  honesty 
as  Mohammedanism.  "Your  property  will  be  safe  here,"  said  the 
Moslem ;  "There  are  no  Christians  here."  The  philosophical 
and  scientific  world  becomes  daily  more  and  more  unbelieving. 
Faith  and  Reason  are  not  opposites,  in  equilibrium;  but  antago- 
nistic and  hostile  to  each  other ;  the  result  being  the  darkness  and 
despair  of  scepticism,  avowed,  or  half-veiled  as  rationalism. 

Over  more  than  three-fourths  of  the  habitable  globe,  humanity 
still  kneels,  like  the  camels,  to  take  upon  itself  the  burthens  to  be 
tamely  borne  for  its  tyrants.  If  a  Republic  occasionally  rises  like  a 
Star,  it  hastens  with  all  speed  to  set  in  blood.  The  kings  need  not 
make  war  upon  it,  to  crush  it  out  of  their  way.  It  is  only  neces- 
sary to  let  it  alone,  and  it  soon  lays  violent  hands  upon  itself.  And 
when  a  people  long  enslaved  shakes  off  its  fetters,  it  may  well  be 
incredulously  asked, 

Shall  the  braggart  shout 

For  some  blind  glimpse  of  Freedom,  linfc- itself, 
Through  madness,  hated  by  the  wise,  to  law, 

System  and  Empire  ? 


Everywhere  in  the  world  labor  is,  in  some  shape,  the  slave  of 
capital ;  generally,  a  slave  to  be  fed  only  so  long  as  he  can  work ; 
or,  rather,  only  so  long  as  his  work  is  profitable  to  the  owner  of 
the  human  chattel.  There  are  famines  in  Ireland,  strikes  and 
starvation  in  England,  pauperism  and  tenement-dens  in  Xew  York, 
misery,  squalor,  ignorance,  destitution,  the  brutality  of  vice  and 
the  insensibility  to  shame,  of  despairing  beggary,  in  all  the  human 
cesspools  and  sewers  everywhere.  Here,  a  sewing-woman  fam- 
ishes and  freezes ;  there,  mothers  murder  their  children,  that  those 
spared  may  live  upon  the  bread  purchased  with  the  burial  allow- 
ances 'of  the  dead  starveling;  and  at  the  next  door  young  girls 
prostitute  themselves  for  food. 

Moreover,  the  Voice  says,  this  besotted  race  is  not  satisfied  with 
seeing  its  multitudes  swept  away  by  the  great  epidemics  whose 
causes  are  unknown,  and  of  the  justice  or  wisdom  of  which  the 
human  mind  cannot  conceive.  It  must  also  be  ever  at  war.  There 
has  not  been  a  moment  since  men  divided  into  Tribes,  when  all 
the  world  was  at  peace.  Always  men  have  been  engaged  in  mur- 
dering each  other  somewhere.  Always  the  armies  have  lived  by 
the  toil  of  the  husbandman,  and  war  has  exhausted  the  resources, 
wasted  the  energies,  and  ended  the  prosperity  of  Nations.  Now  it 
loads  unborn  posterity  with  crushing  debt,  mortgages  all  estates, 
and  brings  upon  States  the  shame  and  infamy  of  dishonest  repudia- 

At  times,  the  baleful  fires  of  war  light  up  half  a  Continent  at 
once ;  as  when  all  the  Thrones  unite  to  compel  a  people  to  receive 
again  a  hated  and  detestable  dynasty,  or  States  deny  States  the 
right  to  dissolve  an  irksome  union  and  create  for  themselves  a 
separate  government.  Then  again  the  flames  flicker  and  die  away, 
and  the  fire  smoulders  in  its  ashes,  to  break  out  again,  after  a 
time,  with  renewed  and  a  more  concentrated  fury.  At  times,  the 
storm,  revolving,  howls  over  small  areas  only ;  at  times  its  lights 
are  seen,  like  the  old  beacon-fires  on  the  hills,  belting  the  whole 
globe.  No  sea,  but  hears  the  roar  of  cannon ;  no  river,  but  runs 
red  with  blood ;  no  plain,  but  shakes,  trampled  by  the  hoofs  of 
charging  squadrons ;  no  field,  but  is  fertilized  by  the  blood  of  the 
dead ;  and  everywhere  man  slays,  the  vulture  gorges,  and  the  wolf 
howls  in  the  ear  of  the  dying  soldier.  No  city  is  not  tortured 
by  shot  and  shell ;  and  no  people  fail  to  enact  the  horrid  blas- 
phemy of  thanking  a  God  of  Love  for  victories  and  carnage.  Te 


Deums  are  still  sung  for  the  Eve  of  St.  Bartholomew  and  the  Sicilian 
Vespers.  Man's  ingenuity  is  racked,  and  all  his  inventive  powers 
are  tasked,  to  fabricate  the  infernal  enginery  of  destruction,  by 
which  human  bodies  may  be  the  more  expeditiously  and  effectually 
crushed,  shattered,  torn,  and  mangled;  and  yet  hypocritical  Hu- 
manity, drunk  with  blood  and  drenched  with  gore,  shrieks  to 
Heaven  at  a  single  murder,  perpetrated  to  gratify  a  revenge  not 
more  unchristian,  or  to  satisfy  a  cupidity  not  more  ignoble,  than 
those  which  are  the  promptings  of  the  Devil  in  the  souls  of  Nations. 
When  we  have  fondly  dreamed  of  Utopia  and  the  Millennium, 
when  we  have  begun  almost  to  believe  that  man  is  not,  after  all,  a 
tiger  half  tamed,  and  that  the  smell  of  blood  will  not  wake  the  sav- 
age within  him,  we  are  of  a  sudden  startled  from  the  delusive 
dream,  to  find  the  thin  mask  of  civilization  rent  in  twain  and  thrown 
contemptuously  away.  We  lie  down  to  sleep,  like  the  peasant  on 
the  lava-slopes  of  Vesuvius.  The  mountain  has  been  so  long  inert, 
that  we  believe  its  fires  extinguished.  Round  us  hang  the  cluster- 
ing grapes,  and  the  green  leaves  of  the  olive  tremble  in  the  soft 
night-air  over  us.  Above  us  shine  the  peaceful,  patient  stars.  The 
crash  of  a  new  eruption  wakes  us,  the  roar  of  the  subterranean  thun- 
ders, the  stabs  of  the  volcanic  lightning  into  the  shrouded  bosom 
of  the  sky ;  and  we  see,  aghast,  the  tortured  Titan  hurling  up  its 
fires  among  the  pale  stars,  its  great  tree  of  smoke  and  cloud,  the 
red  torrents  pouring  down  its  sides.  The  roar  and  the  shriekings 
of  Civil  War  are  all  around  us :  the  land  is  a  pandemonium :  man 
is  again  a  Savage.  The  great  armies  roll  along  their  hideous 
waves,  and  leave  behind  them  smoking  and  depopulated  deserts. 
The  pillager  is  in  every  house,  plucking  even  the  morsel  of  bread 
from  the  lips  of  the  starving  child.  Gray  hairs  are  dabbled  in 
blood,  and  innocent  girlhood  shrieks  in  vain  to  Lust  for  mercy. 
Laws,  Courts,  Constitutions,  Christianity,  Mercy,  Pity,  disappear. 
God  seems  to  have  abdicated,  and  Moloch  to  reign  in  His  stead ; 
while  Press  and  Pulpit  alike  exult  at  universal  murder,  and  urge 
the  extermination  of  the  Conquered,  by  the  sword  and  the  flaming 
torch ;  and  to  plunder  and  murder  entitles  the  human  beasts  of 
prey  to  the  thanks  of  Christian  Senates. 

Commercial  greed  deadens  the  nerves  of  sympathy  of  Nations, 
and  makes  them  deaf  to  the  demands  of  honor,  the  impulses  of 
generosity,  the  appeals  of  those  who  suffer  under  injustice.  Else- 
where, the  universal  pursuit  of  wealth  dethrones  God  and  pays 


divine  honors  to  Mammon  and  Baalzebub.  Selfishness  rules  su- 
preme :  to  win  wealth  becomes  the  whole  business  of  life.  The  villa- 
nies  of  legalized  gaming  and  speculation  become  epidemic ;  treach- 
ery is  but  evidence  of  shrewdness ;  office  becomes  the  prey  of  suc- 
cessful faction ;  the  Country,  like  Actseon,  is  torn  by  its  own 
hounds,  and  the  villains  it  has  carefully  educated  to  their  trade, 
most  greedily  plunder  it,  when  it  is  in  extremis. 

By  what  right,  the  Voice  demands,  does  a  creature  always 
engaged  in  the  work  of  mutual  robbery  and  slaughter,  and  who 
makes  his  own  interest  his  God,  claim  to  be  of  a  nature  superior 
to  the  savage  beasts  of  which  he  is  the  prototype  ? 

Then  the  shadows  of  a  horrible  doubt  fall  upon  the  soul  that 
would  fain  love,  trust  and  believe ;  a  darkness,  of  which  this  that 
surrounded  you  was  a  symbol.  It  doubts  the  truth  of  Revelation, 
its  own  spirituality,  the  very  existence  of  a  beneficent  God.  It 
asks  itself  if  it  is  not  idle  to  hope  for  any  great  progress  of  Human- 
ity toward  perfection,  and  whether,  when  it  advances  in  one  re- 
spect, it  does  not  retrogress  in  some  other,  by  way  of  compensation  : 
whether  advance  in  civilization  is  not  increase  of  selfishness : 
whether  freedom  does  not  necessarily  lead  to  license  and  anarchy : 
whether  the  destitution  and  debasement  of  the  masses  does  not  in- 
evitably follow  increase  of  population  and  commercial  and  manu- 
facturing prosperity.  It  asks  itself  whether  man  is  not  the  sport 
of  a  blind,  merciless  Fate :  whether  all  philosophies  are  not  delu- 
sions, and  all  religions  the  fantastic  creations  of  human  vanity  and 
self-conceit ;  and,  above  all,  whether,  when  Reason  is  abandoned  as 
a  guide,  the  faith  of  Buddhist  and  Brahmin  has  not  the  same 
claims  to  sovereignty  and  implicit,  unreasoning  credence,  as  any 

He  asks  himself  whether  it  is  not,  after  all,  the  evident  and  pal- 
pable injustices  of  this  life,  the  success  and  prosperity  of  the  Bad, 
the  calamities,  oppressions,  and  miseries  of  the  Good,  that  are  the 
bases  of  all  beliefs  in  a  future  state  of  existence  ?  Doubting  man's 
capacity  for  indefinite  progress  here,  he  doubts  the  possibility  of  it 
anywhere;  and  if  he  does  not  doubt  whether  God  exists,  and  is 
just  and  beneficent,  he  at  least  cannot  silence  the  constantly  recur- 
ring whisper,  that  the  miseries  and  calamities  of  men,  their  lives 
and  deaths,  their  pains  and  sorrows,  their  extermination  by  war 
and  epidemics,  are  phenomena  of  no  higher  dignity,  significance, 
and  importance,  in  the  eye  of  God,  than  what  things  of  the  same 
nature  occur  to  other  organisms  of  matter ;  and  that  the  fish  of 


the  ancient  seas,  destroyed  by  myriads  to  make  room  for  other  spe- 
cies, the  contorted  shapes  in  which  they  are  found  as  fossils 
testifying  to  their  agonies ;  the  coral  insects,  the  animals  and 
birds  and  vermin  slain  by  man,  have  as  much  right  as  he  to  clam- 
or at  the  injustice  of  the  dispensations  of  God,  and  to  demand  an 
immortality  of  life  in  a  new  universe,  as  compensation  for  their 
pains  and  sufferings  and  untimely  death  in  this  world. 

This  is  not  a  picture  painted  by  the  imagination.  Many  a 
thoughtful  mind  has  so  doubted  and  despaired.  How  many  of  us 
can  say  that  our  own  faith  is  so  well  grounded  and  complete  that 
we  never  hear  those  painful  whisperings  within  the  soul  ?  Thrice 
blessed  are  they  who  never  doubt,  who  ruminate  in  patient  con- 
tentment like  the  kine,  or  doze  under  the  opiate  of  a  blind  faith ; 
on  whose  souls  never  rests  that  Awful  Shadow  which  is  the  ab- 
sence of  the  Divine  Light. 

To  explain  to  themselves  the  existence  of  Evil  and  Suffering, 
the  Ancient  Persians  imagined  that  there  were  two  Principles  or 
Deities  in  the  Universe,  the  one  of  Good  and  the  other  of  Evil,  con- 
stantly in  conflict  with  each  other  in  struggle  for  the  mastery,  and 
alternately  overcoming  and  overcome.  Over  both,  for  the  SAGES, 
was  the  One  Supreme ;  and  for  them  Light  was  in  the  end  to  pre- 
vail over  Darkness,  the  Good  over  the  Evil,  and  even  Ahriman  and 
his  Demons  to  part  with  their  wicked  and  vicious  natures  and 
share  the  universal  Salvation.  It  did  not  occur  to  them  that  the 
existence  of  the  Evil  Principle,  by  the  consent  of  the  Omnipotent 
Supreme,  presented  the  same  difficulty,  and  left  the  existence  of 
Evil  as  unexplained  as  before.  The  human  mind  is  always  con- 
tent, if  it  can  remove  a  difficulty  a  step  further  off.  It  cannot 
believe  that  the  world  rests  on  nothing,  but  is  devoutly  content 
when  taught  that  it  is  borne  on  the  back  of  an  immense  elephant, 
who  himself  stands  on  the  back  of  a  tortoise.  Given  the  tortoise, 
Faith  is  always  satisfied ;  and  it  has  been  a  great  source  of  happi- 
ness to  multitudes  that  they  could  believe  in  a  Devil  who  could 
relieve  God  of  the  odium  of  being  the  Author  of  Sin. 

But  not  to  all  is  Faith  sufficient  to  overcome  this  great  diffi- 
culty. They  say,  with  the  Apostle,  "Lord!  I  believe!" — but  like 
him  they  are  constrained  to  add,  "Help  Thou  my  unbelief!" — Rea- 
son must,  for  these,  co-operate  and  coincide  with  Faith,  or  they 
remain  still  in  the  darkness  of  doubt," — most  miserable  of  all  con- 
ditions of  the  human  mind. 


Those,  only,  who  care  for  nothing  beyond  the  interests  and  pur- 
suits of  this  life,  are  uninterested  in  these  great  Problems.  The 
animals,  also,  do  not  consider  them.  It  is  the  characteristic  of  an 
immortal  Soul,  that  it  should  seek  to  satisfy  itself  of  its  immortal- 
ity, and  to  understand  this  great  enigma,  the  Universe.  If  the 
Hottentot  and  the  Papuan  are  not  troubled  and  tortured  by  these 
doubts  and  speculations,  they  are  not,  for  that,  to  be  regarded  as 
either  wise  or  fortunate.  The  swine,  also,  are  indifferent  to  the 
great  riddles  of  the  Universe,  and  are  happy  in  being  wholly  un- 
aware that  it  is  the  vast  Revelation  and  Manifestation,  in  Time  and 
Space,  of  a  Single  Thought  of  the  Infinite  God. 

Exalt  and  magnify  Faith  as  we  will,  and  say  that  it  begins  where 
Reason  ends,  it  must,  after  all,  have  a  foundation,  either  in  Reason, 
Analog}-,  the  Consciousness,  or  human  testimony.  The  worship- 
per of  Brahma  also  has  implicit  Faith  in  what  seems  to  us  palpa- 
bly false  and  absurd.  His  faith  rests  neither  in  Reason,  Analogy, 
or  the  Consciousness,  but  on  the  testimony  of  his  Spiritual  teach- 
ers, and  of  the  Holy  Books.  The  Moslem  also  believes,  on  the 
positive  testimony  of  the  Prophet ;  and  the  Mormon  also  can 
say,  "I  believe  this,  because  it  is  impossible."  No  faith, however  ab- 
surd or  degrading,  has  ever  wanted  these  foundations,  testimony, 
and  the  books.  Miracles,  proven  by  unimpeachable  testimony 
have  been  used  as  a  foundation  for  Faith,  in  every  age ;  and  the 
modern  miracles  are  better  authenticated,  a  hundred  times,  than 
the  ancient  ones. 

So  that,  after  all,  Faith  must  flow  out  from  some  source  within 
us,  \vhen  the  evidence  of  that  which  we  are  to  believe  is  not  pre- 
sented to  our  senses,  or  it  will  in  no  case  be  the  assurance  of  the 
truth  of  what  is  believed. 

The  Consciousness,  or  inhering  and  innate  conviction,  or  the 
instinct  divinely  implanted,  of  the-  verity  of  things,  is  the  highest 
possible  evidence,  if  not  the  only  real  proof,  of  the  verity  of  certain 
things,  but  only  of  truths  of  a  limited  class. 

What  we  call  the  Reason,  that  is,  our  imperfect  human  reason, 
not  only  may,  but  assuredly  will,  lead  us  away  from  the  Truth  in 
regard  to  things  invisible  and  especially  those  of  the  Infinite,  if 
we  determine  to  believe  nothing  but  that  which  it  can  demonstrate, 
or  not  to  believe  that  which  it  can  by  its  processes  of  logic  prove 
to  be  contradictory,  unreasonable,  or  absurd.  Its  tape-line  cannot 
measure  the  arcs  of  Infinity.  For  example,  to  the  Human  reason, 


an  Infinite  Justice  and  an  Infinite  Mercy  or  Love,  in  the  same  Be- 
ing, are  inconsistent  and  impossible.  One,  it  can  demonstrate, 
necessarily  excludes  the  other.  So  it  can  demonstrate  that  as  the 
Creation  had  a  beginning,  it  necessarily  follows  that  an  Eternity 
had  elapsed  before  the  Deity  began  to  create,  during  which  He 
was  inactive. 

When  we  gaze,  of  a  moonless  clear  night,  on  the  Heavens  glit- 
tering with  stars,  and  know  that  each  fixed  star  of  all  the  myriads 
is  a  Sun,  and  each  probably  possessing  its  retinue  of  worlds,  all 
peopled  with  living  beings,  we  sensibly  feel  our  own  unimportance 
in  the  scale  of  Creation,  and  at  once  reflect  that  much  of  what  has 
in  different  ages  been  religious  faith,  could  never  have  been  be- 
lieved, if  the  nature,  size,  and  distance  of  those  Suns,  and  of  our 
own  Sun,  Moon,  and  Planets,  had  been  known  to  the  Ancients  as 
they  are  to  us. 

To  them,  all  the  lights  of  the  firmament  were  created  only  to 
give  light  to  the  earth,  as  its  lamps  or  candles  hung  above  it.  The 
earth  was  supposed  to  be  the  only  inhabited  portion  of  the  Uni- 
verse. The  world  and  the  Universe  were  synonymous  terms.  Of 
the  immense  size  and  distance  of  the  heavenly  bodies,  men  had 
no  conception.  The  Sages  had,  in  Chaldaea,  Egypt,  India,  China, 
and  in  Persia,  and  therefore  the  sages  always  had,  an  esoteric 
creed,  taught  only  in  the  mysteries  and  unknown  to  the  vulgar.  No 
Sage,  in  either  country,  or  in  Greece  or  Rome,  believed  the  popular 
creed.  To  them  the  Gods  and  the  Idols  of  the  Gods  were  sym- 
bols, and  symbols  of  great  and  mysterious  truths. 

The  Vulgar  imagined  the  attention  of  the  Gods  to  be  continu- 
ally centred  upon  the  earth  and  man.  The  Grecian  Divinities  in- 
habited Olympus,  an  insignificant  mountain  of  the  Earth.  There 
was  the  Court  of  Zeus,  to  which  Neptune  came  from  the  Sea,  and 
Pluto  and  Persephone  from  the  glooms  of  Tartarus  in  the  unfath- 
omable depths  of  the  Earth's  bosom.  God  came  down  from 
Heaven  and  on  Sinai  dictated  laws  for  the  Hebrews  to  His  servant 
Moses.  The  Stars  were  the  guardians  of  mortals  whose  fates  and 
fortunes  were  to  be  read  in  their  movements,  conjunctions,  and 
oppositions.  The  Moon  was  the  Bride  and  Sister  of  the  Sun,  at 
the  same  distance  above  the  Earth,  and,  like  the  Sun,  made  for  the 
service  of  mankind  alone. 

If,  with  the  great  telescope  of  Lord  Rosse,  we  ex'amine  the  vast 
nebulae  of  Hercules,  Orion,  and  Andromeda,  and  find  them  re- 


solvable  into  Stars  more  numerous  than  the  sands  on  the  sea- 
shore; if  we  reflect  that  each  of  these  Stars  is  a  Sun,  like  and 
even  many  times  larger  than  ours, — each,  beyond  a  doubt,  with  its 
retinue  of  worlds  swarming  with  life ; — if  we  go  further  in  imagi- 
nation, and  endeavor  to  conceive  of  all  the  infinities  of  space, 
filled  with  similar  suns  and  worlds,  we  seem  at  once  to  shrink  intc 
an  incredible  insignificance. 

The  Universe,  which  is  the  uttered  Word  of  God,  is  infinite  in 
extent.  There  is  no  empty  space  beyond  creation  on  any  side. 
The  Universe,  which  is  the  Thought  of  God  pronounced,  never 
was  no t,  since  God  never  was  inert ;  nor  WAS,  without  thinking  and 
creating.  The  forms  of  creation  change,  the  suns  and  worlds  live 
and  die  like  the  leaves  and  the  insects,  but  the  .Universe  itself  is 
infinite  and  eternal,  because  God  Is,  Was,  and  Will  forever  Be,  and 
never  did  not  think  and  create. 

Reason  is  fain  to  admit  that  a  Supreme  Intelligence,  infinitely 
powerful  and  wise,  must  have  created  this  boundless  Universe ; 
but  it  also  tells  us  that  we  are  as  unimportant  in  it  as  the  zoophytes 
and  entozoa,  or  as  the  invisible  particles  of  animated  life  that  float 
upon  the  air  or  swarm  in  the  water-drop. 

The  foundations  of  our  faith,  resting  upon  the  imagined  inter- 
est of  God  in  our  race,  an  interest  easily  supposable  when  man 
believed  himself  the  only  intelligent  created  being,  and  therefore 
eminently  worthy  the  especial  care  and  watchful  anxiety  of  a  God 
who  had  only  this  earth  to  look  after,  and  its  house-keeping  alone 
to  superintend,  and  who  was  content  to  create,  in  all  the  infinite 
Universe,  only  one  single  being,  possessing  a  soul,  and  not  a  mere 
animal,  are  rudely  shaken  as  the  Universe  broadens  and  expands 
for  us ;  and  the  darkness  of  doubt  and  distrust  settles  heavy  upon 
the  Soul. 

The  modes  in  which  it  is  ordinarily  endeavored  to  satisfy  our 
doubts,  only  increase  them.  To  demonstrate  the  necessity  for  a 
cause  of  the  creation,  is  equally  to  demonstrate  the  necessity  of  a 
cause  for  that  cause.  The  argument  from  plan  and  design  only 
removes  the  difficulty  a  step  further  off.  We  rest  the  world  on 
the  elephant,  and  the  elephant  on  the  tortoise,  and  the  tortoise  on 
— nothing. 

To  tell  us  that  the  animals  possess  instinct  only  and  that  Rea- 
son belongs  to  us  alone,  in  no  way  tends  to  satisfy  us  of  the  radi- 
cal difference  between  us  and  them.  For  if  the  mental  phenomena 


exhibited  by  animals  that  think,  dream,  remember,  argue  from 
cause  to  effect,  plan,  devise,  combine,  and  communicate  their 
thoughts  to  each  other,  so  as  to  act  rationally  in  concert, — if  their 
love,  hate,  and  revenge,  can  be  conceived  of  as  results  of  the  or- 
ganization of  matter,  like  color  and  perfume,  th-e  resort  to  the 
hypothesis  of  an  immaterial  Soul  to  explain  phenomena  of  the 
same  kind,  only  more  perfect,  manifested  by  the  human  being,  is 
supremely  absurd.  That  organized  matter  can  think  or  even  feel, 
at  all,  is  the  great  insoluble  mystery.  "Instinct"  is  but  a  word 
without  a  meaning,  or  else  it  means  inspiration.  It  is  either  the 
animal  itself,  or  God  in  the  animal,  that  thinks,  remembers,  and 
reasons ;  and  instinct,  according  to  the  common  acceptation  of  the 
term,  would  be  the  greatest  and  most  wonderful  of  mysteries, — 
no  less  a  thing  than  the  direct,  immediate,  and  continual  prompt- 
ings of  the  Deity, — for  the  animals  are  not  machines,  or  automata 
moved  by  springs,  and  the  ape  is  but  a  dumb  Australian. 

Must  we  always  remain  in  this  darkness  of  uncertainty,  of 
doubt?  Is  there  no  mode  of  escaping  from  the  labyrinth  except 
by  means  of  a  blind  faith,  wKich  explains  nothing,  and  in  many 
creeds,  ancient  and  modern,  sets  Reason  at  defiance,  and  leads  to 
the  belief  either  in  a  God  without  a  Universe,  a  Universe  without 
a  God,  or  a  Universe  which  is  itself  a  God  ? 

We  read  in  the  Hebrew  Chronicles  that  Schlomoh  the  wise 
King  caused  to  be  placed  in  front  of  the  entrance  to  the  Temple 
two  huge  columns  of  bronze,  one  of  which  was  called  YAKAYIN 
and  the  other  BAHAZ  ;  and  these  words  are  rendered  in  our  ver- 
sion Strength  and  Establishment.  The  Masonry  of  the  Blue 
Lodges  gives  no  explanation  of  these  symbolic  columns ;  nor  do 
the  Hebrew  Books  advise  us  that  they  were  symbolic.  If  not  so 
intended  as  symbols,  they  were  subsequently  understood  to  be 

But  as  we  are  certain  that  everything  within  the  Temple  was 
symbolic,  and  that  the  whole  structure  was  intended  to  represent 
the  Universe,  we  may  reasonably  conclude  that  the  columns  of  the 
portico  also  had  a  symbolic  signification.  It  would  be  tedious  to 
repeat  all  the  interpretations  which  fancy  or 'dullness  has  found 
for  them. 

The  key  to  their  true  meaning  is  not  undiscoverable.  The  per- 
fect and  eternal  distinction  of  the  two  primitive  terms  of  the  cre- 
ative syllogism,  in  order  to  attain  to  the  demonstration  of  their 


harmony  by  the  analogy  of  contraries,  is  the  second  grand  prin- 
ciple of  that  occult  philosophy  veiled  under  the  name  "Kabalah," 
and  indicated  by  all  the  sacred  hieroglyphs  of  the  Ancient  Sanctu- 
aries, and  of  the  rites,  so  little  understood  by  the  mass  of  the 
Initiates,  of  the  Ancient  and  Modern  Free-Masonry. 

The  Sohar  declares  that  everything  in  the  Universe  proceeds  by 
the  mystery  of  "the  Balance,"  that  is,  of  Equilibrium.  Of  the 
Sephiroth,  or  Divine  Emanations,  Wisdom  and  Understanding, 
Severity  and  Benignity,  or  Justice  and  Mercy,  and  Victory  and 
Glory,  constitute  pairs. 

Wisdom,  or  the  Intellectual  Generative  Energy,  and  Under- 
standing, or  the  Capacity  to  be  impregnated  by  the  Active  Energy 
and  produce  intellection  or  thought,  are  represented  symbolically 
in  the  Kabalah  as  male  and  female.  So  also  are  Justice  and 
Mercy.  Strength  is  the  intellectual  Energy  or  Activity;  Estab- 
lishment or  Stability  is  the  intellectual  Capacity  to  produce,  a 
passivity.  They  are  the  POWER  of  generation  and  the  CAPACITY 
of  production.  By  WISDOM,  it  is  said,  God  creates,  and  by  UN- 
DERSTANDING establishes.  These  are  the  two  Columns  of  the 
Temple,  contraries  like  the  Man  and  Woman,  like  Reason  and 
Faith,  Omnipotence  and  Liberty,  Infinite  Justice  and  Infinite 
Mercy,  Absolute  Power  or  Strength  to  do  even  what  is  most  un- 
just and  unwise,  and  Absolute  Wisdom  that  makes  it  impossible  to 
do  it ;  Right  and  Duty.  They  were  the  columns  of  the  intellectual 
and  moral  world,  the  monumental  hieroglyph  of  the  antinomy 
necessary  to  the  grand  law  of  creation. 

There  must  be  for  every  Force  a  Resistance  to  support  it,  to 
every  light  a  shadow,  for  every  Royalty  a  Realm  to  govern,  for 
every  affirmative  a  negative. 

For  the  Kabalists,  Light  represents  the  Active  Principle,  and 
Darkness  or  Shadow  is  analogous  to  the  Passive  Principle.  There- 
fore it  was  that  they  made  of  the  Sun  and  Moon  emblems  of  the 
two  Divine  Sexes  and  the  two  creative  forces ;  therefore,  that  they 
ascribed  to  woman  the  Temptation  and  the  first  sin,  and  then  the 
first  labor,  the  maternal  labor  of  the  redemption,  because  it  is 
from  the  bosom  of  the  darkness  itself  that  we  see  the  Light  born 
again.  The  Void  attracts  the  Full :  and  so  it  is  that  the  abyss  of 
poverty  and  misery,  the  Seeming  Evil,  the  seeming  empty  noth- 
ingness of  life,  the  temporary  rebellion  of  the  creatures,  eternally 
attracts  the  overflowing  ocean  of  being,  of  riches,  of  pity,  and  of 


love.  Christ  completed  the  Atonement  on  the  Cross  by  descend- 
ing into  Hell. 

Justice  and  Mercy  are  contraries.  If  each  be  infinite,  their  co- 
existence seems  impossible,  and  being  equal,  one  cannot  even 
annihilate  the  other  and  reign  alone.  The  mysteries  of  the  Divine 
Nature  are  beyond  our  finite  comprehension ;  but  so  indeed  are 
the  mysteries  of  our  own  finite  nature;  and  it  is  certain  that  in 
all  nature  harmony  and  movement  are  the  result  of  the  equilibrium 
of  opposing  or  contrary  forces. 

The  analogy  of  contraries  gives  the  solution  of  the  most  inter- 
esting and  most  difficult  problem  of  modern  philosophy, — the 
definite  and  permanent  accord  of  Reason  and  Faith,  of  Author- 
ity and  Liberty  of  examination,  of  Science  and  Belief,  of  Perfec- 
tion in  God  and  Imperfection  in  Man.  If  science  or  knowledge 
is  the  Sun,  Belief  is  the  Man ;  it  is  a  reflection  of  the  day  in  the 
night.  Faith  is  the  veiled  Isis,  the  Supplement  of  Reason,  in  the 
shadows  which  precede  or  follow  Reason.  It  emanates  from  the 
Reason,  but  can  never  confound  it  nor  be  confounded  with  it.  The 
encroachments  of  Reason  upon  Faith,  or  of  Faith  on  Reason,  are 
eclipses  of  the  Sun  or  Moon ;  when  they  occur,  they  make  useless 
both  the  Source  of  Light  and  its  reflection,  at  once. 

Science  perishes  by  systems  that  are  nothing  but  beliefs ;  and 
Faith  succumbs  to  reasoning.  For  the  two  Columns  of  the  Tem- 
ple to  uphold  the  edifice,  they  must  remain  separated  and  be 
parallel  to  each  other.  As  soon  as  it  is  attempted  by  violence  to 
bring  them  together,  as  Samson  did,  they  are  overturned,  and  the 
whole  edifice  falls  upon  the  head  of  the  rash  blind  man  or  the 
revolutionist  whom  personal  or  national  resentments  have  in  ad- 
vance devoted  to  death. 

Harmony  is  the  result  of  an  alternating  preponderance  of 
forces.  Whenever  this  is  wanting  in  government,  government  is 
a  failure,  because  it  is  either  Despotism  or  Anarchy.  All  theoret- 
ical governments,  however  plausible  the  theory,  end  in  one  or  the 
other.  Governments  that  are  to  endure  are  not  made  in  the  closet 
of  Locke  or  Shaftesbury,  or  in  a  Congress  or  a  Convention.  In  a 
Republic,  forces  that  seem  contraries,  that  indeed  are  contraries, 
alone  give  movement  and  life.  The  Spheres  are  held  in  their 
orbits  and  made  to  revolve  harmoniously  and  unerringly,  by  the 
concurrence,  which  seems  to  be  the  opposition,  of  two  contrary 
forces.  If  the  centripetal  force  should  overcome  the  centrifugal, 


and  the  equilibrium  of  forces  cease,  the  rush  of  the  Spheres  to  the 
Central  Sun  would  annihilate  the  system.  Instead  of  consolida- 
tion, the  whole  would  be  shattered  into  fragments. 

Man  is  a  free  agent,  though  Omnipotence  is  above  and  all 
around  him.  To  be  free  to  do  good,  he  must  be  free  to  do  evil. 
The  Light  necessitates  the  Shadow.  A  State  is  free  like  an  indi- 
vidual in  any  government  worthy  of  the  name.  The  State  is  less 
potent  than  the  Deity,  and  therefore  the  freedom  of  the  individual 
citizen  is  consistent  with  its  Sovereignty.  These  are  opposites, 
but  not  antagonistic.  So,  in  a  union  of  States,  the  freedom  of  the 
States  is  consistent  with  the  Supremacy  of  the  Nation.  When 
either  obtains  the  permanent  mastery  over  the  other,  and  they 
cease  to  be  in  equilibria,  the  encroachment  continues  with  a  ve- 
locity that  is  accelerated  like  that  of  a  falling  body,  until  the 
feebler  is  annihilated,  and  then,  there  being  no  resistance  to  sup- 
port the  stronger,  it  rushes  into  ruin. 

So,  when  the  equipoise  of  Reason  and  Faith,  in  the  individual 
or  the  Nation,  and  the  alternating  preponderance  cease,  the  result 
is,  according  as  one  or  the  other  is  permanent  victor,  Atheism  or 
Superstition,  disbelief  or  blind  credulity ;  and  the  Priests  either 
of  Unfaith  or  of  Faith  become  despotic. 

"Whomsoever  God  loveth,  him  he  chasteneth,"  is  an  expression 
that  formulates  a  whole  dogma.  The  trials  of  life  are  the  bless- 
ings of  life,  to  the  individual  or  the  Nation,  if  either  has  a  Soul 
that  is  truly  worthy  of  salvation.  "Light  and  darkness,"  said 
ZOROASTER,  "are  the  zvorld's  eternal  ways."  The  Light  and  the 
Shadow  are  everywhere  and  always  in  proportion ;  the  Light  being 
the  reason  of  being  of  the  Shadow.  It  is  by  trials  only,  by  the 
agonies  of  sorrow  and  the  sharp  discipline  of  adversities,  that  men 
and  Nations  attain  initiation.  The  agonies  of  the  garden  of  Geth- 
semane  and  those  of  the  Cross  on  Calvary  preceded  the  Resurrec- 
tion and  were  the  means  of  Redemption.  It  is  with  prosperity 
that  God  afflicts  Humanity. 

The  Degree  of  Rose  ^  is  devoted  to  and  symbolizes  the  final 
triumph  of  truth  over  falsehood,  of  liberty  over  slavery,  of  light 
over  darkness,  of  life  over  death,  and  of  good  over  evil.  The 
great  truth  it  inculcates  is,  that  notwithstanding  the  existence  of 
Evil,  God  is  infinitely  wise,  just,  and  good :  that  though  the  affairs 
of  the  world  proceed  by  no  rule  of  right  and  wrong  known  to  us 
in  the  narrowness  of  our  views,  yet  all  is  right,  for  it  is  the  work  oi 


God ;  and  all  evils,  all  miseries,  all  misfortunes,  are  but  as  drops  in 
the  vast  current  that  is  sweeping  onward,  guided  by  Him,  to  a 
great  and  magnificent  result :  that,  at  the  appointed  time,  He  will 
redeem  and  regenerate  the  world,  and  the  Principle,  the  Power,  and 
the  existence  of  Evil  will  then  cease ;  that  this  will  be  brought 
about  by  such  means  and  instruments  as  He  chooses  to  employ ; 
whether  by  the  merits  of  a  Redeemer  that  has  already  appeared,  or 
a  Messiah  that  is  yet  waited  for,  by  an  incarnation  of  Himself, 
or  by  an  inspired  prophet,  it  does  not  belong  to  us  as  Masons  to 
decide.  Let  each  judge  and  believe  for  himself. 

In  the  mean  time,  we  labor  to  hasten  the  coming  of  that  day. 
The  morals  of  antiquity,  of  the  law  of  Moses  and  of  Christianity, 
are  ours.  We  recognize  every  teacher  of  Morality,  every  Reformer, 
as  a  brother  in  this  great  work.  The  Eagle  is  to  us  the  symbol  of 
Liberty,  the  Compasses  of  Equality,  the  Pelican  of  Humanity,  and 
our  order  of  Fraternity.  Laboring  for  these,  with  Faith,  Hope, 
and  Charity  as  our  armor,  we  will  wait  with  patience  for  the  final 
triumph  of  Good  and  the  complete  manifestation  of  the  Word  of 

No  one  Mason  has  the  right  to  measure  for  another,  within  the 
walls  of  a  Masonic  Temple,  the  degree  of  veneration  which  he  shall 
feel  for  any  Reformer,  or  the  Founder  of  any  Religion.  We  teach 
a  belief  in  no  particular  creed,  as  we  teach  unbelief  in  none.  What- 
ever higher  attributes  the  Founder  of  the  Christian  Faith  may,  in 
our  belief,  have  had  or  not  have  had,  none  can  deny  that  He  taught 
and  practised  a  pure  and  elevated  morality,  even  at  the  risk  and  to 
the  ultimate  loss  of  His  life.  He  was  not  only  the  benefactor  of  a 
disinherited  people,  but  a  model  for  mankind.  Devotedly  He  loved 
the  children  of  Israel.  To  them  He  came,  and  to  them  alone  He 
preached  that  Gospel  which  His  disciples  afterward  carried  among 
foreigners.  He  would  fain  have  freed  the  chosen  People  from  their 
spiritual  bondage  of  ignorance  and  degradation.  As  a  lover  of  all 
mankind,  laying  down  His  life  for  the  emancipation  of  His  Breth- 
ren, He  should  be  to  all,  to  Christian,  to  Jew,  and  to  Mahometan, 
an  object  of  gratitude  and  veneration. 

The  Roman  world  felt  the  pangs  of  approaching  dissolution. 
Paganism,  its  Temples  shattered  by  Socrates  and  Cicero,had  spoken 
its  last  word.  The  God  of  the  Hebrews  was 'unknown  beyond  the 
limits  of  Palestine.  The  old  religions  had  failed  to  give  happiness 
and  peace  to  the  world.  The  babbling  and  wrangling  philosophers 


had  confounded  all  men's  ideas,  until  they  doubted  of  everything 
and  had  faith  in  nothing :  neither  in  God  nor  in  his  goodness  and 
mercy,  nor  in  the  virtue  of  man,  nor  in  themselves.  Mankind  was 
divided  into  two  great  classes, — the  master  and  the  slave ;  the  pow- 
erful and  the  abject, .the  high  and  the  low,  the  tyrants  and  the 
mob;  and  even  the  former  were  satiated  with  the  servility  of  the 
latter,  sunken  by  lassitude  and  despair  to  the  lowest  depths  of  deg- 

When,lo,a  voice,  in  the  inconsiderable  Roman  Province  of  Judea 
proclaims  a  new  Gospel — a  new  "God's  Word,"  to  crushed,  suffer- 
ing bleeding  humanity.  Liberty  of  Thought,  Equality  of  all  men  in 
the  eye  of  God,  universal  Fraternity !  a  new  doctrine,  a  new 
religion  ;  the  old  Primitive  Truth  uttered  once  again  !' 

Man  is  once  more  taught  to  look  upward  to  his  God.  No  longer 
to  a  God  hid  in  impenetrable  mystery,  and  infinitely  remote  from 
human  sympathy,  emerging  only  at  intervals  from  the  darkness  to 
smite  and  crush  humanity :  but  a  God,  good,  kind,  beneficent,  and 
merciful :  a  Father,  loving  the  creatures  He  has  made,  with  a  love 
immeasurable  and  exhaustless ;  Who  feels  for  us,  and  sympathizes 
with  us,  and  sends  us  pain  and  want  and  disaster  only  that  they 
may  serve  to  develop  in  us  the  virtues  and  excellences  that  befit  us 
to  live  with  Him  hereafter. 

Jesus  of  Nazareth,  the  "Son  of  man,"  is  the  expounder  of  the 
new  Law  of  Love.  He  calls  to  Him  the  humble,  the  poor,  the  Pariahs 
of  the  world.  The  first  sentence  that  He  pronounces  blesses  the 
world,  and  announces  the  new  gospel :  "Blessed  are  they  that  mourn 
for  they  shall  be  comforted."  He  pours  the  oil  of  consolation  and 
peace  upon  every  crushed  and  bleeding  heart.  Every  sufferer  is 
His  proselyte.  He  shares  their  sorrows,  and  sympathizes  with  all 
their  afflictions. 

He  raises  up  the  sinner  and  the  Samaritan  woman,  and  teaches 
them  to  hope  for  forgiveness.  He  pardons  the  woman  taken  in 
adultery.  He  selects  his  disciples  not  among  the  Pharisees  or  the 
Philosophers,  but  among  the  low  and  humble,  even  of  the  fishermen 
of  Galilee.  He  heals  the  sick  and  feeds  the  poor.  He  lives  among 
the  destitute  and  the  friendless.  "Suffer  little  children,"  He  said, 
"to  come  unto  me ;  for  of  such  is  the  kingdom  of  Heaven !  Blessed 
are  the  humble-minded,  for  theirs  is  the  kingdom  of  Heaven ;  the 
meek,  for  they  shall  inherit  the  Earth ;  the  merciful,  for  they  shall 
obtain  mercy  ;  the  pure  in  heart,  for  they  shall  see  God  ;  the  peace- 


makers,  for  they  shall  be  called  the  children  of  God !  First  be  rec- 
onciled to  thy  brother,  and  then  come  and  offer  thy  gift  at  the  altar. 
Give  to  him  that  asketh  thee,  and  from  him  that  would  borrow  of 
thee  turn  not  away  !  Love  your  enemies  ;  bless  them  that  curse  you ; 
do  good  to  them  that  hate  you ;  and  pray  foe  them  which  despite- 
fully  use  you  and  persecute  you !  All  things  whatsoever  ye  would 
that  men  should  do  to  you,  do  ye  also  unto  them ;  for  this  is  the 
law  and  the  Prophets !  He  that  taketh  not  his  cross,  and  followeth 
after  Me,  is  not  worthy  of  Me.  A  new  commandment  I  give  unto 
you,  that  ye  love  one  another :  as  I  have  loved  you,  that  ye  also  love 
one  another :  by  this  shall  all  know  that  ye  are  My  disciples. 
Greater  love  hath  no  man  than  this,  that  a  man  lay  down  his  life 
for  his  friend." 

The  Gospel  of  Love  He  sealed  with  His  life.  The  cruelty  of 
the  Jewish  Priesthood,  the  ignorant  ferocity  of  the  mob,  and  the 
Roman  indifference  to  barbarian  blood,  nailed  Him  to  the  cross, 
and  He  expired  uttering  blessings  upon  humanity. 

Dying  thus,  He  bequeathed  His  teachings  to  man  as  an  ines- 
timable inheritance.  Perverted  and  corrupted,  they  have  served  as 
a  basis  for  many  creeds,  and  been  even  made  the  warrant  for  intol- 
erance and  persecution.  We  here  teach  them  in  their  purity. 
They  are  our  Masonry;  for  to  them  good  men  of  all  creeds  can 

That  God  is  good  and  merciful,  and  loves  and  sympathizes  with 
the  creatures  He  has  made ;  that  His  finger  is  visible  in  all  the 
movements  of  the  moral,  intellectual,  and  material  universe ;  that 
we  are  His  children,  the  objects  of  His  paternal  care  and  regard; 
that  all  men  are  our  brothers,  whose  wants  we  are  to  supply,  their 
errors  to  pardon,  their  opinions  to  tolerate,  their  injuries  to  for- 
give ;  that  man  has  an  immortal  soul,  a  free  will,  a  right  to  free- 
dom of  thought  and  action ;  that  all  men  are  equal  in  God's  sight ; 
that  we  best  serve  God  by  humility,  meekness,  gentleness,  kind- 
ness, and  the  other  virtues  which  the  lowly  can  practise  as  well  as 
the  lofty ;  this  is  "the  new  Law,"  the  "WORD,"  for  which  the 
world  had  waite4  and  pined  so  long;  and  every  true  Knight  of 
the  Rose  ^  will  revere  the  memory  of  Him  who  taught  it,  and 
look  indulgently  even  on  those  who  assign  to  Him  a  character  far 
above  his  own  conceptions  or  belief,  even  to  the  extent  of  deeming 
Him  Divine. 

Hear  Philo,  the  Greek  Jew.    "The  contemplative  soul,  une- 


qually  guided,  sometimes  toward  abundance  and  sometimes  to- 
ward barrenness,  though  ever  advancing,  is  illuminated  by  the 
primitive  ideas,  the  rays  that  emanate  from  the  Divine  Intelli- 
gence, whenever  it  ascends  toward  the  Sublime  Treasures.  When, 
on  the  contrary,  it  descends,  and  is  barren,  it  falls  within  the  do- 
main of  those  Intelligences  that  are  termed  Angels.  .  .  for,  when 
the  soul  is  deprived  of  the  light  of  God,  which  leads  it  to  the 
knowledge  of  things,  it  no  longer  enjoys  more  than  a  feeble  and 
secondary  light,  which  gives  it,  not  the  understanding  of  things, 
but  that  of  words  only,  as  in  this  baser  world.  .  .  ." 

"...  Let  the  narrow-souled  withdraw,  having  their  ears  sealed 
up !  We  communicate  the  divine  mysteries  to  those  only  who 
have  received  the  sacred  initiation,  to  those  who  practise  true  piety, 
and  who  are  not  enslaved  by  the  empty  pomp  of  words,  or  the 
doctrines  of  the  pagans.  ..." 

".  .  .  O,  ye  Initiates,  ye  whose  ears  are  purified,  receive  this  in 
your  souls,  as  a  mystery  never  to  be  lost !  Reveal  it  to  no  Profane  ! 
Keep  and  contain  it  within  yourselves,  as  an  incorruptible  treas- 
ure, not  like  gold  or  silver,  but  more  precious  than  everything 
besides ;  for  it  is  the  knowledge  of  the  Great  Cause,  of  Nature,  and 
of  that  which  is  born  of  both.  And  if  you  meet  an  Initiate,  be- 
siege him  with  your  prayers,  that  he  conceal  from  you  no  new 
mysteries  that  he  may  know,  and  rest  not  until  you  have  obtained 
them!  For  me,  although  I  was  initiated  in  the  Great  Mysteries 
by  Moses,  the  Friend  of  God,  yet,  having  seen  Jeremiah,  I  recog- 
nized him  not  only  as  an  Initiate,  but  as  a  Hierophant ;  and  I  fol- 
low his  school." 

\Ve,  like  him,  recognize  all  Initiates  as  our  Brothers.  We  be- 
long to  no  one  creed  or  school.  In  all  religions  there  is  a  basis  of 
Truth ;  in  all  there  is  pure  Morality.  All  that  teach  the  cardinal 
tenets  of  Masonry  we  respect ;  all  teachers  and  reformers  of  man- 
kind we  admire  and  revere. 

Masonry  also  has  her  mission  to  perform.  With  her  traditions 
reaching  back  to  the  earliest  times,  and  her  symbols  dating  further 
back  than  even  the  monumental  history  of  Egypt  extends,  she  in- 
vites all  men  of  all  religions  to  enlist  under  her  banners  and  to 
war  against  evil,  ignorance,  and  wrong.  You  are  now  her  knight, 
and  to  her  service  your  sword  is  consecrated.  May  you  prove  a 
worthy  soldier  in  a  worthy  cause! 





THE  true  Mason  labors  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  are  to  come 
after  him,  and  for  the  advancement  and  improvement  of  his  race. 
That  is  a  poor  ambition  which  contents  itself  within  the  limits  of 
a  single  life.  All  men  who  deserve  to  live,  desire  to  survive  their 
funerals,  and  to  live  afterward  in  the  good  that  they  have  done 
mankind,  rather  than  in  the  fading  characters  written  in  men's 
memories.  Most  men  desire  to  leave  some  work  behind  them  that 
may  outlast  their  own  day  and  brief  generation.  That  is  an  in- 
stinctive impulse,  given  by  God,  and  often  found  in  the  rudest 
human  heart ;  the  surest  proof  of  the  soul's  immortality,  and  of 
the  fundamental  difference  between  man  and  the  wisest  brutes. 
To  plant  the  trees  that,  after  we  are  dead, shall  shelter  our  children, 
is  as  natural  as  to  love  the  shade  of  those  our  fathers  planted. 
The  rudest  unlettered  husbandman,  painfully  conscious  of  his  own 
inferiority,  the  poorest  widowed  mother,  giving  her  life-blood  to 
those  who  pay  only  for  the  work  of  her  needle,  will  toil  and  stint 
themselves  to  educate  their  child,  that  he  may  take  a  higher  sta- 
tion in  the  world  than  they ; — and  of  such  are  the  world's  greatest 

In  his  influences  that  survive  him,  man  becomes  immortal,  be- 
fore the  general  resurrection.  The  Spartan  mother,  who,  giving 
her  son  his  shield,  said,  "WITH  IT,  OR  UPON  IT  !"  afterward  shared 
the  government  of  Lacedaemon  with  the  legislation  of  Lycurgus : 
for  she  too  made  a  law,  that  lived  after  her ;  and  she  inspired  the 
Spartan  soldiery  that  afterward  demolished  the  walls  of  Athens, 
and  aided  Alexander  to  conquer  the  Orient.  The  widow  who  gave 
Marion  the  fiery  arrows  to  burn  her  own  house,  that  it  might  no 
longer  shelter  the  enemies  of  her  infant  country,  the  house  where 
she  had  lain  upon  her  husband's  bosom,  and  where  her  children 
had  been  born,  legislated  more  effectually  for  her  State  than  Locke 
or  Shaftesbury,  or  than  many  a  Legislature  has  done,  since  that 
State  won  its  freedom. 

It  was  of  slight  importance  to  the  Kings"  of  Egypt  and  the 


Monarchs  of  Assyria  and  Phoenicia,  that  the  son  of  a  Jewish  wo- 
man, a  foundling,  adopted  by  the  daughter  of  Sesostris  Ramses, 
slew  an  Egyptian  that  oppressed  a  Hebrew  slave,  and  fled  into  the 
desert,  to  remain  there  forty  years.  But  Moses,  who  might  other- 
wise have  become  Regent  of  Lower  Egypt,  known  to  us  only  by  a 
tablet  on  a  tomb  or  monument,  became  the  deliverer  of  the  Jews, 
and  led  them  forth  from  Egypt  to  the  frontiers  of  Palestine,  and 
made  for  them  a  law,  out  of  which  grew  the  Christian  faith ;  and 
so  has  shaped  the  destinies  of  the  world.  He  and  the  old  R?man 
lawyers,  with  Alfred  of  England,  the  Saxon  Thanes  and  Xorman 
Barons,  the  old  judges  and  chancellors,  and  the  makers  of  the 
canons,  lost  in  the  mists  and  shadows  of  the  Past, — these  are  our 
legislators ;  and  we  obey  the  laws  that  they  enacted. 

Napoleon  died  upon  the  barren  rock  of  his  exile.  His  bones, 
borne  to  France  by  the  son  of  a  King,  rest  in  the  Hopital  des  In- 
valides,  in  the  great  city  on  the  Seine.  His  Thoughts  still  govern 
France.  He,  and  not  the  People,  dethroned  the  Bourbon,  and 
drove  the  last  King  of  the  House  of  Orleans  into  exile.  He,  in 
his  coffin,  and  not  the  People,  voted  the  crown  to  the  Third  Napo- 
leon ;  and  he,  and  not  the  Generals  of  France  and  England,  led 
their  united  forces  -against  the  grim  Northern  Despotism. 

Mahomet  announced  to  the  Arabian  idolaters  the  new  creed, 
"There  is  but  one  God,  and  Mahomet,  like  Moses  and  Christ,  is  His 
apostle."  For  many  years  unaided,  then  with  the  help  of  his  fam- 
ily and  a  few  friends,  then  with  many  disciples,  and  last  of  all 
with  an  army,  he  taught  and  preached  the  Koran.  The  religion 
of  the  wild  Arabian  enthusiast  converting  the  fiery  Tribes  of  the 
Great  Desert,  spread  over  Asia,  built  up  the  Saracenic  dynasties, 
conquered  Persia  and  India,  the  Greek  Empire,  Northern  Africa, 
and  Spain,  and  dashed  the  surges  of  its  fierce  soldiery  against  the 
battlements  of  Northern  Christendom.  The  law  of  Mahomet  still 
governs  a  fourth  of  the  human  race ;  and  Turk  and  Arab,  Moor 
and  Persian  and  Hindu,  still  obey  the  Prophet,  and  pray  with  their 
faces  turned  toward  Mecca ;  and  he,  and  not  the  living,  rules  and 
reigns  in  the  fairest  portions  of  the  Orient. 

Confucius  still  enacts  th£  law  for  China ;  and  the  thoughts  and 
ideas  of  Peter  the  Great  govern  Russia.  Plato  and  the  other  great 
Sages  of  Antiquity  still  reign  as  the  Kings  of  Philosophy,  and 
have  dominion  over  the  human  intellect.  The  great  Statesmen 
of  the  Past  still  preside  in  the  Councils  of  Nations.  Burke  still 


lingers  in  the  House  of  Commons ;  and  Berryer's  sonorous  tones 
will  long  ring  in  the  Legislative  Chambers  of  France.  The  in- 
fluences of  Webster  and  Calhoun,  conflicting,  rent  asunder  the 
American  States,  and  the  doctrine  of  each  is  the  law  and  the  ora- 
cle speaking  from  the  Holy  of  Holies  for  his  own  State  and  all 
consociated  with  it:  a  faith  preached  and  proclaimed  by  each  at 
the  cannon's  mouth  and  consecrated  by  rivers  of  blood. 

It  has  been  well  said,  that  when  Tamerlane  had  builded  his  pyr- 
amid of  fifty  thousand  human  skulls,  and  wheeled  away  with  his 
vast  armies  from  the  gates  of  Damascus,  to  find  new  conquests, 
and  build  other  pyramids,  a  little  boy  was  playing  in  the  streets 
of  Mentz,  son  of  a  poor  artisan,  whose  apparent  importance  in  the 
scale  of  beings  was,  compared  with  that  of  Tamerlane,  as  that  of 
a  grain  of  sand  to  the  giant  bulk  of  the  earth ;  but  Tamerlane 
and  all  his  shaggy  legions,  that  swept  over  the  East  like  a  hurri- 
cane, have  passed  away,  and  become  shadow's ;  while  printing,  the 
wonderful  invention  of  John  Faust,  the  boy  of  Mentz,  has  exerted 
a  greater  influence  on  man's  destinies  and  overturned  more  thrones 
and  dynasties  than  all  the  victories  of  all  the  blood-stained  con- 
querors from  Nimrod  to  Napoleon. 

Long  ages  ago,  the  Temple  built  by  Solomon  and  our  Ancient 
Brethren  sank  into  ruin,  when  the  Assyrian  Armies  sacked  Jeru- 
salem. The  Holy  City  is  a  mass  of  hovels  cowering  under  the 
dominion  of  the  Crescent ;  and  the  Holy  Land  a  desert.  The 
Kings  of  Egypt  and  Assyria,  who  were  contemporaries  of  Solomon, 
are  forgotten,  and  their  histories  mere  fables.  The  Ancient  Ori- 
ent is  a  shattered  wreck,  bleaching  on  the  shores  of  Time.  The 
Wolf  and  the  Jackal  howl  among  the  ruins  of  Thebes  and  of 
Tyre,  and  the  sculptured  images  of  the  Temples  and  Palaces  of 
Babylon  and  Nineveh  are  dug  from  their  ruins  and  carried  into 
strange  lands.  But  the  quiet  and  peaceful  Order,  of  which  the 
Son  of  a  poor  Phoenician  Widow  was  one  of  the  Grand  Masters, 
with  the  Kings  of  Israel  and  Tyre,  has  continued  to  increase  in 
stature  and  influence,  defying  the  angry  waves  of  time  and  the 
storms  of  persecution!  Age  has  not  weakened  its  wide  founda- 
tions, nor  shattered  its  columns,  nor  ma*rred  the  beauty  of  its  har- 
monious proportions.  Where  rude  barbarians,  in  the  time  of  Sol- 
omon, peopled  inhospitable  howling  wildernesses,  in  France  and 
Britain,  and  in  that  New  World,  not  known  to  Jew  or  Gentile, 
until  the  glories  of  the  Orient  had  faded,  that  Order  has  builded 


new  Temples,  and  teaches  to  its  million  of  Initiates  those  lessons 
of  peace,  good-will,  and  toleration,  of  reliance  on  God  and  confi- 
dence in  man,  which  it  learned  when  Hebrew  and  Giblemite 
worked  side  by  side  on  the  slopes  of  Lebanon,  and  the  Servant  of 
Jehovah  and  the  Phoenician  Worshipper  of  Bel  sat  with  the  hum- 
ble artisan  in  Council  at  Jerusalem. 

It  is  the  Dead  that  govern.  The  Living  only  obey.  And  if 
the  Soul  sees,  after  death,  what  passes  on  this  earth,  and  watches 
over  the  welfare  of  those  it  loves,  then  must  its  greatest  happi- 
ness consist  in  seeing  the  current  of  its  beneficent  influences 
widening  out  from  ?ge  to  age.  as  rivulets  widen  into,  rivers,  and 
aiding  to  shape  the  destinies  of  individuals,  families,  States,  the 
World ;  and  its  bitterest  punishment,  in  seeing  its  evil  influences 
causing  mischief  and  misery,  and  cursing  and  afflicting  men,  long 
after  the  frame  it  dwelt  in  has  become  dust,  and  when, both  name 
and  memory  are  forgotten. 

We  know  not  who  among  the  Dead  control  our  destinies.  The 
universal  human  race  is  linked  and  bound  together  by  those  influ- 
ences and  sympathies,  which  in  the  truest  sense  do  make  men's 
fates.  Humanity  is  the  unit,  of  which  the  man  is  but  a  fraction. 
What  other  men  in  the  Past  have  done,  said,  thought,  makes  the 
great  iron  network  of  circumstance  that  environs  and  controls  us 
all.  We  take  our  faith  on  trust.  We  think  and  believe  as  the  Old 
Lords  of  Thought  command  us ;  and  Reason  is  powerless  before 

We  would  make  or  annul  a  particular  contract;  but  the 
Thoughts  of  the  dead  Judges  of  England,  living  when  their  ashes 
have  been  cold  for  centuries,  stand  between  us  and  that  which  we 
would  do,  and  utterly  forbid  it.  We  would  settle  our  estate  in  a 
particular  way ;  but  the  prohibition  of  the  English  Parliament, 
its  uttered  Thought  when  the  first  or  second  Edward  reigned, 
comes  echoing  down  the  long  avenues  of  time,  and  tells  us  we 
shall  not  exercise  the  power  of  disposition  as  we  wish.  We  would 
gain  a  particular  advantage  of  another;  and  the  thought  of  the 
old  Roman  lawyer  who  died  before  Justinian,  or  that  of  Rome's 
great  orator  Cicero,  annihilates  the  act,  or  makes  the  intention  in- 
effectual. This  act,  Moses  forbids ;  that,  Alfred.  We  would  sell 
our  land ;  but  certain  marks  on  a  perishable  paper  tell  us  that  our 
father  or  remote  ancestor  ordered  otherwise ;  and  the  arm  of  the 
dead,  emerging  from  the  grave,  with  peremptory  gesture  prohibits 


the  alienation.  About  to  sin  or  err,  the  thought  or  wish  of  our 
dead  mother,  told  us  when  we  were  children,  by  words  that  died 
upon  the  air  in  the  utterance,  and  many  a  long  year  were  forgot- 
ten, flashes  on  our  memory,  and  holds  us  back  with  a  power  that 
is  resistless. 

Thus  we  obey  the  dead ;  and  thus  shall  the  living,  when  we  are 
dead,  for  weal  or  woe,  obey  us.  The  Thoughts  of  the  Past  are  the 
Laws  of  the  Present  and  the  Future.  That  which  we  say  and  do, 
if  its  effects  last  not  beyond  our  lives,  is  unimportant.  That 
which  shall  live  when  we  are  dead,  as  part  of  the  great  body  of 
law  enacted  by  the  dead,  is  the  only  act  worth  doing,  the  only 
Thought  worth  speaking.  The  desire  to  do  something  that  shall 
benefit  the  world,  when  neither  praise  nor  obloquy  will  reach  us 
where  we  sleep  soundly  in  the  grave,  is  the  noblest  ambition  en- 
tertained by  man. 

It  is  the  ambition  of  a  true  and  genuine  Mason.  Knowing  the 
slow  processes  by  which  the  Deity  brings  about  great  results,  he 
does  not  expect  to  reap  as  well  as  sow,  in  a  single  lifetime.  It  is 
the  inflexible  fate  and  noblest  destiny,  with  rare  exceptions,  of  the 
great  and  good,  to  work,  and  let  others  reap  the  harvest  of  their 
labors.  He  who  does  good,  only  to  be  repaid  in  kind,  or  in  thanks 
and  gratitude,  or  in  reputation  and  the  world's  praise,  is  like  him 
who  loans  his  money,  that  he  may,  after  certain  months,  receive  it 
back  with  interest.  To  be  repaid  for  eminent  services  with  slan- 
der, obloquy,  or  ridicule,  or  at  best  with  stupid  indifference  or  cold 
ingratitude,  as  it  is  common,  so  it  is  no  misfortune,  except  to  those 
who  lack  the  wit  to  see  or  sense  to  appreciate  the  service,  or  the 
nobility  of  soul  to  thank  and  reward  with  eulogy,  the  benefactor 
of  his  kind.  His  influences  live,  and  the  great  Future  will  obey ; 
whether  it  recognize  or  disown  the  lawgiver. 

Miltiades  was  fortunate  that  he  was  exiled ;  and  Aristides  that 
he  was  ostracized,  because  men  wearied  of  hearing  him  called  "The 
Just."  Not  the  Redeemer  was  unfortunate ;  but  those  only  who 
repaid  Him  for  the  inestimable  gift  He  offered  them,  and  for  a  life 
passed  in  toiling  for  their  good,  by  nailing  Him  upon  the  cross,  as 
though  He  had  been  a  slave  or  malefactor;  The  persecutor  dies 
and  rots,  and  Posterity  utters  his  name  with  execration :  but  his 
victim's  memory  he  has  unintentionally  made  glorious  and  im- 

If  not  for  slander  and  persecution,  the  Mason  who  would  bene- 



fit  his  race  must  look  for  apathy  and  cold  indifference  in  those 
whose  good  he  seeks,  in  those  who  ought  to  seek  the  good  of 
others.  Except  when  the  sluggish  depths  of  the  Human  Mind 
are  broken  up  and  tossed  as  with  a  storm,  when  at  the  appointed 
time  a  great  Reformer  comes,  and  a  new  Faith  springs  up  and 
grows  with  supernatural  energy,  the  progress  of  Truth  is  slower 
than  the  growth  of  oaks ;  and  he  who  plants  need  not  expect  to 
gather.  The  Redeemer,  at  His  death,  had  twelve  disciples,  and 
one  betrayed  and  one  deserted  and  denied  Him.  It  is  enough  for 
us  to  know  that  the  fruit  will  come  in  its  due  season.  When,  or 
who  shall  gather  it,  it  does  not  in  the  least  concern  us  to  know. 
It  is  our  business  to  plant  the  seed.  It  is  God's  right  to  give  the 
fruit  to  whom  He  pleases ;  and  if  not  to  us,  then  is  our  action  by 
so  much  the  more  noble. 

To  sow,  that  others  may  reap ;  to  work  and  plant  for  those  who 
are  to  occupy  the  earth  when  we  are  dead ;  to  project,  our  influ- 
ences far  into  the  future,  and  live  beyond  our  time ;  to  rule  as  the 
Kings  of  Thought,  over  men  who  are  yet  unborn ;  to  bless  with 
the  glorious  gifts  of  Truth  and  Light  and  Liberty  those  who  will 
neither  know  the  name  of  the  giver,  nor  care  in  what  grave  his 
unregarded  ashes  repose,  is  the  true  office  of  a  Mason  and  the 
proudest  destiny  of  a  man. 

All  the  great  and  beneficent  operations  of  Nature  are  produced 
by  slow  and  often  imperceptible  degrees.  The  work  of  destruction 
and  devastation  only  is  violent  and  rapid.  The  Volcano  and  the 
Earthquake,  the  Tornado  and  the  Avalanche,  leap  suddenly  into 
full  life  and  fearful  energy,  and  smite  with  an  unexpected  blow. 
Vesuvius  buried  Pompeii  and  Herculaneum  in  a  night ;  and  Lis- 
bon fell  prostrate  before  God  in  a  breath,  when  the  earth  rocked 
and  shuddered ;  the  Alpine  village  vanishes  and  is  erased  at  one 
bound  of  the  avalanche ;  and  the  ancient  forests  fall  like  grass  be- 
fore the  mower,  when  the  tornado  leaps  upon  them.  Pestilence 
slays  its  thousands  in  a  day ;  and  the  storm  in  a  night  strews  the 
sand  with  shattered  navies. 

The  Gourd  of  the  Prophet  Jonah  grew  up,  and  was  withered,  in 
a  night.  But  many  years  ago,  before  the  Norman  Conqueror 
stamped  his  mailed  foot  on  the  neck  of  prostrate  Saxon  England, 
some  wandering  barbarian,  of  the  continent  then  unknown  to  the 
world,  in  mere  idleness,  with  hand  or  foot,  covered  an  acorn  with 
a  little  earth,  and  passed  on  regardless,  on  .his  journey  to  the  dim 



Past.  He  died  and  was  forgotten ;  but  the  acorn  lay  there  still, 
the  mighty  force  within  it  acting  in  the  darkness.  A  tender  shoot 
stole  gently  up;  and  fed  by  the  light  and  air  and  frequent  dews, 
put  forth  its  little  leaves,  and  lived,  because  the  elk  or  buffalo 
chanced  not  to  place  his  foot  upon  and  crush  it.  The  years 
marched  onward,  and  the  shoot  became  a  sapling,  and  its  green 
leaves  went  and  came  with  Spring  and  Autumn.  And  still  the 
years  came  and  passed  away  again,  and  William,  the  Norman  Bas- 
tard, parcelled  England  out  among  his  Barons,  and  still  the  sapling 
grew,  and  the  dews  fed  its  leaves,  and  the  birds  builded  their  nests 
among  its  small  limbs  for  many  generations.  And  still  the  years 
came  and  went,  and  the  Indian  hunter  slept  in  the  shade  of  the 
sapling,  and  Richard  Lion-Heart  fought  at  Acre  and  Ascalon,  and 
John's  bold  Barons  wrested  from  him  the  Great  Charter;  and  lo! 
the  sapling  had  become  a  tree;  and  still  it  grew,  and  thrust  its 
great  arms  wider  abroad,  and  lifted  its  head  still  higher  toward 
the  Heavens ;  strong-rooted,  and  defiant  of  the  storms  that  roared 
and  eddied  through  its  branches ;  and  when  Columbus  ploughed 
with  his  keels  the  unknown  Western  Atlantic,  and  Cortez  and 
Pizarro  bathed  the  cross  in  blood ;  and  the  Puritan,  the  Huguenot, 
the  Cavalier,  and  the  follower  of  Penn  sought  a  refuge  and  a  rest- 
ing-place beyond  the  ocean,  the  Great  Oak  still  stood,  firm-rooted, 
vigorous,  stately,  haughtily  domineering  over  all  the  forest,  heed- 
less of  all  the  centuries  that  had  hurried  past  since  the  wild  Indian 
planted  the  little  acorn  in  the  forest ; — a  stout  and  hale  old  tree, 
with  wide  circumference  shading  many  a  rood  of  ground ;  and  fit 
to  furnish  timbers  for  a  ship,  to  carry  the  thunders  of  the  Great 
Republic's  guns  around  the  world.  And  yet,  if  one  had  sat  and 
watched  it  every  instant,  from  the  moment  when  the  feeble  shoot 
first  pushed  its  way  to  the  light  until  the  eagles  built  among  its 
branches,  he  would  never  have  seen  the  tree  or  sapling  grow. 

Many  long  centuries  ago,  before  the  Chaldsean  Shepherds 
watched  the  Stars,  or  Shufu  built  the  Pyramids,  one  could  have 
sailed  in  a  seventy-four  where  now  a  thousand  islands  gem  the  sur- 
face of  the  Indian  Ocean ;  and  the  deep-sea  lead  would  nowhere 
have  found  any  bottom.  But  below  these-  .waves  were  myriads 
upon  myriads,  beyond  the  power  of  Arithmetic  to  number,  of 
minute  existences,  each  a  perfect  living  creature,  made  by  the  Al- 
mighty Creator,  and  fashioned  by  Him  for  the  work  it  had  to  do. 
There  they  toiled  beneath  the  waters,  each  doing  its  allotted  work, 


and  wholly  ignorant  of  the  result  which  God  intended.  They 
lived  and  died,  incalculable  in  numbers  and  almost  infinite  in  the 
succession  of  their  generations,  each  adding  his  mite  to  the  gigan- 
tic work  that  went  on  there  under  God's  direction.  Thus  hath  He 
chosen  to  create  great  Continents  and  Islands ;  and  still  the  coral- 
insects  live  and  work,  as  when  they  made  the  rocks  that  underlie 
the  valley  of  the  Ohio. 

Thus  God  hath  chosen  to  create.  Where  now  is  firm  land,  once 
chafed  and  thundered  the  great  primeval  ocean.  For  ages  upon 
ages  the  minute  shields  of  infinite  myriads  of  infusoria,  and  the 
stony  stems  of  encrinites  sunk  into  its  depths,  and  there,  under 
the  vast  pressure  of  its  waters,  hardened  into  limestone.  Raised 
slo\vly  from  the  Profound  by  His  hand,  its  quarries  underlie  the 
soil  of  all  the  continents,  hundreds  of  feet  in  thickness ;  and  we, 
of  these  remains  of  the  countless  dead,  build  tombs  and  palaces, 
as  the  Egyptians,  whom  we  call  ancient,  built  their  pyramids. 

On  all  the  broad  lakes  and  oceans  the  Great  Sun  looks  earnestly 
and  lovingly,  and  the  invisible  vapors  rise  ever  up  to  meet  him. 
No  eye  but  God's  beholds  them  as  they  rise.  There,  in  the  upper 
atmosphere,  they  are  condensed  to  mist,  and  gather  into  clouds, 
and  float  and  swim  around  in  the  ambient  air.t  They  sail  with  its 
currents,  and  hover  over  the  ocean,  and  roll  in  huge  masses  round 
the  stony  shoulders  of  great  mountains.  Condensed  still  more  by 
change  of  temperature,  they  drop  upon  the  thirsty  earth  in  gentle 
showers,  or  pour  upon  it  in  heavy  rains,  or  storm  against  its  bosom 
at  the  angry  Equinoctial.  The  shower,  the  rain,  and  the  storm 
pass  away,  the  clouds  vanish,  and  the  bright  stars  again  shine 
clearly  upon  the  glad  earth.  The  rain-drops  sink  into  the  ground, 
and  gather  in  subterranean  reservoirs,  and  run  in  subterranean 
channels,  and  bubble  up  in  springs  and  fountains;  and  from  the 
mountain-sides  and  heads  of  valleys  the  silver  threads  of  water 
begin  their  long  journey  to  the  ocean.  Uniting,  they  widen  into 
brooks  and  rivulets,  then  into  streams  and  rivers ;  and,  at  last,  a 
Nile,  a  Ganges,  a  Danube,  an  Amazon,  or  a  Mississippi  rolls  be- 
tween its  banks,  mighty,  majestic,  and  resistless,  creating  vast  allu- 
vial valleys  to  be  the  granaries  of  the  world,  ploughed  by  the 
thousand  keels  of  commerce  and  serving  as  great  highways,  and 
as  the  impassable  boundaries  of  rival  nations ;  ever  returning  tc 
the  ocean  the  drops  that  rose  from  it  in  vapor,  and  descended  in 
rain  and  snow  and  hail  upon  the  level  plains  and  lofty  moun- 


tains ;  and  causing  him  to  recoil  for  many  a  mile  before  the  head- 
long rush  of  their  great  tide. 

So  it  is  with  the  aggregate  of  Human  endeavor.  As  the  invis- 
ible particles  of  vapor  combine  and  coalesce  to  form  the  mists  and 
clouds  that  fall  in  rain  on  thirsty  continents,  and  bless  the  great 
green  forests  and  wide  grassy  prairies,  the  waving  meadows  and 
the  fields  by  which  men  live ;  as  the  infinite  myriads  of  drops  that 
the  glad  earth  drinks  are  gathered  into  springs  and  rivulets  and 
rivers,  to  aid  in  levelling  the  mountains  and  elevating  the  plains, 
and  to  feed  the  large  lakes  and  restless  oceans ;  so  all  Human 
Thought,  and  Speech  and  Action,  all  that  is  done  and  said  and 
thought  and  suffered  upon  the  Earth  combine  together,  and  flow 
onward  in  one  broad  resistless  current  toward  those  great  results 
to  which  they  are  determined  by  the  will  of  God. 

We  build  slowly  and  destroy  swiftly.  Our  Ancient  Brethren 
who  built  the  Temples  at  Jerusalem,  with  many  myriad  blows 
felled,  hewed,  and  squared  the  cedars,  and  quarried  the  stones,  and 
carved  the  intricate  ornaments,  which  were  to  be  the  Temples. 
Stone  after  stone,  by  the  combined  effort  and  long  toil  of  Appren- 
tice, Fellow-Craft,  and  Master,  the  walls  arose;  slowly  the  roof 
was  framed  and  fashioned ;  and  many  years  elapsed,  before,  at 
length,  the  Houses  stood  finished,  all  fit  and  ready  for  the  Worship 
of  God,  gorgeous  in  the  sunny  splendors  of  the  atmosphere  of 
Palestine.  So  they  were  built.  A  single  motion  of  the  arm  of  a 
rude,  barbarous  Assyr-ian  Spearman,  or  drunken  Roman  or  Gothic 
Legionary  of  Titus,  moved  by  a  senseless  impulse  of  the  brutal 
will,  flung  in  the  blazing  brand ;  and,  with  no  further  human 
agency,  a  few  short  hours  sufficed  to  consume  and  melt  each  Tem- 
ple to  a  smoking  mass  of  black  unsightly  ruin. 

Be  patient,  therefore,  my  Brother,  and  wait! 

The  issues  are  with  God:  To  do, 
Of  right  belongs  to  us. 

Therefore  faint  not,  nor  be  weary  in  well-doing!  Be  not  dis- 
couraged at  men's  apathy,  nor  disgusted  with  their  follies  nor 
tired  of  their  indifference !  Care  not  for  returns  and  results ;  but 
see  only  what  there  is  to  do,  and  do  it,  leaving  the  results  to  God ! 
Soldier  of  the  Cross !  Sworn  Knight  of  Justice,  Truth,  and  Tol- 
eration !  Good  Knight  and  True !  be  patient  an3  work ! 

The  Apocalypse,  that  sublime  Kabalistic  and  prophetic  Sum- 


mary  of  all  the  occult  figures,  divides  its  images  into  three  Sep- 
tenaries,  after  each  of  which  there  is  silence  in  Heaven.  There 
are  Seven  Seals  to  be  opened,  that  is  to  say,  Seven  mysteries  to 
know,  and  Seven  difficulties  to  overcome,  Seven  trumpets  to  sound, 
and  Seven  cups  to  empty. 

The  Apocalypse  is,  to  those  who  receive  the  nineteenth  Degree, 
the  Apotheosis  of  that  Sublime  Faith  which  aspires  to  God  alone, 
and  despises  all  the  pomps  and  works  of  Lucifer.  LUCIFER,  the 
Light-bearer!  Strange  and  mysterious  name  to  give  to  the  Spirit 
of  Darkness!  Lucifer,  the  Son  of  the  Morning!  Is  it  he  who 
bears  the  Light,  and  with  its  splendors  intolerable  blinds  feeble, 
sensual,  or  selfish  Souls?  Doubt  it  not!  for  traditions  are  full  of 
Divine  Revelations  and  Inspirations:  and  Inspiration  is  not  of 
one  Age  nor  of  one  Creed.  Plato  and  Philo,  also,  were  inspired. 

The  Apocalypse,  indeed,  is  a  book  as  obscure  as  the  Sohar. 

It  is  written  hieroglyphically  with  numbers  and  images ;  and 
the  Apostle  often  appeals  to  the  intelligence  of  the  Initiated. 
"Let  him  who  hath  knowledge,  understand!  let  him  who  under- 
stands, calculate !"  he  often  says,  after  an  allegory  or  the  mention 
of  a  number.  Saint  John,  the  favorite  Apostle,  and  the  Depositary 
of  all  the  Secrets  of  the  Saviour,  therefore  did  not  write  to  be  un- 
derstood by  the  multitude. 

The  Sephar  Yezirah,  the  Sohar,  and  the  Apocalypse  are  the 
completest  embodiments  of  Occultism.  They  contain  more  mean- 
ings than  words ;  their  expressions  are  figurative  as  poetry  and 
exact  as  numbers.  The  Apocalypse  sums  up,  completes,  and  sur- 
passes all  the  Science  of  Abraham  and  of  Solomon.  The  visions 
of  Ezekiel,  by  the  river  Chebar,  and  of  the  new  Symbolic  Temple, 
are  equally  mysterious  expressions,  veiled  by  figures  of  the  enig- 
matic dogmas  of  the  Kabalah,  and  their  symbols  are  as  little  un- 
derstood by  the  Commentators,  as  those  of  Free  Masonry. 

The  Septenary  is  the  Crown  of  the  Numbers,  because  it  unites 
the  Triangle  of  the  Idea  to  the  Square  of  the  Form. 

The  more  the  great  Hierophants  were  at  pains  to  conceal  their 
absolute  Science,  the  more  they  sought  to  add  grandeur  to  and 
multiply  its  symbols.  The  huge  pyramids,  with  their  triangular 
sides  of  elevation  and  square  bases,  represented  their  Metaphysics, 
founded  upon  the  knowledge  of  Nature.  That  knowledge  of  Na- 
ture had  for  its  symbolic  key  the  gigantic  form  of  that  huge 
Sphinx,  which  has  hollowed  its  deep  bed  in  the  sand,  while  keep- 


ing  watch  at  the  feet  of  the  Pyramids.  The  Seven  grand  monu- 
ments called  the  Wonders  of  the  World,  were  the  magnificent 
Commentaries  on  the  Seven  lines  that  composed  the  Pyramids, 
and  on  the  Seven  mystic  gates  of  Thebes. 

The  Septenary  philosophy  of  Initiation  among  the  Ancients 
may  be  summed  up  thus : 

Three  Absolute  Principles  which  are  but  One  Principle:  four 
elementary  forms  which  are  but  one ;  all  forming  a  Single  Whole, 
compounded  of  the  Idea  and  the  Form. 

The  three  Principles  were  these : 

i°.  BEING  is  BEING. 

In  Philosophy,  identity  of  the  Idea  and  of  Being  or  Verity ;  in 
Religion,  the  first  Principle,  THE  FATHER. 
2°.  BEING  is  REAL. 

In  Philosophy,  identity  of  Knowing  and  of  Being  or  Reality ; 
in  Religion,  the  LOGOS  of  Plato,  the  Demiourgos,  the  WORD. 
3°.  BEING  is  LOGIC. 

In  Philosophy,  identity  of  the  Reason  and  Reality ;  in  Religion, 
Providence,  the  Divine  Action  that  makes  real  the  Good,  that 
which  in  Christianity  we  call  THE  HOLY  SPIRIT. 

The  union  of  all  the  Seven  colors  is  the  White,  the  analogous 
symbol  of  the  GOOD  :  the  absence  of  all  is  the  Black,  the  analogous 
symbol  of  the  EVIL.  There  are  three  primary  colors,  Red,  Yellow, 
and  Blue;  and  four  secondary,  Orange,  Green,  Indigo,  and  Vio- 
let ;  and  all  these  God  displays  to  man  in  the  rainbow ;  and  they 
have  their  analogies  also  in  the  moral  and  intellectual  world.  The 
same  number,  Seven,  continually  reappears  in  the  Apocalypse, 
compounded  of  three  and  four;  and  these  numbers  relate  to  the 
last  Seven  of  the  Sephiroth,  three  answering  to  BENIGNITY  or 
four  to  Netzach,  Hod,  Yesod,  and  Malakoth,  VICTORY,  GLORY, 
STABILITY,  and  DOMINATION.  The  same  numbers  also  represent 
the  first  three  Sephiroth,  KETHER,  KHOKMAH,  and  BAINAH,  or 
Will,  Wisdom,  and  Understanding,  which,  with  DAATH  or  Intel- 
lection or  Thought,  are  also  four,  DAATH  not  being  regarded  as  a 
Sephirah,  not  as  the  Deity  acting,  or  as  a  potency,  energy,  or  at- 
tribute, but  as  the  Divine  Action. 

The  Sephiroth  are  commonly  figured  in  the.Kabalah  as  consti- 
tuting a  human  form,  the  ADAM  KADMON  or  MACROCOSM.  Thus 
arranged,  the  universal  law  of  Equipoise  is  three  times  exempli- 


fied.  From  that  of  the  Divine  Intellectual,  Active,  Masculine 
ENERGY,  and  the  Passive  CAPACITY  to  produce  Thought,  the 
action  of  THINKING  results.  From  that  of  BENIGNITY  and  SE- 
VERITY, HARMONY  flows ;  and  from  that  of  VICTORY  or  an  Infi- 
nite overcoming,  and  GLORY,  which,  being  Infinite,  would  seem  to 
forbid  the  existence  of  obstacles  or  opposition,  results  STABILITY 
or  PERMANENCE,  which  is  the  perfect  DOMINION  of  the  Infinite 

The  last  nine  Sepkireth  are  included  in,  at  the  same  time  that 
they  have  flowed  forth  from,  the  first  of  all,  KETHER,  or  the 
CROWN.  Each  also,  in  succession  flowed  from,  and  yet  still  re- 
mains included  in,  the  one  preceding  it.  The  Will  of  God  includes 
His  Wisdom,  and  His  Wisdom  is  His  Will  specially  developed  and 
acting.  This  Wisdom  is  the  LOGOS  that  creates,  mistaken  and 
personified  by  Simon  Magus  and  the  succeeding  Gnostics.  By 
means  of  its  utterance,  the  letter  YO~D,  it  creates  the  worlds,  first 
in  the  Divine  Intellect  as  an  Idea,  which  invested  with  form  be- 
came the  fabricated  World,  the  Universe  of  material  reality.  YO~D 
and  HE,  two  letters  of  the  Ineffable  Name  of  the  Manifested 
Deity,  represent  the  Male  and  the  Female,  the  Active  and  the 
Passive  in  Equilibrium,  and  the  VAV  completes  the  Trinity  and 
the  Triliteral  Name  1~s,the  Divine  Triangle,  which  with  the  repe- 
tition of  the  He  becomes  the  Tetragrammaton. 

Thus  the  ten  Sephiroth  contain  all  the  Sacred  Numbers,  three, 
fire,  seven,  and  nine,  and  the  perfect  Number  Ten,  and  correspond 
with  the  Tetractys  of  Pythagoras. 

BEING  Is  BEING,  -•»"«  1DK  "N"!K,  Ahayah  Asar  Ahayah.  This 
is  the  Principle,  the  "BEGINNING." 

In  the  Beginning  was,  that  is  to  say,  IS,  WAS,  and  WILL  BE, 
the  WORD,  that  is  to  say,  the  REASON  that  Speaks. 

Ev  ap-pi  r(v  10  Aofoz  !  * 

The  Word  is  the  reason  of  belief,  and  in  it  also  is  the  expression 
of  the  Faith  which  makes  Science  a  living  thing.  The  Word, 
Ao-foc,  is  the  Source  of  Logic.  Jesus  is  the  Word  Incarnate.  The 
accord  of  the  Reason  with  Faith,  of  Knowledge  with  Belief,  of 
Authority  with  Liberty,  has  become  in  modern  times  the  verita- 
ble enigma  of  the  Sphinx. 

It  is  WISDOM  that,  in  the  Kabalistic  Books  of  the  Proverbs  and 
Ecclesiasticus.  is  the  Creative  Agent  of  God.  Elsewhere  in  the 
Hebrew  writings  it  is  nil"!"1  "D1,  Debar  lahai-ah,  the  WORD  of  God 


It  is  by  His  uttered  Word  that  God  reveals  Himself  to  us;  not 
alone  in  the  visible  and  invisible  but  intellectual  creation,  but  also 
in  our  convictions,  consciousness,  and  instincts.  Hence  it  is  that 
certain  beliefs  are  universal.  The  conviction  of  all  men  that  God 
is  good  led  to  a  belief  in  a  Devil,  the  fallen  Lucifer  or  Light- 
bearer,  Shaitan  the  Adversary,  Ahriman  and  Tuphon,  as  an  at- 
tempt to  explain  the  existence  of  Evil,  and  make  it  consistent  with 
the  Infinite  Power,  Wisdom,  and  Benevolence  of  God. 

Nothing  surpasses  and  nothing  equals,  as  a  Summary  of  all  the 
doctrines  of  the  Old  World,  those  brief  words  engraven  by 
HERMES  on  a  Stone,  and  known  under  the  name  of  "The  Tablet 
of  Emerald:"  the  Unity  of  Being  and  the  Unity  of  the  Harmo- 
nies, ascending  and  descending,  the  progressive  and  proportional 
scale  of  the  Word ;  the  immutable  law  of  the  Equilibrium,  and 
the  proportioned  progress  of  the  universal  analogies ;  the  relation 
of  the  Idea  to  the  Word,  giving  the  measure  of  the  relation  be- 
tween the  Creator  and  the  Created,  the  necessary  mathematics  of 
the  Infinite,  proved  by  the  measures  of  a  single  corner  of  the 
Finite; — all  this  is  expressed  by  this  single  proposition  of  the 
Great  Egyptian  Hierophant : 

"What  is  Superior  is  as  that  which  is  Inferior,  and  what  is 
Below  is  as  tliat  which  is  Above,  to  form  the  Marvels  of  the 



THE  true  Mason  is  a  practical  Philosopher,  who,  under  religious 
emblems,  in  all  ages  adopted  by  wisdom,  builds  upor.  plans  traced 
by  nature  and  reason  the  moral  edifice  of  knowledge.  He  ought 
to  find,  in  the  symmetrical  relation  of  all  the  parts  of  this  rational 
edifice,  the  principle  and  rule  of  all  his  duties,  the  source  of  all 
his  pleasures.  He  improves  his  moral  nature,  becomes  a  better  man, 
and  finds  in  the  reunion  of  virtuous  men,  assembled  with  pure 
views,  the  means  of  multiplying  his  acts  of  beneficence.  Masonry 
and  Philosophy,  without  being  one  and  the  same  thing,  have  the 
same  object,  and  propose  to  themselves  the  same  end,  the  worship 
of  the  Grand  Architect  of  the  Universe,  acquaintance  and  familiar- 
ity with  the  wonders  of  nature,  and  the  happiness  of  humanity 
attained  by  the  constant  practice  of  all  the  virtues. 

As  Grand  Master  of  all  Symbolic  Lodges,  it  is  your  especial  duty 
to  aid  in  restoring  Masonry  to  its  •.primitive  purity.  You  have  be- 
come an  instructor.  Masonry  long  wandered  in  error.  Instead 
of  improving,  it  degenerated  from  its  primitive  simplicity,  and  re- 
trograded toward  a  system,  distorted  by  stupidity  and  ignorance, 
which,  unable  to  construct  a  beautiful  machine,  made  a  complica- 
ted one.  Less  than  two  hundred  years  ago,  its  organization  was 
simple,  and  altogether  moral,  its  emblems,  allegories,  and  ceremo- 
nies easy  to  be  understood,  and  their  purpose  and  object  readily  to 
be  seen.  It  was  then  confined  to  a  very  small  number  of  Degrees. 
Its  constitutions  were  like  those  of  a  Society  of  Essenes,  written 
in  the  first  century  of  our  era.  There  could  be  seen  the  primitive 
Christianity,  organized  into  Masonry,  the  school  of  Pythagoras 
without  incongruities  or  absurdities ;  a  Masonry  simple  and  signifi- 
cant, in  which  it  was  not  necessary  to  torture  the  mind  to  discover 
reasonable  interpretations ;  a  Masonry  at  once  religious  and  philo- 
sophical, worthy  of  a  good  citizen  and  an  enlightened  philanthro- 

Innovators  and  inventors  overturned  that  primitive  simplicity. 

22  325 


Ignorance  engaged  in  the  work  of  making  Degrees,  and  trifles  and 
gewgaws  and  pretended  mysteries,  absurd  or  hideous,  usurped  the 
place  of  Masonic  Truth.  The  picture  of  a  horrid  vengeance,  the 
poniard  and  the  bloody  head,  appeared  in  the  peaceful  Temple  of 
Masonry,  without  sufficient  explanation  of  their  symbolic  meaning. 
Oaths  out  of  all  proportion  with  their  object,  shocked  the  candi- 
date, and  then  became  ridiculous,  and  were  wholly  disregarded. 
Acolytes  were  exposed  to  tests,  and  compelled  to  perform  acts, 
which,  if  real,  would  have  been  abominable;  but  being  mere  chi- 
meras, were  preposterous,  and  excited  contempt  and  laughter  only. 
Eight  hundred  Degrees  of  one  kind  and  another  were  invented :' 
Infidelity  and  even  Jesuitry  were  taught  under  the  mask  of 
Masonry.  The  rituals  even  of  the  respectable  Degrees,  copied  and 
mutilated  by  ignorant  men,  became  nonsensical  and  trivial ;  and 
the  words  so  corrupted  that  it  has  hitherto  been  found  impossible 
to  recover  many  of  them  at  all.  Candidates  were  made  to  degrade 
themselves,  and  to  submit  to  insults  not  tolerable  to  a  man  of 
spirit  and  honor. 

Hence  it  was  that,  practically,  the  largest  portion  of  the  Degrees 
claimed  by  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite,  and  before 
it  by  the  Rite  of  Perfection,  fell  into  disuse,  were  merely  commu- 
nicated, and  their  rituals  became  jejune  and  insignificant.  These 
Rites  resembled  those  old  palaces  and  baronial  castles,  the  differ- 
ent parts  of  which,  built  at  different  periods  remote  from  one 
another,  upon  plans  and  according  to  tastes  that  greatly  varied, 
formed  a  discordant  and  incongruous  whole.  Judaism  and  chiv- 
alry, superstition  and  philosophy,  philanthropy  and  insane  hatred 
and  longing  for  vengeance,  a  pure  morality  and  unjust  and  illegal 
revenge,  were  found  strangely  mated  and  standing  hand  in  hand 
within  the  Temples  of  Peace  and  Concord ;  and  the  whole  system 
was  one  grotesque  commingling  of  incongruous  things,  of  contrasts 
and  contradictions,  of  shocking  and  fantastic  extravagances,  of  parts 
repugnant  to  good  taste,  and  fine  conceptions  overlaid  and  disfigured 
by  absurdities  engendered  by  ignorance,  fanaticism,  and  a  senseless 

An  empty  and  sterile  pomp,  impossible  indeed  to  be  carried  out, 
and  to  which  no  meaning  whatever  was  attached,  with  far-fetched 
explanations  that  were  either  so  many  stupid  platitudes  or  them- 
selves needed  an  interpreter;  lofty  titles,  arbitrarily  assumed,  and 
to  which  the  inventors  had  not  condescended  to  attach  any  expla- 


nation  that  should  acquit  them  of  the  folly  of  assuming  temporal 
rank,  power,  and  titles  of  nobility,  made  the  world  laugh,  and  the 
Initiate  feel  ashamed. 

Some  of  these  titles  we  retain ;  but  they  have  with  us  meanings 
entirely  consistent  with  that  Spirit  of  Equality  which  is  the  foun- 
dation and  peremptory  law  of  its  being  of  all  Masonry.  The 
Knight,  with  us,  is  he  who  devotes  his  hand,  his  heart,  his  brain, 
to  the  Science  of  Masonry, and  professes  himself  the  Sworn  Soldier 
of  Truth :  the  Prince  is  he  who  aims  to  be  Chief  [Princeps] ,  first, 
leader,  among  his  equals,  in  virtue  and  good  deeds :  the  Sovereign 
is  he  who,  one  of  an  order  whose  members  are  all  -Sovereigns,  is 
Supreme  only  because  the  law  and  constitutions  are  so,  which  he 
administers,  and  by  which  he,  like  every  other  brother,  is  governed. 
The  titles,  Puissant,  Potent,  Wise,  and  Venerable,  indicate  that 
power  of  Virtue,  Intelligence,  and  Wisdom,  which  those  ought  to 
strive  to  attain  who  are  placed  in  high  office  by  the  suffrages  of 
their  brethren :  and  all  our  other  titles  and  designations  have  an 
esoteric  meaning,  consistent  with  modesty  and  equality,  and  which 
those  who  receive  them  should  fully  understand.  As  Master  of  a 
Lodge  it  is  your  duty  to  instruct  your  Brethren  that  they  are  all 
so  many  constant  lessons,  teaching  the  lofty  qualifications  which 
are  required  of  those  who  claim  them,  and  not  merely  idle  gew- 
gaws worn  in  ridiculous  imitation  of  the  times  when  the  Nobles 
and  Priests  were  masters  and  the  people  slaves :  and  that,  in  all 
true  Masonry,  the  Knight,  the  Pontiff,  the  Prince,  and  the  Sov- 
ereign are  but  the  first  among  their  equals :  and  the  cordon,  the 
clothing,  and  the  jewel  but  symbols  and  emblems  of  the  virtues 
required  of  all  good  Masons. 

The  Mason  kneels,  no  longer  to  present  his  petition  for  admittance 
or  to  receive  the  answer,  no  longer  to  a  man  as  his  superior,  who 
is  but  his  brother,  but  to  his  God ;  to  whom  he  appeals  for  the  rec- 
titude of  his  intentions,  and  whose  aid  he  asks  to  enable  him  to 
keep  his  vows.  No  one  is  degraded  by  bending  his  knee  to  God 
at  the  altar,  or  to  receive  the  honor  of  Knighthood  as  Bayard  and 
Du  Guesclin  knelt.  To  kneel  for  other  purposes,  Masonry  does 
not  require.  God  gave  to  man  a  head  to  be  borne  erect,  a  port  up- 
right and  majestic.  \Ye  assemble  in  our  Temples  to  cherish  and 
inculcate  sentiments  that  conform  to  that  loftiness  of  bearing  which 
the  just  and  upright  man  is  entitled  to  maintain,  and  we  do  not 
require  those  who  desire  to  be  admitted  among  us,  ignominiously 


to  bow  the  head.  We  respect  man,  because  we  respect  ourselves 
that  he  may  conceive  a  lofty  idea  of  his  dignity  as  a  human  being 
free  and  independent.  If  modesty  is  a  virtue,  humility  and  obsequi- 
ousness to  man  are  base:  for  there  is  a  noble  pride  which  is  the 
most  real  and  solid  basis  of  virtue.  Man  should  humble  himself 
before  the  Infinite  God;  but  not  before  his  erring  and  imperfect 

As  Master  of  a  Lodge,  you  will  therefore  be  exceedingly  careful 
that  no  Candidate,  in  any  Degree,  be  required  to  submit  to  any 
degradation  whatever ;  as  has  been  too  much  the  custom  in  some 
of  the  Degrees  :  and  take  it  as  a  certain  and  inflexible  rule,  to  which 
there  is  no  exception,  that  real  Masonry  requires  of  no  man  any- 
thing to  which  a  Knight  and  Gentleman  cannot  honorably,  and 
without  feeling  outraged  or  humiliated,  submit. 

The  Supreme  Council  for  the  Southern  Jurisdiction  of  the  United 
States  at  length  undertook  the  indispensable  and  long-delayed  task 
of  revising  and  reforming  the  work  and  rituals  of  the  thirty  Degrees 
under  its  jurisdiction.  Retaining  the  essentials  of  the  Degrees  and 
all  the  means  by  which  the  members  recognize  one  another,  it  has 
sought  out  and  developed  the  leading  idea  of  each  Degree,  rejected 
the  puerilities  and  absurdities  with  which  many  of  them  were  dis- 
figured, and  made  of  them  a  connected  system  of  moral,  religious, 
and  philosophical  instruction.  Sectarian  of  no  creed,  it  has  yet 
thought  it  not  improper  to  use  the  old  allegories,  based  on  occur- 
rences detailed  in  the  Hebrew  and  Christian  books,  and  drawn 
from  the  Ancient  Mysteries  of  Egypt,  Persia,  Greece,  India,  the 
Druids  and  the  Essenes,  as  vehicles  to  communicate  the  Great  Ma- 
sonic Truths ;  as  it  has  used  the  legends  of  the  Crusades,  and  the 
ceremonies  of  the  orders  of  Knighthood. 

It  no  longer  inculcates  a  criminal  and  wicked  vengeance.  It 
has  not  allowed  Masonry  to  play  the  assassin :  to  avenge  the  death 
either  of  Hiram,  of  Charles  the  ist,  or  of  Jaques  De  Molay  and  the 
Templars.  The  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  of  Masonry 
has  now  become,  what  Masonry  at  first  was  meant  to  be,  a  Teacher 
of  Great  Truths,  inspired  by  an  upright  and  enlightened  reason,  a 
firm  and  constant  wisdom,  and  an  affectionate,  and  liberal  philan- 

It  is  no  longer  a  system,  over  the  composition  and  arrangement 
of  the  different  parts  of  which.want  of  reflection  .chance,  ignorance, 
and  perhaps  motives  still  more  ignoble  presided ;  a  system  unsuited 


to  our  habits,  our  manners,  our  ideas,  or  the  world-wide  philan- 
thropy and  universal  toleration  of  Masonry ;  or  to  bodies  small  in 
number,  whose  revenues  should  be  devoted  to  the  relief  of  the  un- 
fortunate, and  not  to  empty  show ;  no  longer  a  heterogeneous 
aggregate  of  Degrees,  shocking  by  its  anachronisms  and  contra- 
dictions, powerless  to  disseminate  light,  information,  and  moral 
and  philosophical  ideas. 

As  Master,  you  will  teach  those  who  are  under  you,  and  to  whom 
you  will  owe  your  office,  that  the  decorations  of  many  of  the  De- 
grees are  to  be  dispensed  with,  whenever  the  expense  would  inter- 
fere with  the  duties  of  charity,  relief,  and  benevolence ;  and  to  be 
indulged  in  only  by  wealthy  bodies  that  will  thereby  do  no  wrong 
to  those  entitled  to  their  assistance.  The  essentials  of  all  the  De- 
grees may  be  procured  at  slight  expense;  and  it  is  at  the  option 
of  even-  Brother  to  procure  or  not  to  procure,  as  he  pleases,  the 
dress,  decorations,  and  jewels  of  any  Degree  other  than  the  I4th, 
1 8th,  3Oth,  and  32d. 

We  teach  the  truth  of  none  of  the  legends  we  recite.  They  are  to 
us  but  parables  and  allegories,  involving  and  enveloping  Masonic 
instruction ;  and  vehicles  of  useful  and  interesting  information. 
They  represent  the  different  phases  of  the  human  mind,  its  efforts 
and  struggles  to  comprehend  nature,  God,  the  government  of  the 
Universe,  the  permitted  existence  of  sorrow  and  evil.  To  teach 
us  wisdom,  and  the  folly  of  endeavoring  to  explain  to  ourselves 
that  which  we  are  not  capable  of  understanding,  we  reproduce  the 
speculations  of  the  Philosophers,  the  Kabalists,  the  Mystagogues 
and  the  Gnostics.  Every  one  being  at  liberty  to  apply  our  symbols 
and  emblems  as  he  thinks  most  consistent  with  truth  and  reason 
and  with  his  own  faith,  we  give  them  such  an  interpretation  only 
as  maybe  accepted  by  all.  Our  Degrees  maybe  conferred  in  France 
or  Turkey,  at  Pekin,  Ispahan,  Rome,  or  Geneva,  in  the  city  of  Penn 
or  in  Catholic  Louisiana,  upon  the  subject  of  an  absolute  govern- 
ment or  the  citizen  of  a  Free  State,  upon  Sectarian  or  Theist.  To 
honor  the  Deity,  to  regard  all  men  as  our  Brethren,  as  children, 
equally  dear  to  Him,  of  the  Supreme  Creator  of  the- Universe,  and 
to  make  himself  useful  to  society  and  himself  by  his  labor,  are  its 
teachings  to  its  Initiates  in  all  the  Degrees. 

Preacher  of  Liberty,  Fraternity,  and  Equality,  it  desires  them  to 
be  attained  by  making  men  fit  to  receive  them,  and  by  the  moral 
power  of  an  intelligent  and  enlightened  People.  It  lays  no  plots 


and  conspiracies.    It  hatches  no  premature  revolutions ;  it  encour- 
ages no  people  to  revolt  against  the  constituted  authorities ;  but 
recognizing  the  great  truth  that  freedom  follows  fitness  for  free 
dom  as  the  corollary  follows  the  axiom,  it  strives  to  prepare  men 
to  govern  themselves. 

Where  domestic  slavery  exists,  it  teaches  the  master  humanity 
and  the  alleviation  of  the  condition  of  his  slave,  and  moderate  cor- 
rection and  gentle  discipline ;  as  it  teaches  them  to  the  master  of 
the  apprentice :  and  as  it  teaches  to  the  employers  of  other  men, 
in  mines,  manufactories,  and  workshops,  consideration  and  human- 
ity for  those  who  depend  upon  their  labor  for  their  bread,  and  to 
whom  want  of  employment  is  starvation,  and  overwork  is  fever, 
consumption,  and  death. 

As  Master  of  a  Lodge,  you  are  to  inculcate  these  duties  on  your 
brethren.  Teach  the  employed  to  be  honest,  punctual,  and  faithful 
as  well  as  respectful  and  obedient  to  all  proper  orders :  but  also 
teach  the  employer  that  every  man  or  wom'an  who  desires  to  work, 
has  a  right  to  have  work  to  do ;  and  that  they,  and  those  who  from 
sickness  or  feebleness,  loss  of  limb  or  of  bodily  vigor,  old  age  or 
infancy,  are  not  able  to  work,  have  a  right  to  be  fed,  clothed,  and 
sheltered  from  the  inclement  elements :  that  he  commits  an  awful 
sin  against  Masonry  and  in  the  sight  of  God,  if  he  closes  his  work- 
shops or  factories,  or  ceases  to  work  his  mines,  when  they  do  not 
yield  him  what  he  regards  as  sufficient  profit,  and  so  dismisses  his 
workmen  and  workwomen  to  starve ;  or  when  he  reduces  the  wages 
of  man  or  woman  to  so  low  a  standard  that  they  and  their  families 
cannot  be  clothed  and  fed  and  comfortably  housed  ;  or  by  overwork 
must  give  him  their  blood  and  life  in  exchange  for  the  pittance 
of  their  wages :  and  that  his  duty  as  a  Mason  and  Brother  per- 
emptorily requires  him  to  continue  to  employ  those  who  else  will 
be  pinched  with  hunger  and  cold,  or  resort  to  theft  and  vice :  and 
to  pay  them  fair  wages,  though  it  may  reduce  or  annul  his  profits  or 
even  eat  into  his  capital ;  for  God  hath  but  loaned  him  his  wealth, 
and  made  him  His  almoner  and  agent  to  invest  it. 

Except  as  mere  symbols  of  the  moral  virtues  and  intellectual 
qualities,  the  tools  and  implements  of  Masonry  belong  exclusively 
to  the  first  three  Degrees.  They  also,  however,'  serve  to  remind  the 
Mason  who  has  advanced  further,  that  his  new  rank  is  based  upon 
the  humble  labors  of  the  symbolic  Degrees,  as  they  are  improperly 
termed,  inasmuch  as  all  the  Degrees  are  symbolic. 


Thus  the  Initiates  are  inspired  with  a  just  idea  of  Masonry,  to  wit, 
that  it  is  essentially  WORT.C;  both  teaching  and  practising  LABOR; 
and  that  it  is  altogether  emblematic.  Three  kinds  of  work  are  nec- 
essary to  the  preservation  and  protection  of  man  and  society :  man- 
ual labor,  specially  belonging  to  the  three  blue  Degrees ;  labor  in 
arms,  symbolized  by  the  Knightly  or  chivalric  Degrees ;  and  intel- 
lectual labor,  belonging  particularly  to  the  Philosophical  Degrees. 

We  have  preserved  and  multiplied  such  emblems  as  have  a  true 
and  profound  meaning.  We  reject  many  of  the  old  and  senseless 
explanations.  We  have  not  reduced  Masonry  to  a  cold  metaphy- 
sics that  exiles  everything  belonging  to  the  domain  of  the  imagina- 
tion. The  ignorant,  and  those  /za/^-wise  in  reality,  but  owr-wise 
in  their  own  conceit,  may  assail  our  symbols  with  sarcasms ;  but 
they  are  nevertheless  ingenious  veils  that  cover  the  Truth,  respected 
by  all  who  know  the  means  by  which  the  heart  of  man  is  reached 
and  his  feelings  enlisted.  The  Great  Moralists  often  .had  recourse 
to  allegories,  in  order  to  instruct  men  without  repelling  them. 
But  we  have  been  careful  not  to  allow  our  emblems  to  be  too  ob- 
scure, so  as  to  require  far-fetched  and  forced  interpretations.  In 
our  days,  and  in  the  enlightened  land  in  which  we  live,  we  do  not 
need  to  wrap  ourselves  in  veils  so  strange  and  impenetrable,  as  to 
prevent  or  hinder  instruction  instead  of  furthering  it ;  or  to  induce 
the  suspicion  that  we  have  concealed  meanings  which  we  commu- 
nicate only  to  the  most  reliable  adepts,  because  they  are  contrary 
to  good  order  or  the  well-being  of  society. 

The  Duties  of  the  Class  of  Instructors,  that  is,  the  Masons  of  the 
Degrees  from  the  4th  to  the  8th,  inclusive,  are,  particularly,  to  per- 
fect the  younger  Masons  in  the  words,  signs  and  tokens  and  other 
work  of  the  Degrees  they  have  received;  to  explain  to  them  the 
meaning  of  the  different  emblems,  and  to  expound  the  moral  in- 
struction which  they  convey.  And  upon  their  report  of  proficiency 
alone  can  their  pupils  be  allowed  to  advance  and  receive  an  in- 
crease of  wages. 

The  Directors  of  the  Work,  or  those  of  the  Qth,  ioth,and  i  ith  De- 
grees are  to  report  to  the  Chapters  upon  the  regularity,  activity  and 
proper  direction  of  the  work  of  bodies  in  the  lower  Degrees,  and 
what  is  needed  to  be  enacted  for  their  prosperity  and  usefulness. 
In  the  Symbolic  Lodges,  they  are  particularly  charged  to  stimulate 
the  zeal  of  the  workmen,  to  induce  them  to  engage  in  new  labors 
and  enterprises  for  the  good  of  Masonrv.  their  country  and  mankind, 
and  to  give  them  fraternal  advice  when  they  fall  short  of  their